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Unformatted text preview: Development Theory: Modernization and Dependency
Rich World Poor World Monday, 24 September 2007 Dr Michael Keating What is Development? Postwar Phenomenon What is Development? Third World Independence and Nationalism Cold War Alliancebuilding Economic Growth as Development Social, Political, Cultural Development Human Development (Amartya Sen) How can development be promoted? Internal or External catalysts? Developmental Failures and Justifications Developmental Successes (Models) Development Theory Empirical Evidence Post-War Modernization Theory Model of Societal Evolution `Development' Convergence of lessdeveloped societies into Western model of development Historical Experience of the West/Europe as LOGIC of Development Modern political, social, and cultural forms becoming prerequisites for modern economic institutions A single model of development money, markets, specialisation, profit motive, private property as development indicators secularisation, nuclear family, multiparty democracy prerequisites for the above as well as for Cash Crops, Industrialization, Division of Labour etc... Tradition as Barrier Traditional institutions and values become dysfunctional for development and should be eliminated Economic and Technical Aid for Development Premised on: Replacing communal land rights with private property Replacing kinship obligations with meritocracy Development through integration with World Economy, Aid and Reform Pursue the `right' (promarket) policies "...wider and consistent social, cultural and political changes" Liberal Capitalist Theory (Smith, Ricardo) Dependecia Dependency Theory (dependecia) massively influential on 3rd World Politics First genuine development theory to emerge from the 3rd World Constitutes critique of Modernisation Theory Imperialism Capitalism World System International trade relations US Foreign Policy Nonindigenous development theory Dependency Theory Development must be understood in CONTEXT Trotsky The Law of Combined and Uneven Development Backwardness in the Third World caused by post colonial world system not a lack of development Capitalist World System Imperialism Underdevelopment a unique form of capitalist development is the result Core and Periphery States Colonial era distorted economic/social structures and reproduced economic stagnation and mass poverty Postcolonial system is the same economic/social structures don't magically change overnight... Distortions Postcolonial economies remain subordinated to advanced capitalist countries External Orientation Primary goods for industrial West Prevention of local industrialization Class Alliances Extreme dependency on foreign markets, capital, technology, trade... Foreign capital and comprador (local capitalist/landed elites) Core/Periphery within and between States Dependency is `the conditioning structure of poverty' (Dos Santos) Extreme patterns of social inequality Core and Periphery Expropriation of economic surplus Unequal terms of exchange The development of the core countries is the consequence of the underdevelopment of the periphery; the underdevelopment of the periphery is the consequence of the development of the core (Dos Santos) Deteriorating commodity prices Increasing returns to skill/technology Capital intensive production Food overproduction Substitution/Decline of Primary Materials Solutions Populist/Nationalist solutions Economic nationalism Selfreliance Revolution Delinking Importsubstitution industrialisation Cutting off from world economy Renegotiated global termsoftrade Theoretical Problems Agency Ahistorical Static impact of change? Monolithic view of Capitalist Imperialism Developing states lack capacity for autonomous development (agency) Economic Determinism Dependency/Core identical in all countries Tautological Assumed alternative nondependent development pathway Limiting affects of dependency? All development selflimiting Empirical Problems Nationalist/Populist Utopia Trade and investment correlate with Wealth not Poverty Failure of ImportSubstitution Regional Differences Rapid Development in Asia Comprador Elite Activities AdHoc Theorising
SemiPeriphery Globalization Theory Communications and Transport technologies Return to modernization? Global culture of consumerism? AntiGlobalization Free trade and global integration Single path to development Limitations of stateled development Return to dependency? Impasse in Development Studies Development theory has failed? But no practice of development without theory... No onesizefitsall model of development Need for empirically grounded, reflexive approaches to building development theory Need for localised/contextual development politics Limits of evidencebased approaches... The search for useful generalisations... ...
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This note was uploaded on 04/07/2008 for the course PLT/SCL 206 taught by Professor Keating during the Fall '07 term at Richmond UK.
- Fall '07