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AP Seminar 1A.pdf - AP Seminar 1A 28 February 2020 Word...

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AP Seminar 1A28 February 2020Word Count: 1291Is it Ethical to Legalize Kidney Trade for Living Donors in the United States?IntroductionBrain death is defined as irreversible brain damage that is symptomatic to death.According to Michael A. De Georgia, a neurologist at the UH Cleveland Medical Center, braindeath is “widely accepted as a determination of death throughout the world.” Once a patient isbrain dead, their organs are able to be transplanted. Shortly after brain death was medicallydefined, donation after brain death (DBD) became the leading source of organ donation (Dalal).Because of DBD, the number of transplants skyrocketed, and recipients were able to receiveorgans from deceased donors. In 2006, 95,000 people in the United States were in need of anorgan transplant (Abouna). This number increased substantially to 180,000 people in 2018(Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania). Due to the increasing demandfortransplants, it can take time to receive one. There are currently over 113,000 people on thenational transplant waiting list as of July, 2019 (Organ Donation Statistics). Sandra MacDonald,April Manuel, and Shirley Solberg, researchers at the School of Nursing, assert that “the numberof individuals waiting for a transplant is significantly higher than the number of available donors,and the gap continues to widen”. Because the waiting list is so extensive, it can take an estimated4.58 years to receive an organ from a deceased donor, adds Greg Knoll, a member in theDivision of Nephrology. However, not all organ donations come from deceased donors. Livedonations, as opposed to DBD, increase the opportunity for people to receive an organ much
quicker.Kidney transplants are one type of organ donation that can come from a live donor.Because a significant amount ofpeople are waiting on transplant lists for an organ, it raises thepossibility that more people could donate their organs if they could be paid.In 2004, the World Health Organization received various reports concerning organtrafficking describing how “patient-tourists from rich countries who travel abroad purchaseorgans from poor people'' (Delmonico). In fact, it was determined by the Transplantation Societyand the International Society of Nephrology that in 2007, “up to 10% of transplants worldwideinvolved such practices.” In order to protect certain demographic groups from sales of organs,the Transplantation Society and the International Society of Nephrology adopted the Declarationof Istanbul (2008) which banned organ trafficking and unethical organ exchanges nationally andinternationally (The Declaration of Istanbul). When considering the different perspectives on

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