Unformatted text preview: Rich World Poor World: Colonialism
Week 3 Monday 17 September Dr Michael Keating Globe as concept / Territorial divisions Colonialism Treaty of Tordesillas (1494) Portugal East / Spain West Colonialism Economic exploitation Demographic Change Gold and silver (Spanish Conquistadors) Slavery Terms of Trade on the Spice route India, China, Japan Immigration/Emigration
Forced (Penal Colonies/Slavery/Famine) White Man's Burden Military Superiority Religious Missionaries... Civilising the Savages (Stealing their Land) Unlocking closed doors Gunboat Diplomacy Race for the Colonies Economic pressures and military competition in the midlate C19 led to European powers seeking to `lockin' sources of raw materials and markets for goods Rush to solidify `trading blocs' through the process of colonisation `Might is Right' approach to IR World War 1 the result of colonial ambitions Spread of Capitalism Marx: Capitalism spreading to all corners of the globe Lenin's Imperialism: The Higher Stage of Capitalism Raw Materials New Markets Expansion of market system central to maintaining profits The Colonial Economy 2 way trade: Raw Materials for Manufactured Goods 3 way trade: Slaves form Africa for production of raw materials in America Colonial Labour Forced deindustrialisation (India) Terms of Trade Tea (low skill and transferable) Opium (causes massive social problems) Railroads (massive transfer of people) Internal Colonisation Accepting the colonial mindset of colonisers superior colonised inferior Cooption of Local Elites An obvious explanation for how colonisation occurred in the first place Sikhs in India Inferiority Complex Salman Rushdie Indians wanting to be English `Bleaching' The Modern States System Africa/America divided into territoriallydefined states by the colonial powers All habitable continents now defined by the states system Only Asia had preexisting states who's borders were largely left intact Serious implications for political stability... The colonial imposition of state boundaries arbitrary and problematic rarely matching pre colonial social, political or economic divisions Arbitrary State Boundaries Creating economic problems for Africa Boundaries reflected the shortterm strategic and economic interests of the imperial powers Disrupting natural trade and communication routes 14 Landlocked states!!! (2 in the Americas, 8 in Europe (post1989), 7 in Asia) States completely without economic resources (`organic' state formation would obviously avoid this problem) Arbitrary State Boundaries Creating political problems for Africa Dividing social, political, cultural, linguistic and ethnic communities Resulting in `irredentism' as these communities attempt reunification Resulting in ethnic conflict as different groups attempt to seize control of the state With multiethnic societies particular kinds of political institutions are needed to ensure peace and stability Authoritarian States Colonisation enforced by direct military coercion Political institutions were imposed overnight not resulting from longterm process of state formation like in Europe State formation not reflecting a social contract between the governed and the government Not consensual, or representative, or reflecting shared political values, or social trust, or legitimacy... Weak States Imperialist/Colonial goals in general limited to exploitation of resources not amounting to political development Attempt to impose State control only in areas with economic or strategic importance Minimal infrastructure and bureaucracy Resulting state structures and capacity relatively weak, with limited `penetration' into society Weak States Colonial administrators not responsible to the African people but to the European imperial powers WEAK LINKS between state and society result Maintain order Balance budgets Extracting raw materials for export Not providing public goods! State Elites Minimal imperial bureaucracies cannot run the country themselves locals needed to be coopted; leading to the creation of small indigenous elites These elites benefit personally from access to state institutions Use their positions to fight for national independence They take control of governments in the post colonial era Africa, India Political Institutions Independence movements led to a predecolonisation `rush' to install Westernstyle constitutions and representative democratic political systems IRONY coercive authoritarian rulers attempting to leave a democratic legacy Colonial states had been highly bureaucratic, interventionist, and authoritarian creating a political culture of `bureaucratic authoritarianism' Liberal democracy unlikely to flourish in this environment Multiparty elections; Rule of law; Pluralism ...
View Full Document