Chapter 23: Immune System 23.1 – Anatomy of the Immune System • Leukocytes o Phagocytes o Lymphocytes o Mast Cells and Dendritic Cells • Lymphoid Tissues 23.2 – Organization of the Body’s Defenses • Nonspecific Defenses o Physical Barriers o Inflammation Phagocytosis of Pathogens and Debris by Nearby Macrophages Dialation and Increased Permeability of Capillaries Containment of Foreign Matter Leukocyte Migration and Proliferation Continued Clearing of Infection by Recruited Leukocytes o Interferons o Natural Killer Cells o The Complement System • Specific Defenses: Immune Responses o Features of Immune Responses Specificity Diversity Memory Self-tolerance 23.3 – Humoral Immunity • The Role of B Lymphocytes in Antibody Production • Antibody Function in Humoral Immunity o Neutralization o Agglutination o Opsonization o Complement Activation o Enhanced Activation of Natural Killer Cells 23.4 – Cell-Mediated Immunity • Roles of T Lymphocytes in Cell-Mediated Immunity o MHC Molecules: Markers of Self o The Role of MHC Molecules in T Cell Maturation o The Role of MHC Molecules in Antigen Presentation and T Cell Activation • Helper T Cell Activation • Cytotoxic T Cell Activation: The Destruction of Virus-Infected Cells and Tumor Cells 23.5 – Immune Responses in Health and Disease • Generating Immunity: Immunization • Roles of the Immune System in Transfusion and Transplantation o Blood-Group Compatibility o Tissue and Organ Transplantation • Immune Dysfunctions o Allergy o Autoimmune Diseases o Immunodeficiency Diseases o The Role of Stress in the Immune Response 23.1 – ANATOMY OF THE IMMUNE SYSTEM • LEUKOCYTES o Phagocytes o Lymphocytes B Cells • B cells associated with antibodies • B cell contacts antigen plasma cell
• Plasma cell secretes antibodies (immunoglobulins) • Antibodies mark invaders for destruction T Cells • Directly damage foreign cells • T cells contact infected, mutant or transplanted cells • Develop into cytotoxic T cells that destroy target cell o Takes several days o Secretory products form pores in target cell membrane o Lysis Null Cells • Most are natural killer cells • Important against viral infections • Attack virus-infected cells – cause lysis o Attack your own cells that have a virus inside them o Blowing up your own cells • Fast acting – early immune response • Act in a non-specific manner o Go after any cell • LYMPHOID TISSUES o Two types: Central Lymphoid Tissue: • Bone marrow • Thymus Peripheral Lymphoid Tissue • Spleen • Lymph nodes • Tonsils • Adenoids • Appendix • Peyer’s patches o Central Lymphoid Tissue Bone marrow • Hematopoietic stem cells: precursor for all blood cells • Leukocytes except T lymphocytes fully develop Thymus • T lymphocytes migrate from bone marrow to thymus o Develop maturity in thymus Maturity – the ability to tell self from non self o
You've reached the end of your free preview.
Want to read all 10 pages?
- Spring '07
- cells, Cytotoxic T cells