Manual for Ear Training - student answer key.pdf - INSTRUCTOR\u2019S DICTATION MANUAL MANUAL for EAR TRAINING and SIGHT SINGING INSTRUCTOR\u2019S DICTATION

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Unformatted text preview: INSTRUCTOR’S DICTATION MANUAL MANUAL for EAR TRAINING and SIGHT SINGING INSTRUCTOR’S DICTATION MANUAL to accompany the MANUAL for EAR TRAINING and SIGHT SINGING SECOND EDITION Gary S. Karpinski B W . N E W W . N O R T O N Y O R K L O N D O N W. W. Norton & Company has been independent since its founding in 1923, when William Warder Norton and Margaret D. Herter Norton first published lectures delivered at the People’s Institute, the adult education division of New York City’s Cooper Union. The Nortons soon expanded their program beyond the Institute, publishing books by celebrated academics from America and abroad. By mid-century, the two major pillars of Norton’s publishing ­program—trade books and college texts—were firmly established. In the 1950s, the Norton family transferred control of the company to its employees, and today—with a staff of 400 and a comparable number of trade, college, and professional titles published each year—W. W. Norton & Company stands as the largest and oldest publishing house owned wholly by its employees. Copyright © 2017, 2007 by W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. All rights reserved Second Edition Production Manager: Sean Mintus Composition: Jouve W. W. Norton & Company, Inc., 500 Fifth Avenue, New York, NY 10110   wwnorton.com W. W. Norton & Company Ltd, 15 Carlisle Street, London W1D 3BS CONTENTS Preface ix CHAPTER 1 CHAPTER 2 CHAPTER 3 CHAPTER 4 CHAPTER 5 CHAPTER 6 CHAPTER 7 CHAPTER 8 CHAPTER 9 CHAPTER 10 CHAPTER 11 CHAPTER 12 CHAPTER 13 CHAPTER 14 CHAPTER 15 CHAPTER 16 CHAPTER 17 CHAPTER 18 CHAPTER 19 CHAPTER 20 More about the Minor Mode: Chromatic 6ˆ and 7ˆ through Modal Borrowing4 4 Triplets and Duplets 4 6 CHAPTER 21 Introduction to Transcription 4 9 CHAPTER 22 Quadruple  Division of the Beat in Simple Meters 5 2 CHAPTER 23  Conducting CHAPTER 24 Performance Indications 5 5 CHAPTER 25 ˆ 7, ˆ and 2ˆ 5 7 The Dominant Triad; Skips to 5, CHAPTER 26 The Modern C-Clefs: Alto and Tenor Clefs 5 9 CHAPTER 27  Skips CHAPTER 28 Pentatonicism 6 3 The Fundamentals of Meter and Rhythm The Fundamentals of Pitch 1 5 Combining Pitches with Meter and Rhythm Error Detection and Correction 10 More about Meter and Rhythm 13 More about Pitch 16 Notating Rhythm and Meter Notating Pitches 17 20 Combining Rhythm and Pitch Notation Dictation in Longer Contexts The Fifteen Major Keys 23 26 28 Ties and the Dotted Beat 31 More about Intervals: Number and Quality Skips to 7ˆ and2ˆ as Prefix Neighbors Tempo 7 33 34 36 Compound Meters 37 Introduction to the Minor Mode: Diatonic Minor through Relative and Parallel Approaches 4 0 Lower Chromatic Neighbors 42 Pulse Levels Other Than the Notated Beat 5 4 to 4ˆ and 6ˆ as Prefix Neighbors 6 1 v vi Instructor’s Dictation Manual CHAPTER 29 Sextuple  Division of the Beat in Compound Meters 6 7 CHAPTER 30 Repeat Signs 7 0 CHAPTER 31 ˆ 6, ˆ and 1ˆ 7 1 The Subdominant Triad; Skips to 4, CHAPTER 32  Syncopation 7 3 CHAPTER 33 The Dominant Seventh Chord in ˆ 7, ˆ 2, ˆ and 4ˆ 7 5 Melodic Contexts; Skips to 5, CHAPTER 34 CHAPTER 35 Introduction to Harmonic Listening: Harmonic Rhythm and Cadences 7 8 CHAPTER 36 Two-Part Music 9 4 CHAPTER 37 Introduction to Bass-Line Dictation 9 7 CHAPTER 38 Root Position and First Inversion Triads 1 0 0 CHAPTER 39 Introduction to Voice Leading; Compound Melody 1 0 4 CHAPTER 40 Triad Qualities 1 0 7 CHAPTER 41 ˆ 2, ˆ and 4ˆ 1 0 8 The Leading-Tone Triad; Skips to 7, CHAPTER 42 ˆ 4, ˆ and 6ˆ 1 1 1 The Supertonic Triad; Skips to 2, CHAPTER 43 ˆ 1, ˆ and 3ˆ 1 1 5 The Submediant Triad; Skips to 6, CHAPTER 44 ˆ 5, ˆ and 7ˆ 1 1 9 The Mediant Triad; Skips to 3, CHAPTER 45 The Dominant Seventh Chord in Harmonic Contexts 1 2 3 CHAPTER 46 CHAPTER 47 Six-Four Figures 1 3 2 CHAPTER 48 Other Seventh Chords 1 3 6 CHAPTER 49 Transposition 1 4 1 CHAPTER 50 The Modes: Relative Approach 1 4 2 CHAPTER 51 The Modes: Parallel Approach 1 4 4 CHAPTER 52 Advanced Triplets 1 4 5 CHAPTER 53 Chromatic Passing Tones 1 4 7 CHAPTER 54 Skips to Chromatic Pitches as Prefix Neighbors 1 5 0 CHAPTER 55 CHAPTER 56 Chords Applied to the Subdominant; Skips Involving 7ˆ in Major and 3ˆ in Minor 1 6 0 CHAPTER 57 Chords Applied to the Supertonic; Skips Involving 1ˆ 1 6 7 CHAPTER 58 Chords Applied to the Submediant; Skips Involving 5ˆ 1 7 5 CHAPTER 59 ˆ 3ˆ Skip in Minor; Skips C  hords Applied to the Mediant; The 7– Involving 2ˆ in Major 1 8 1 CHAPTER 60 T  he Neapolitan Chord; Steps and Skips Involving 2ˆ 1 8 6 CHAPTER 61 The Augmented Sixth Chords; Steps and Skips Involving 4ˆ and 6ˆ in Minor, 4 ˆ and 6ˆ in Major 1 9 1 CHAPTER 62 Other Chords 1 9 8 Introduction to Harmonic Singing 7 7 Voice-Leading Techniques 1 2 7 Chords Applied to the Dominant; Skips Involving 4ˆ 1 5 4 Contents CHAPTER 63 Melodic Sequence 2 0 6 