Ch21a1 chem notes

Ch21a1 chem notes - -1 or -1 e High-speed electrons; atomic...

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Chapter 21 Nuclear Chemistry
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21.1 Radioactivity Review from Ch. 2 Subatomic particles Atoms are neutral: # protons = # electrons Isotopes – atoms with same number of protons but different number of neutrons Particle Position Charge Mass (kg) electron outside nucleus −1 9.11 x 10 -31 nucleon proton inside nucleus +1 1.67 x 10 -27 neutron inside nucleus 0 1.67 x 10 -27
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Nuclear Chemistry deals with only the nucleus. nuclide – nucleus with specified number of protons and neutrons radioactivity – spontaneous emission of radiation radionuclide – radioactive nuclide radioisotopes – atoms containing radioactive nuclei radioactive decay – spontaneous decomposition to form a different, more stable, nucleus with the production of one or more particles decay series – multiple decay steps through which radioactive nuclides go to reach a stable state
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Decay Series
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Types of Radioactive Decay alpha (α) particle 4 2 He or 4 2 α Common for heavy radionuclide beta (β) particle
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Unformatted text preview: -1 or -1 e High-speed electrons; atomic number increases gamma ( ) ray High-energy photons; often accompanies other decay like electron capture positron 1 or 1 e Atomic number decreases electron capture-1 e Addition of electron(s) with production of rays fission n Neutron capture causes chain reactions Fission of 238 U Chain Reaction Nuclear Equations sum of both mass and atomic numbers on both sides of equation are equal Examples: 68 31 Ga + -1 e _____ 212 87 Fr 208 85 As + ______ 263 106 Sg ______ + 4 2 He 21.4 Rates of Radioactive Decay Radioactive decay follows 1 st order kinetics. All half-lives are equal. kt N N t-= ln N # of radioactive nuclei k decay constant Individual half-lives vary tremendously 214 Po 2 x 10-4 s 144 Nd 5 x 10 15 year k t 693 . 2 / 1 = Half-lives Practice problem...
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Ch21a1 chem notes - -1 or -1 e High-speed electrons; atomic...

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