Occupational English Test Reading Test Part A TIME: 15 minutes Look at the four texts, A – D, on the following pages. For each question, 1 – 20, look through the texts, A – D, to find the relevant information. Write your answers on the spaces provided in the Question Paper. Answer all the questions within the 15-minute time limit. Your answers should be correctly spelt.
Tetanus: Texts Text A Tetanus is a severe disease that can result in serious illness and death. Tetanus vaccination protects against the disease. Tetanus (sometimes called lock-jaw) is a disease caused by the bacteria Clostridium tetani. Toxins made by the bacteria attack a person’s nervous system. Although the disease is f airly uncommon, it can be fatal. Early symptoms of tetanus include: Painful muscle contractions that begin in the jaw (lock jaw) Rigidity in neck, shoulder and back muscles Difficulty swallowing Violent generalised muscle spasms Convulsions Breathing difficulties A person may have a fever and sometimes develop abnormal heart rhythms. Complications include pneumonia, broken bones (from the muscle spasms), respiratory failure and cardiac arrest. There is no specific diagnostic laboratory test; diagnosis is made clinically. The spatula test is useful: touching the back of the pharynx with a spatula elicits a bite reflex in tetanus, instead of a gag reflex. Text B Tetanus Risk Tetanus is an acute disease induced by the toxin tetanus bacilli., the spores of which are present in soil. A TETANUS-PRONE WOUND IS: any wound or burn that requires surgical intervention that is delayed for > 6 hours any wound or burn at any interval after injury that shows one or more of the following characteristics - a significant degree of tissue damage - puncture-type wound particularly where there has been contact with soil or organic matter which is likely to harbour tetanus organisms any wound from compound fractures any wound containing foreign bodies any wound or burn in patients who have systemic sepsis any bite wound any wound from tooth implantation Intravenous drug users are at greater risk of tetanus. Every opportunity should be taken to ensure that they are full protected against tetanus. Booster doses should be given if there is any doubt about their immunisation status. Immunosuppressed patients may not be adequately protected against tetanus, despite having been fully immunised. They should be managed as if they were incompletely immunised.
Text C Tetanus Immunisation following Injuries Thorough cleaning of the wound is essential irrespective of the immunisation history of the patient, and appropriate antibiotics should be prescribed.
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- Fall '20