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test 4 study guide

test 4 study guide - Global Change Lectures 1-3 1 Changes...

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Global Change Lectures 1-3 1. Changes in the atmospheric concentration of CO 2 over the past 200+ years Since the 1700s, atmospheric concentration of CO2 has increased mostly in a linear pattern. Since the beginning of the 20th century, however, this increase in CO2 has become exponential. 2. Main sources of CO 2 emissions over the past 200 years. Burning of fossil fuels, a product of industrialization has been the main source of CO2 emissions. 3. Which counties or regions are responsible for the majority of CO 2 emissions? Industrially productive nations are responsible for the majority of CO2 emissions. Specifically, the United States, Russia, and China are the largest producers total, while the largest per capita are also modern, industrial mostly Western nations such as the US, Britain, Germany, Russia, Italy and Japan. 4. Shortwave radiation : solar radiation (small numbers) Longwave radiation : terrestrial radiation (big numbers) 5. Wavelength of radiation emissions by an object as a function of temperature Hot objects emit shortwave radiations (sun) Cool objects emit longwave radiations (people) 6. Greenhouse gases: the gases responsible for the greenhouse effect; the gases that are absorbed by the compounds naturally present in Earth's atmosphere 7. Greenhouse effect: when compounds naturally present in Earth's atmosphere (water vapor, carbon dioxide, and ozone) absorb thermal radiation emitted by the Earth's surface and atmosphere and in effect warm the atmosphere causing the surface air temperature to increase 8. Temperature “signatures” of the greenhouse effect Geographic (Graph from Lecture 1, slide 23) The key to understanding this graph is that thermal energy is redistributed - it is moved from areas that are warmer to areas that are cooler Thus, we would expect to see the greatest impact of global warming as we move towards the poles Seasonal (Graph from Lecture 1, slide 24) During the winter months, there is a reduction of heat being sent out into space, thus making the greenhouse warming signal greater in the winter Diurnal (Graph from lecture 1, slide 25) Incoming solar radiation peaks around high noon Outgoing radiation reaches its minimum around dawn Thermal uplifting and winds carry heat upwards and slow down the surface temperature rise until mixing in mid-afternoon produces the hottest time of the day
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Global warming’s greatest impact is reached at night when the temperatures are cooler and when outgoing terrestrial radiation is near the minimum 9. Deep-ocean circulation and the transport of heat energy from equator to poles * Look at map on slide 34, from Lecture 1* After the Gulf Stream emerges from the Caribbean, it splits in two, with one part heading north-east to Europe and the other circulating back through the Tropical Atlantic As the North-Eastern branch flows, it gives off heat to the atmosphere, which in turn warms European land The North Atlantic conveyor carries warm water to northern latitudes releasing heat to the atmosphere
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