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Apoptosis programmed cell death eg ngf figure

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Unformatted text preview: leads to the acEvaEon of the monomeric GTPase Ras, which then acEvates downstream effector molecules. What is the difference between an adaptor protein and an effector protein? Figure 16-31 Essential Cell Biology (© Garland Science 2010) 11 3/13/12 The MAP kinase (Mitogen AcEvated Protein kinase) signaling module is a frequent target of acEvated Ras. effectors Figure 16-32 Essential Cell Biology (© Garland Science 2010) All cells have an internal program for undergoing death, but this program is kept off by signaling systems under most circumstances. Apoptosis = programmed cell death 12 3/13/12 RTKs osen signal through PI ­3 kinase (a lipid kinase) and Akt (a serine threonine protein kinase) to prevent cells from dying. Apoptosis = programmed cell death (e.g. NGF) Figure 16-33 Essential Cell Biology (© Garland Science 2010) Akt kinase blocks apoptosis by maintaining the protein Bcl2 in an acEvated state via phosphorylaEon of Bad. Figure 16-34 Essential Cell Biology (© Garland Science 2010) 13 3/13/12 RTK signaling through the serine/threonine kinases Akt and Tor also regulates cell growth. Tor – Target of rapamycin, a...
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