CHAPTER 64 Harmonic Sequence 2 0 9 CHAPTER 65 Other Clefs 217 CHAPTER 66 Hemiola 219 CHAPTER 67 Stepwise Chromatic Alterations 2 3 0 CHAPTER 68 Reading in Keys Other Than the Notated Key Signature 2 3 3 CHAPTER 69 Introduction to Modulation 2 3 6 CHAPTER 70 Closely Related Modulation from the Major Mode 2 3 9 CHAPTER 71 Closely Related Modulation from the Minor Mode 2 4 6 CHAPTER 72 Distant Modulations 2 5 5 CHAPTER 73 Successive Modulations 2 6 2 CHAPTER 74 Fragments of Tonality 2 7 1 CHAPTER 75 Advanced Meters 2 7 5 CHAPTER 76 More Advanced Rhythms 2 8 2 CHAPTER 77 Some Common Non-Diatonic Pitch Collections 2 8 5 CHAPTER 78 Hypermeter 288 CHAPTER 79 Form 291 vii PREFACE This Instructor’s Dictation Manual contains all the listening materials to accompany the Manual for Ear Training and Sight Singing. Each of the 692 recorded exercises on the website is printed here for instructors. Students have no access to the music notation for these (although instructors may choose to make certain answers available to students at various times), so this Instructor’s Dictation Manual serves as the answer key for these exercises. In addition, extra dictations have been printed at the ends of most chapters here. These extra dictations are not printed or recorded in the student materials, so instructors may use these for testing or extra practice. Types of Exercises Dictation The majority of the exercises in this Instructor’s Dictation Manual are (appropriately) dictations. The dictations in Chapters 1–9 are short enough for students to complete in one or, at most, two listenings. Starting in Chapter 10, all dictations are carefully controlled in length and content so that they may be completed in three listenings. Instructors are encouraged to allow only about a minute between listenings and two minutes after the last listening for students to complete their work. Although some students might find this pace arduous at first, such constraints help students become fluent in musical understanding and notation. This kind of fluency is necessary for processing music in real time. Instructors can play dictations on a piano or other instrument directly from the notation in these pages, or they may choose to play the recordings from the website in class (see “Recordings,” below). In addition, students can work on dictations directly from the website outside of class. Transcription The next most frequent listening exercises here are transcriptions (found particularly in the middle to late chapters). The goals of transcription are the same as those for dictation but students may work at their own pace, taking an unlimited number of listenings and as much time as they’d like to complete each transcription. A small amount of transcription work may be done in class, but—because of the individual nature of this work—students should do most of their transcribing on their own, outside of class time. Students can use the website for this purpose. Instructors may choose to assign transcription exercises as homework to be handed in for assessment and evaluation. Other Listening Exercises In addition to dictations and transcriptions, there are various other listening exercises in this book. Pulse-graph exercises appear throughout the book at various points, particularly when new metric and rhythmic concepts and skills are introduced (pulse levels, harmonic rhythm, hemiola, etc.). Other listening assignments (such as ix x Instructor’s Dictation Manual i­ dentifying common-tone functions and mapping musical forms) are included where appropriate. Error detection is introduced in Chapter 4, and suggestions are made for continuing it in later chapters. Levels of Difficulty Every exercise has been carefully excerpted or composed so as to present only features students have learned up to that point in the text. Because the Manual for Ear Training and Sight Singing progresses from simple to more complex materials, the listening materials in this Instructor’s Dictation Manual become gradually more difficult over its two-year curriculum. In addition, the materials have been designed to offer a range of difficulties within each chapter. Most chapters begin with easier materials (although some begin with their particular concept or skill in its most obvious settings, which might not be easiest for some students), and many chapters also offer more challenging exercises. However, since there is such a wide variety of skills, abilities, and experiences among students, some will find certain exercises much easier or harder than their peers and, therefore, not all students will feel that all exercises progress smoothly from easiest to hardest in certain chapters. Nonetheless, students who work diligently on the listening and sight singing materials in the Manual for Ear Training and Sight Singing will find that they are well prepared to meet each new challenge presented here. The listening exercises in Chapter 1 begin with excerpts from music literature. However, in