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Chapter 19. Assessing Thorax and LungsThorax and Lung Assessment•Thorax–Extends from the base of the neck superiorly to the level of the diaphragm inferiorly–Lungs, distal portion of the trachea, bronchiThorax and Lung Assessment•Sternum has three parts–Manubrium, the body, xiphoid process–12pairs of ribs - thoracic cageVertical Reference Lines•Anterior chest: mid-sternal, right and left mid-clavicular lines•Posterior thorax: vertebral line, right and left scapular lines•Lateral thorax: midaxillary line, anterior and posterior axillary linesStructure of Thorax and Lungs•Mediastinum: central area in the thoracic cavity•Lungs: two cone-shaped, elastic structures•Pleura: thin, double-layered serous membrane that lines the thoracic cavityLung Cancer•Leading cause of death in U.S. and Europe•Risk factors–Cigarette smoking–Genetic predisposition–Exposure to toxins–History of previous lung cancer
–GenderLung Cancer Risk Reduction•Join smoking cessation program•Stop smoking•Healthy, low-cholesterol diet•Limit exposure toxinsLung Cancer Prevalence•Lower in Fiji than in other South Pacific countries•African American men have higher incidence and mortality rates•U.S. Hispanics have lower rates than non-Hispanic whitesTeaching Opportunities to Reduce Risk of Lung Cancer•Avoid smoking cigarettes or join a tobacco cessation program if you do smoke.•Check for occupational or home exposure to asbestos or radon (have a radon check of your house or office if necessary.(•Avoid secondhand smoke exposure.