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BLBa_Ch16 - Acid-Base Equilibria BLB 10th Chapter 16...

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Acid-Base Equilibria BLB 10 th Chapter 16
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Examples of acids & bases
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Acids Bases Sour (like vinegar) Bitter and slippery (like soap) React with bases to neutralize them and form salts React with acids to neutralize them and form salts Change indicator colors in opposite direction from base (e.g. litmus blue to red) Change indicator colors in opposite direction from acid (e.g. litmus red to blue) Aqueous solutions conduct electricity Aqueous solutions conduct electricity Liberate hydrogen in reactions with active metals React in aqueous solution with salts of heavy metals to form insoluble hydroxides or oxides
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16.1 Acids & Bases: A Brief Review Arrhenius Definitions Acid – a substance that produces hydrogen ions (H + ) in water HA → H + + A - Base – a substance that produces hydroxide ions (OH - ) in water BOH → B + + OH -
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16.2 Brønsted-Lowry Acids & Bases H + (proton) in water: H + + H 2 O → H 3 O + hydronium ion Hydronium ion can hydrogen bond with more water molecules to form large clusters of hydrated hydronium ions. H + and H 3 O + are used interchangeably.
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16.2 Brønsted-Lowry Acids & Bases Brønsted-Lowry definitions acid – proton donor Neutral (HNO 3 ), anionic (HCO 3 - ), cationic (NH 4 + ) Must have a removable (acidic) proton base – proton acceptor Neutral (NH 3 ), anionic (CO 3 2- ) Must have a lone pair of electrons
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Acid-Base Reactions HCl(aq) + H 2 O(l) → H 3 O + (aq) + Cl - (aq) NH 3 (aq) + H 2 O(l) NH 4 + (aq) + OH - (aq) HCl(aq) + NH 3 (aq) → NH 4 + (aq) + Cl - (aq)
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Acid-base reaction in non-aqueous media: HCl(g) + NH 3 (g) → NH 4 Cl(s)
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amphiprotic – capable of behaving as a Brønsted acid and Brønsted base amphoteric – capable of behaving as a Lewis acid and Brønsted base (17.5)
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