order to bring students along gradually from the beginning stages to a more sophisticated level, most of the dictations in the earliest chapters have been composed specifically for this book. As the book progresses, more and more listening materials are drawn from music literature. Recordings The website (digital.wwnorton.com/eartraining2) that accompanies the Manual for Ear Training and Sight Singing contains audio recordings of actual performances using real instruments and voices. This lets students practice their aural skills while listening to the unadulterated sounds of genuine performers, which helps to make aural training as realistic and practical as possible. Presenting Dictations and Transcriptions In order for students to develop essential listening (and thinking) skills, instructors are urged to present dictations and transcriptions while revealing only the most basic parameters—the clef, tonic, and bottom number in the meter sign. This means that instructors should not provide a written starting note (in other words, no first pitch or rhythm should be given in notation), nor should they indicate the length of a dictation or transcription by writing out blank measures for students to fill in. It is also important that instructors not play anything before students hear a dictation or transcription—no chord progression, no scale, not even a starting pitch. In addition, instructors are discouraged from counting preparatory beats before playing, and from counting, tapping, conducting, or otherwise indicating the beat or meter during dictations and transcriptions. Students must learn to infer the tonic, starting scale degree, pulse, meter, and other features from listening to the actual music.1 Similarly, breaking dictations into smaller sections and artificially emphasizing certain voices should be avoided during playings. Aural skills instructors should not prevent their students from learning how to infer these features by providing any artificial eartraining crutches, regardless of how tempting (or traditional) they might be. Providing only the clef, tonic, and bottom number in the meter sign helps students to develop some very important fundamental skills. However, it also makes assessment and evaluation a bit more challenging. Without knowing a starting rhythm (was that a quarter note or an eighth note?) or total number of measures (was that eight measures long, or only four?), some students will render certain exercises in what will look like rhythmic augmentation or diminution. Such answers — if proportionally accurate—should be assessed as entirely correct. Like­wise, all dictations and transcriptions in quadruple meter may be notated acceptably in duple meter (using the same note values but twice as many measures), and many (but not all) exercises in duple meter may be written correctly in quadruple meter (using the same note values but half as many measures). Instructors are urged to carefully read the discussion at the beginning of Chapter 5 in this Instructor’s Dictation Manual and to be prepared to accept the small variety of correct responses these possibilities yield. Once compound meters are introduced in Chapter 16, instructors must remember that dictations and transcriptions written originally in compound meters also may be written correctly in a correspondingly “faster” simple triple meter (which can be avoided by telling students to write any of a specific group of dictations in compound meter if appropriate; see the discussion at the beginning of Chapter 16 in this Instructor’s Dictation Manual). Also note that the same duplequadruple caveats from simple meters should be applied in compound meters as well. Finally, by not providing a starting pitch you will find that some students will write certain dictations and transcriptions in octaves other than the original. Indeed, many otherwise proficient listeners (even some with absolute pitch) will have difficulty identifying the proper octave placement of what they hear. You should consider exacting no (or at most a small) penalty for responses that are entirely correct but written in an incorrect octave.2 To a certain extent, all this requires aural skills instructors to think and teach in more sophisticated ways. If we were merely trying to get students through a series of boring drills and artificial, unmusical dictations, then none of this would matter. But because one of our main goals is to provide students with skills they can use throughout their studies and their careers, it is important to develop these basic skills and to make dictation and transcription more like the everyday listening experiences musicians encounter in their personal and professional lives. 