Student_Outline_Unit_1 starr

Student_Outline_Unit_1 starr - Chapter 1 The process of...

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Chapter 1 The process of science I. Discovery Science A. What is it? Discovery of new information based on what we can record, observe, or measure. B. Examples 1. Anatomy 2. Animal Behavior C. Inductive reasoning – reasoning from specific observations and experiments to lead to general theories and hypothesis. II. Hypothesis-Driven Science (Scientific Method) A. What is it? Discovery beginning with a specific question in mind; it uses controlled experiments to test a tentative answer to that question. B. The steps: 1. Observation 2. Question 3. Hypothesis- tentative answer 4. Prediction “if…then”” 5. Perform a controlled experiment- need an experimental group and control group. Different by one variable. 6. Analyze results 7. Conclusion C. Mimicry example 1. Observations 1
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a. jumping spiders wave their legs around competitors b. flies with markings on wings, wave wings when approached by spiders 2. Question – What is the function of the fly’s markings and behavior? 3. Hypothesis – Why markings prevent spiders from pouncing. 4. Prediction – If the fly’s wing markings prevent pouncing, then masking the markings should increase the pounces. 5. Controlled experiment a. experimental group – black dyed wings b. control group- normal flies c. measure- number of pounces 6. Results a. experimental group- 38% pounce rate b. control group – 20% pounce rate 7. Conclusion- accept our hypothesis, DO NOT PROVE. D. Deductive Reasoning – reasoned from general theories to account for specific observations. E. Scientific Theory – a hypothesis that has never been disproved after many years of rigorous testing. Ex: natural selection 2
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UNIT 1: CELL BIOLOGY Macromolecules I. Introduction to macromolecules in the cell A. What is an organic compound? Compound containing carbon (makes 4 bonds) and its usually bonded with hydrogen and oxygen (sometimes sulfur and nitrogen) B. Four major macromolecules in the cell 1. Carbohydrates 2. Lipids 3. Proteins 4. Nucleic Acids (DNA and RNA) C. Macromolecules consist of: monomers polymers D. Condensation reaction (aka dehydration synthesis)- To put two monomers together, water must be lost. Monomers are joined to form polymers (water is lost to the environment) E. Hydrolysis- breaking polymers into monomers. Water must be added to the molecules form the environment. II. Carbohydrates A. Monomers (simple sugars) - monosaccharide 1. Chem. formula: some multiple of CH2O 2. Glucose – C6H12O6; major fuel for cells 3. Fructose – C6H12O6; corn syrup 4. Galactose – C6H12O6; found in milk B. Disaccharides – Two monosaccharide joined by the condensation reaction 1. Lactose – milk sugar; galactose and glucose 2. Sucrose – table sugar, major sugar in plant sap; fructose and glucose 3. Maltose – malt sugar; found in germinating seeds, glucose and glucose 3
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C. Poly sacch arides (complex carbohydrates) 1. _ Starch (amylose)___________: glucose polymer; glucose storage in plants 2. __cellulose_______: glucose polymer; structural molecule for plants; a.k.a
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This note was uploaded on 04/07/2008 for the course BIOL 101 taught by Professor Hogan during the Fall '08 term at UNC.

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Student_Outline_Unit_1 starr - Chapter 1 The process of...

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