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AP Environmental Science Unit(# 2)Student Notes Unit (# 2) Student NotesThe Living World: BiodiversityAPESUnit ( 2 )Student NotesTable of ContentsBiodiversity Outlinep. 22.1 Introduction to Biodiversity p. 32.2 Ecosystem Servicesp. 112.3 Island Biogeographyp. 162.4 Ecological Tolerancep. 172.5 Natural Disruptions to Ecosystemsp. 18 2.6 Adaptationsp. 22 2.7 Ecological Successionp. 25Biodiversity OutlineI.Levels of DiversityA.species diversity (biodiversity)B.Ecosystem diversity1
AP Environmental Science Unit(# 2)Student Notes C.Genetic diversityII. Benefits of Biodiversity A.species are connected to ecosystemsB.for species and population survivalC.medical, industrial, and agricultural usesD.ethics, aesthetics, and recreationIII.Species at riskA.small populations in limited areasB.those that migrateC.those that need large or special habitatsD.exploited by humansIV.How humans affect biodiversityA.H – Habitat Destruction/Alteration/FragmentationB.I – Invasive/exotic/alien speciesC.P – PollutionD.P – Human population growthE.C – Climate ChangeF.O – Overexploitation – harvesting, hunting, poachingG.Disease - can sometimes be caused/spread by usV.Areas of critical biodiversityA.Tropical Rain ForestsB.Coral Reefs & Coastal EcosystemsC.IslandsVI. Ways to protect biodiversityA.Captive-breeding programsB.Preserving genetic material (germ-plasm banks)C.Zoos, Aquariums, Parks, Botanical GardensD.EducationE.Preserving habitats and ecosystems (BEST METHOD)VII.Endangered Species ActA.Established by US Congress in 1973B.USFWS must compile a list of endangered & threatened speciesC.Species on the list may not be caught or killed, uprooted from federal lands, sold or tradedD.The federal govt may not carry out any project that jeopardizes species on the listE.USFWS must prepare a recovery plan for species on the list2.1 Introduction to Biodiversity2
AP Environmental Science Unit(# 2)Student Notes 2.1 ENDURING UNDERSTANDING: Ecosystems have structure and diversity that change over time.LEARNING OBJECTIVEERT-2.A Explain levels of biodiversity and their importance to ecosystems.ESSENTIAL KNOWLEDGE:Biodiversity in an ecosystem includes genetic, species, and habitat diversity.Biodiversity – variety of different speciesSpecies – set of individuals who can mate and produce fertile offspringo8 million to 100 million speciesoAbout 2 million identifiedoUnidentified species are mostly in rain forests and oceansoSpecies Diversity:oNumber of different species and their relative abundances in a given area.