1. Because dictations are so short, there is always the possibility that they will not present listeners with enough information to establish tonality and meter with certainty. With this in mind, the dictations composed specifically for this book have been carefully constructed to avoid metric and tonal ambiguity. Similarly, the music literature excerpted for dictation has been selected with the same principle in mind. However, certain students (and instructors) might find a few of the selections herein to be somewhat ambiguous with regard to meter or tonality. When such teachable moments arise (“I heard that dictation in duple meter, but you wrote the answer in triple”), it is incumbent on instructors to determine if the discrepancy is due to an error (for example, incorrectly remembering rhythms) or a difference of opinion, and to make the reasons for such discrepancies clear to students. 2. For further suggestions on assessing and evaluating dictations, see the author’s Aural Skills Acquisition (Oxford University Press, 2000), pp. 103–110. Preface xi xii Instructor’s Dictation Manual New in the Second Edition A new chapter on pentatonicism (Chapter 28) has been added to the Manual for Ear Training and Sight Singing, and new dictation and transcription materials have been added here to support that chapter. The chapter on harmonic rhythm and cadences (Chapter 35) has been revised, and the listening materials for that chapter have been reorganized and reworked or replaced. Materials in other chapters have been revamped as necessary. In all, sixty items have been rerecorded or replaced entirely in an effort to update and improve all these listening materials. 1 THE FUNDAMENTALS OF METER AND RHYTHM L I S T E N I N G 1. The student text instructs students to listen to recorded excerpts 1.1–1.5 and do the following for each: • distinguish and write down at least two levels of pulse from what you hear • determine whether those two levels form a duple or triple relationship • conduct along with the music using the appropriate pattern 1.1  Ludwig van Beethoven, Symphony No. 7, mvt. 2, mm. 3–10 This excerpt exhibits duple groupings on every level. Many students will focus on 2 the b and c levels (see below); these correspond to the beat and measure levels in 4 meter as notated by Beethoven. However, some will find the a level to be the fastest tappable pulse, and some will progress to d or e as the broadest level. One interesting point of discussion: How is it that the spot represented by the second c-level pulse (the downbeat of measure 2) seems to feel like a point of arrival—perhaps receiving more emphasis than the surrounding pulses on levels c and d? 4 measures 2 measures 1 measure q e e d c b a | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||| 1.2  César Franck, Sonata in A Major for Violin and Piano, mvt. 1, mm. 1–12 9 In this excerpt, the 8 meter reflects the triple groupings on the lowest two levels (a b and b c). Deeper levels group in duple fashion. 4 measures 2 measures 1 measure q . e e d c b a | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | ||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||| 1.3  Franz Schubert, Symphony No. 9, D. 944, mvt. 1, mm. 1–8 Similar to the Beethoven excerpt (1.1), this passage groups consistently in duple fashion from one level to the next. The Andante tempo makes tapping the eighth note easy, and the eighth notes group into six levels of pulse. 1 2 Instructor’s Dictation Manual 4 measures 2 measures 1 measure h q e f  e  d  c  b  a  | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | 1.4 Béla Bartók, “Slovak Young Men’s Dance,” Ten Easy Piano Pieces, No. 3, mm. 1–10 The fastest notes in this excerpt (eighth notes) move too quickly to be felt as the “fastest tappable pulse,” so level a is based on quarter notes. They group consis2 tently in pairs (as indicated by the 4 meter) to form measures, level b. However, students who continue and explore broader pulse levels will find that measures group unevenly into 2s and 3s at level c. The graph below shows one way of handling this. 5 measures d 2 or 3 measures c 1 measure b q a | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | || 1.5 J. S. Bach, Cello Suite No. 1, BWV 1007, mvt. 6, Minuet II, mm. 1–8 3 The eighth notes of the 4 meter in this excerpt form level a. They group in pairs to form quarter notes, which group in 3s to form measures. The higher levels group in pairs. 4 measures e 2 measures d 1 measure c q b e a | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||| Other works recommended for this exercise (not recorded) • The Eagles, “Take it to the Limit” (written by Randy Meisner, Don Henley, and Glenn Frey) • Theme from the TV show Jeopardy! (written by Merv Griffin) • Girlyman, “Everything’s Easy” (written by Nate Borofsky) • The Wallflowers, “One Headlight” (written by Jakob Dylan) • Benedetto Marcello, Flute Sonata Op. 2, No. 10, mvt. 2 • George Frideric Handel, Giulio Ceasare, HWV 17, “Cessa omai di sospirare” All these are easily available online. The first three are very straightforward and consistent on many levels of pulse. The last three become more challeng...
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