Chapter 10 A&P.pptx - Chapter 10 The Endocrine System...

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Copyright ©2019 F.A. Davis CompanyChapter 10The Endocrine System
Copyright ©2018 F.A. Davis CompanyEndocrine GlandsEndocrine Glands—ductless glands that secretehormones into the bloodHormones—chemicals that exert their effects ontarget organs or tissuesChemistry of hormones—
QuestionWhich of these is both an endocrine and anexocrine gland?
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Answerb
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Copyright ©2018 F.A. Davis CompanyRegulation of Secretion of HormonesHormones are secreted when there is a needfor their effects; each hormone has a specificstimulus for secretion.The secretion of most hormones is regulatedby negative feedback mechanisms.
Copyright ©2018 F.A. Davis CompanyPituitary GlandPituitary Gland(hypophysis)—within the sellaturcica, below the hypothalamus (see Tables10–1 and 10–2)Posterior pituitary gland (neurohypophysis)—stores hormones produced by thehypothalamus: A D H and oxytocin
Copyright ©2018 F.A. Davis CompanyPituitary Gland (continued)Antidiuretic hormone (A D H)—increases waterreabsorption by the kidneys; in largeamounts, causes vasoconstrictionResult: increases blood volume by reducing water content in the blood; decreases sweating;raises blood pressureStimulus for secretion: decreased water content in the body through sweating, diarrhea, orhemorrhage; osmoreceptors in the hypothalamus detect the increased“saltiness” of blood and signal for release of ADH to conserve water
Copyright ©2018 F.A. Davis CompanyPosterior PituitaryOxytocin—stimulates contraction of themyometrium during labor:stimulates release of milk from mammary glands.One of the few positive feedback mechanisms in the body; stretching of the cervixcauses more oxytocin to be released, which causes more contractions, whichcauses more stretching.The cycle is broken only when the child is born and thecervix is no longer stretched.Stimulus for secretion: Distention of the cervix during labor and child birth
Copyright ©2018 F.A. Davis CompanyAnterior Pituitary GlandAnterior Pituitary Gland(adenohypophysis)—regulated by releasing hormones from thehypothalamusGrowth hormone (G H)—increases amino acid transport into cells: ensures that amino acids are used properlyIncreases protein synthesis: Causes tissue to growIncreases mitosis: ensures that cells divide when amino acids are availableIncreases use of fats for energy: combats hypoglycemia

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Term
Winter
Professor
Mel Renney
Tags
Endocrine System, F A Davis Company

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