14 - I Authoritarian states A Conservative authoritarianism A.1 Conservative authoritarianism had deep roots in European history and led to an

14 - I Authoritarian states A Conservative authoritarianism...

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I.Authoritarian statesA.Conservative authoritarianismA.1.Conservative authoritarianism had deep roots in European history and led to an antidemocratic form of government that believed in avoiding change but was limited in its power and objectives.A.2.Conservative authoritarianism revived after the First World War in eastern Europe, Spain, and Portugal.A.2.a.These countries lacked a strong tradition of selfgovernment.A.2.b.Many were torn by ethnic conflicts.A.2.c.Large landowners and the church looked to dictators to save them from land reform.A.3.The new authoritarian governments were more concerned with maintaining the status quo than with forcing society into rapid change.B.Radical totalitarian dictatorshipsB.1.Radical dictatorships emerged in the Soviet Union, Germany, and Italy.B.2.These dictatorships rejected parliamentary and liberal values (including rationality, peaceful progress, economic freedom, and a strong middle class), and sought full control over the masses--of whom they sought to mobilize for action.B.3.Lenin, in the Soviet Union, provided a model for single-party dictatorship.B.4.Totalitarian leaders believed in will power, conflict, the worship of violence--and the idea that the individual was less valuable than the state and there are no lasting rights.B.5.Totalitarianism was a permanent revolution.B.6.The USSR was totalitarianism of the left, while Nazi Germany was totalitarianism of the right.B.7.Some historians describe the totalitarian regimes of Mussolini and Hitler as fascism which grew out of capitalism.B.8.Fascism was expansionist nationalism, anti-socialism and anti-working class movements, and the glorification of war.B.9.More recently, historians have emphasized the uniqueness of totalitarian rule in each country.II.Stalin's Soviet UnionA.Stalin's modern totalitarian dictatorship was instituted by his five-year plans--which were economic, social (and propaganda) plans to build a new socialist humanity.B.From Lenin to StalinB.1.By 1921, the economy of Russia had been destroyed.B.2.In 1921, Lenin's New Economic Policy (NEP) reestablished limited economic freedom in an attempt to rebuild agriculture and industry.B.2.a.Peasants bought and sold goods on the free market.B.2.b.Agricultural production grew, and industrial production surpassed the prewar level.B.3.Economic recovery and Lenin's death in 1924 brought a struggle for power between Stalin and Trotsky, which Stalin won.B.3.a.Stalin met the ethnic demands for independence within the multinational Soviet state by granting minority groups limited freedoms.B.3.b.Stalin's theory of "socialism in one country," or Russia building its own socialist society, was more attractive to many Communists than Trotsky's theory of "permanent revolution," or the overthrow of other European states.B.4.By 1927, Stalin had crushed all opposition and was ready to launch an economicsocial revolution.
C.The fiveyear plansC.1.The first fiveyear plan (1928) to increase industrial and agricultural production was

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