The_Impact_of_WASH_on_Key_Social_and_Health_Outcomes_Review_of_Evidence.pdf - THE IMPACT OF WATER SANITATION AND HYGIENE ON KEY HEALTH AND SOCIAL

The_Impact_of_WASH_on_Key_Social_and_Health_Outcomes_Review_of_Evidence.pdf

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THE IMPACT OF WATER, SANITATION AND HYGIENE ON KEY HEALTH AND SOCIAL OUTCOMES: REVIEW OF EVIDENCE Joanna Esteves Mills & Oliver Cumming JUNE 2016
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Acknowledgements DFID Evidence Paper Sanitation and Hygiene Applied Research for Equity (SHARE) consortium reviewers: Alexandra Chitty, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, Erin Flynn, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine UNICEF advisors: Sue Cavill, Greg Keast, Cindy Kushner External reviewers: Lenka Benova, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, Sandy Cairncross, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, Alan Dangour, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, Robert Dreibelbis, University of Oklahoma, Jeroen Ensink, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, Matthew Freeman, Emory University, Andrew Prendergast, Queen Mary University of London, Marni Sommer, Columbia University Mailman School of Public Health, Dawn Taylor, Medecins Sans Frontierés, Belen Torondel, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, Jane Wilbur, WaterAid Editors: Vina Barahman, Phillip Poirier Photo on front cover: Women from Podumkhana village collect water from a pump designed by UNICEF (India, 2009) | © UNICEF/UNI79307/Pietrasik Contributors This material has been funded by UK aid from the Department for International Development (DFID). However, the view expressed do not necessarily reflect the Department’s official policies.
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Acknowledgements 1 Acronyms 5 Executive summary 6 Introduction 9 Aims 9 Interpreting the evidence on WASH 11 Review methods 13 WASH and diarrhoea 15 The problem 15 How does WASH influence diarrhoeal diseases? 16 Recent updates in knowledge What don’t we know? 22 Ongoing studies 23 Conclusion 24 WASH and undernutrition 25 The problem 25 How does WASH influence childhood undernutrition? 26 Recent updates in knowledge What don’t we know? 30 Ongoing studies 30 Conclusion 31 WASH and complementary food hygiene 32 The problem 32 How does WASH influence complementary food hygiene? 32 Recent updates in knowledge What don’t we know? 34 Ongoing studies 34 Conclusion 35 Contents The Impact of WASH on Key Health & Social Outcomes PAGE 2
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EVIDENCE PAPER • The Impact of WASH on Key Health & Social Outcomes WASH, violence against women and girls, and female psychosocial stress 36 The problem 36 How does WASH influence violence and psychosocial stress? 37 Recent updates in knowledge What don’t we know? 41 Ongoing studies 42 Conclusion 42 WASH and maternal and newborn health 44 The problem 44 How does WASH influence maternal health? 46 Recent updates in knowledge What don’t we know? 49 Ongoing studies 50 Conclusion 50 WASH and menstrual hygiene management 52 The problem 52 How can WASH support safe MHM? 52 Recent updates in knowledge What don’t we know? 55 Ongoing studies 56 Conclusion 56 WASH and school attendance 58 The problem 58 How does WASH influence school attendance? 58 Recent updates in knowledge What don’t we know? 61 Ongoing studies 61 Conclusion 62 The Impact of WASH on Key Health & Social Outcomes PAGE 3
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The Impact of WASH on Key Health & Social Outcomes PAGE 4 EVIDENCE PAPER •
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