Biology Exam Study Guide

Biology Exam Study Guide - Biology Exam 1 Study Guide...

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Biology Exam 1 Study Guide LECTURE 2 Mendels Laws Law of Segregation- During the formation of gametes (eggs or sperm), the two alleles responsible for a trait During the formation of gametes (eggs or sperm), the two alleles responsible for a trait separate from each other. separate from each other. Alleles for a trait are then "recombined" at fertilization, producing the genotype for the Alleles for a trait are then "recombined" at fertilization, producing the genotype for the traits of the offspring traits of the offspring. Law of Independent Assortment- Alleles for Alleles for different another. another. This law can be illustrated using This law can be illustrated using dihybrid crosses dihybrid crosses . Haploid Cell- a cell containing a single set of chromosomes Diploid Cell- a cell that contains two homologous sets of chromosomes Autosome- Any chromosome other than a sex chromosome Sex Chromosome- A chromosome that determines whether an individual is male or female (X and Y) Somatic Cell- One of the cells that take part in the formation of the body, becoming differentiated into the various tissues, organs, etc. Any cell other than a germ cell. Gametes- A haploid reproductive cell (sperm or egg) Alleles- Any of the alternate forms of a gene Dominant- The allele that is fully expressed in the heterozygote Recessive- An allele whose effects are masked in heterozygotes by the presence of a dominant allele Heterozygous- The condition of having two different alleles for a given gene Meiosis versus mitosis Mitosis is the replication of most cells. During mitosis all 46 chromosomes are replicated and each daughter cell receives the complete set of 46 chromosomes. Meiosis is cell division for the formation of gametes. During meiosis the 46 chromosomes are copied and then divide twice. This produces daughter cells with half the number of chromosomes, 23 Chromosome crossover (exchange of material) Occurs during Meiosis crossing over exchange of paternal material Monozygotic- (identical twin) occurs when a single egg is fertilized to form one zygote which then divides into two separate embryos Dizygotic- (fraternal twin) Twins that are derived from two separately fertilized eggs.
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LECTURE 3 Commonality of life- The ability of viruses to infect human beings relies on the commonality of life on Earth in the following ways -Same building blocks are used for constructing biological molecules -Same genetic code is used -Same biosynthetic processes and machinery is used -Same enzymes serve as catalysts for similar biological reactions All independent life forms must possess the following characteristics for survival -Biological membranes serving as a container for cellular activities -Nucleic acids for storing genetic information -An intermediate nucleic acid in the form of messenger RNA to relay information -A protein synthetic machinery
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Biology Exam Study Guide - Biology Exam 1 Study Guide...

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