Unformatted text preview: 02): 3 levels
• Body image: lexical-semantic knowledge of the body and
• Body structure description: knowledge of spatial
• Body schema: dynamic online-representation of the body
in space from somatosensory afferences;
• Plus: intention & motor components? 53 Body schema: necessary 4 sensorim. fncts.
motor control. Intention, desired
sensory change Feedback Motor
movement Viking lander 3 Motor plant
effector Feedback Teaching signal Inverse model Body schema: necessary 4 sensorim. fncts. Hermosillo et al. (2011) Body schema: necessary 4 sensorim. fncts.
• Tactile temporal order
judgments are more difficult
with crossed hands.
• TOJ are also more difficult
when the future hand
posture will be crossed.
• Evidence for a forward
model of motor control
posture. were observed. This expression might represent a genetic indicator of faculties of the intact and brain-damaged human brain. Body schema: necessary 4 sensorim. fncts.
ﬁve minutes of food retrieval with the handheld rake
(Figure 1c). Bimodal neurons with the above properties
were named ‘distal type’ neurons. Other bimodal neurons
with sRFs located around shoulder/neck (named ‘proximal
type’, Figure 1e) had vRFs covering the space reached by
the arm (Figure 1f). After tool-use, these proximal vRFs expanded to code the space now accessible with
Such vRF expansions may constitute th
substrate of use-dependent assimilation of the
the body schema, suggested by classical neurolo
also Box 2). Hence, any expansion of the vRF onl Visuo-somatosensory cells for dexterous tool-use in
Distal-type neurons • Visual RFs
• sRF =
(blue) (a) (b) (c) (d) sRF Before tool-use After tool-use Passive holding Proximal-type neurons
(e) (f) (g) sRF
Before tool-use After tool-use Body schema: Out of body
Impaired integration of somatosensory & vestibular
• ‘Out-of-body’ experiences body part
(OBEs): sensations in which illusions,
detached from the body,
taking up a remote viewing
• Near-death, across cultures
• Right angular gyrus
• Vestibular: sinking into the
bed, falling motor auditory
focus Blanke et al. (2002) • “I see myself lying in bed, from above, but I only
see my legs and lower trun...
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- Parietal lobe, Corbetta