psychch62 - Learning: Part 2 Operant (Instrumental)...

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Learning: Part 2 Operant (Instrumental) conditioning: -- behavior that is more voluntary and emitted [[behavior first then consequences. Consequences change behavior later] *can actually control your body* INSTRUMENTAL---Thorndike's Law of Effect : if cat pressed lever then the cage would open and the cat would be able to go out and get food. Cats learned to hit the lever so they could get the reward of food. **If consequence is nice then people will do the action more* -behavior is controlled by consequences. OPERANT---Skinner's radical behaviorism: not looking at thought processes, but at thinks we can see (connections b/t environment & behavior). voluntary behavior (or "operants") learning by reward and punishment (i.e., by consequences, or "contingencies") Operant: behavior – consequences Classical: behavior -- association How do Consequences Control Learning? reinforcement - increases the probability of a behavior positive and negative reinforcement both types of reinforcement involve favorable consequences and both have the same effect on behavior: the organism’s tendency to emit the reinforced response is strengthened. Positive : rat presses lever food is delivered Negative : rat presses lever aversive stimulus is removed (shock turned off) *Something negative goes away during negative reinforcement* 1) Escape learning escaping an aversive stimulus (negative reinforcement) 2) Avoidance learning EX: learning to avoid potential dangers leads to a release of the fear of getting shocked (negative reinforcement)---shuttle box PREVENTING punishment - decreases the probability of a behavior *opposite of reinforcement two kinds of punishment: 1) direct: present an unpleasant stimulus (ex: make me mad … I slap you) 2) remove a reward: removing a privilege (ex: losing your car keys because of late)
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This note was uploaded on 04/07/2008 for the course PSYC 1101 taught by Professor Leader during the Summer '07 term at Georgia Institute of Technology.

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psychch62 - Learning: Part 2 Operant (Instrumental)...

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