Chapter 14: Nonadaptive Evolution and Speciation – Study GuideTYPE IN YOUR ANSWERS USING A DIFFERENT COLOR!81 points total converted to 100 point scale in gradebook.Complete and submit via Ch. 14 DropboxDefine: (1 point each = 14)[POPULATION GENETICS]- study of the genetic makeup of populations and how the genetic composition of a population changes[GENE POOL]- total collection of alleles in a population [ALLELE FREQUENCY]- relative proportion of an allele in a population[NONADAPTIVE EVOLUTION]- any change in allele frequency that does not by itself lead a population to become more adapted to its environment; the mechanisms of nonadaptive evolution are mutation, genetic drift and gene flow[GENETIC DRIFT]- random changes in the allele frequencies of a population between generations; genetic drift tends to have more dramatic effects in smaller populations than in larger ones[FOUNDER EFFECT]- type of genetic drift in which a small number of individuals leaves one population and establishes a new population, resulting in lower genetic diversity that in the original population [BOTTLENECK EFFECT]- type of genetic drift that occurs when a population is suddenly reduced to a small number of individuals and as a result, alleles are lost from the population [GENE FLOW]- the movement of alleles from one population to another, which may increase the genetic diversity of a population[INBREEDING]- mating between closely related individuals. Inbreeding does not change the allele frequency within a population, but it does increase the proportion of homozygous individuals to heterozygotes [INBREEDING DEPRESSION]- negative reproductive consequences for a population with high numbers of homozygous individuals possessing harmful recessive alleles[HARDY-WEINBERG PRINCIPLE] principle that in a nonevolving population, both allele and genotype frequencies remain constant from one generation to the next[BIOLOGICAL SPECIES CONCEPT]- the definition of a species as a population whose members can interbreed to produce fertile offspring [REPRODUCTIVE ISOLATION]- mechanisms that prevent mating and gene flow between members of different species [SPECIATION]- genetic divergence of populations, leading over time to reproductive isolation and the formation of the new speciesAnswer. 57 points1.What is a gene pool? (1)The collection of alleles in a population.