Ch 14 Chem Notes

Ch 14 Chem Notes - Chemical Kinetics BLB 10th Chapter 14...

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Chemical Kinetics BLB 10 th Chapter 14
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Chemical Reactions 1. Will the reaction occur? Ch. 5, 19 2. How fast will the reaction occur? Ch. 14 3. How far will the reaction proceed? Ch. 15
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Expectations Review: concentration units, graphing (line, slope) Work with reaction rates. Determine a rate law for a given reaction from experimental data. Explain factors which affect the rate of a reaction. Calculate the activation energy.
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Thermochemistry review… C(s, diamond) C(s, graphite) Δ H ° rxn = Is the reaction favorable?
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Kinetics … studies the rates at which chemical reactions occur. gives information about how the reaction occur, that is, the reaction mechanism
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14.1 Factors that Affect Reaction Rates 1. Physical state of the reactants – states that promote contact have faster rates; homogeneous vs. heterogeneous 2. Concentration of the reactants: conc. ↑, rate ↑ (or pressure for gases) 3. Temperature: temp. ↑, rate ↑ due to higher molecular energy and speed (section 5) 4. Catalysts: rate ↑ by changing the mechanism and reaction energy (section 7) 5. Other physical things like stirring and grinding solid reactants.
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14.2 Reaction Rates Rate – change in some variable per unit time Reaction rate – change in concentration per unit time; M/s or mol/L·s Rates are determined by monitoring concentration as a function of time. Rates are positive quantities; for reactant A: time rate 1 initial final - = - = t A rate ] [
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In this reaction, the concentration of butyl chloride, C 4 H 9 Cl, was measured at various times. C 4 H 9 Cl(aq) + H 2 O(l) → C 4 H 9 OH(aq) + HCl(aq)
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Reaction Rates cont. Rates change over time: reactant rates decrease product rates increase Instantaneous rate – rate at a specific time Average rate – Δ[A] over a specific time interval Initial rate – instantaneous rate at t = 0 Note: Rates and rate laws are not based on stoichiometry!! They must be determined experimentally .
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C 4 H 9 Cl(aq) + H 2 O(l) → C 4 H 9 OH(aq) + HCl(aq) (Fig. 14.4, p. 579)
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Reaction Rates and Stoichiometry The molar ratios between reactants and products correspond to the rates of reaction. Relative rates – relationship between rates of
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Ch 14 Chem Notes - Chemical Kinetics BLB 10th Chapter 14...

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