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Group-3-Social-Stratification (2).pdf - SOCIAL...

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Unformatted text preview: SOCIAL STRATIFICATION GROUP 3 JEZREEL CARDINALES KENNETH IVAN RAMOS JONATHANALLEN MARL SIBAYAN LUKE HAROLD TIMAJO SHAIRA ELAISA CRUZ NOLI MACADANGDANG KYRIE RARANG CHAPTER 6 Stratification LESSON 21 IS THE STRUCTURED AND HIERARCHICAL RANKING OF INDIVIDUALS BASED ON THEIR FAMILY, OCCUPATION, INCOME, WEALTH, AND (SOCIAL/POLITICAL) POWER. FOR SOCIOLOGISTS, IT IS THE PATTERNED INEQUALITY THAT IS DUE TO THE UNEQUAL ACCESS TO WEALTH, PRIVILEGE, AND POWER. STRATIFICATION EQUALITY VS. EQUITY SIMPLY PUT EQUALITY MEANS SAMENESS, AND EQUITY IMPLIES FAIRNESS. IN THE CASE OF EQUALITY A SOMEONE WITH A LOWER STATUS RECEIVES THE SAME THING WITH A HIGHER STATUS; WHILE IN THE CASE OF EQUITY SOMEONE WITH A LOWER STATUS SHOULD RECEIVE MORE THAN THAT OF SOMEONE WITH A HIGHER STATUS. FUNCTIONALIST VIEW OF SOCIAL STRATIFICATION According to sociologists Kingsley Davis and Wilbert Moore (1945), when people are motivated, they tend to study and work harder to fit the wellsought positions in society The rewards are congruent to the level of position. STRATIFICATION Social Inequality IT IS THE EFFECT OF LIMITING OR IMPAIRING A GROUP OR AN INDIVIDUAL'S SOCIAL STATUS, CLASS AND PRIVILEGES. SOCIAL INEQUALITY 1. Access to capital However, loss of access to social capital and symbolic capital can also trigger social inequality. (Bourdieu, 1986) SOCIAL INEQUALITY 2. Gender Inequality According to the 2015 Human Development Report of UNDP, females are still discriminated in health, education, political representation, labor market and more. SOCIAL INEQUALITY 3. Global Inequality People around the globe experiences inequality in terms of wealth. SOCIAL 4. Inequality to cultural minorities Inequality manifested in cultural minorities such as ethnic groups, sexual minorities, persons with disabilities, and religious minorities. INEQUALITY Inequality to cultural minorities SOCIAL INEQUALITY RACIAL AND ETHNIC INEQUALITY It is the consequence of hierarchical social distinctions between racial and ethnic categories. It is based on characteristics such as skin color and other physical characteristics. Inequality to cultural minorities SOCIAL INEQUALITY RACIAL AND ETHNIC INEQUALITY Minorities in the Social Structure DOMINANT MEMBERS - set the standards and establish values and norms in the society. MINORITIES - barred from some degree of power, prestige, or wealth. Inequality to cultural minorities SOCIAL INEQUALITY RACIAL AND ETHNIC INEQUALITY Discrimination and Prejudice DISCRIMINATION- being deprived of equal treatment and being kept in the lower status. PREJUDICE- "prejudgment" ; the negative attitude toward the members of a particular group. Inequality to cultural minorities SOCIAL INEQUALITY RACIAL AND ETHNIC INEQUALITY STEREOTYPING- the propensity to picture all members of a particular category as having the same qualities. ETHNOCENTRISM - belief that the other groups or societies are inferior to our own. SCAPEGOATING - a situation when people encounter problems that they do not know how to solve. RACISM - belief that one's own race is superior and has the right to control or direct others. Inequality to cultural minorities SOCIAL INEQUALITY How People Become Minorities MIGRATION - when people move from one society to another, they are called minorities in the new society. COLONIALISM - when people from another country decides to settle in a new land and take control of the society. ANNEXATION - when a country is joined to another nation. Inequality to cultural minorities SOCIAL INEQUALITY How Minorities are Treated EXTERMINATION EXPULSION SEGREGATION CULTURAL PLURALISM ASSIMILATION AMALGAMATION Disability A CONDITION EITHER CAUSED BY GENETICS OR DISEASE, ACCIDENT, TRAUMA, WHICH MAY HAMPER A PERSON'S MENTAL, SENSORY, OR MOBILITY FUNCTIONS. Conditions causing disability are classified by the medical community as: a. inherited b. congenital c. embryonic or fatal development irregularities d. acquired e. of unknown origin Ways of Categorizing Disability 1. PHYSICAL DISABLITY (limits physical functions) 2. SENSORY DISABILITY (impairment of one of the senses) a. Vision Impairment b. Hearing Impairment 3. INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY (ranges from mental retardation to cognitive deficits) 4. MENTAL HEALTH AND EMOTIONAL DISABILITY (mental disorder or mental illness) 5. DEVELOPMENTAL DISABILITY (results in problems with growth and development) 6. NON-VISIBLE DISABILITY (chronic disorders) DISABILITY LAWS REPUBLIC ACT 10627 REPUBLIC ANTI-BULLYING ACT "Bullying shall refer to any severe or repeated use of one or more students of a written, verbal, or electronic expressions..." ACT 10524 EQUAL OPPORTUNITY EMPLOYMENT DISABILITY LAWS REPUBLIC ACT REPUBLIC ACT 10336 10070 ACCESSIBLE POLLING PLACES EXCLUSIVELY FOR PERSONS WITH DISABILITIES IMPLEMENTATION OF PROGRAMS AND SERVICES FOR PERSONS WITH DISABILITIES IN EVERY PROVINCE, CITY, AND MUNICIPALITY DISABILITY LAWS REPUBLIC ACT 7277 MAGNA CARTA FOR PERSONS WITH DISABILITIES REPUBLIC ACT 9442 Expanded provisions of RA 7277 DISABILITY LAWS PRESIDENTIAL PROCLAMATION NO. 1157 UN INTERNATIONAL DAY OF PERSONS WITH DISABILITIES PRESIDENTIAL PROCLAMATION NO. 361 NATIONAL DISABILITY PREVENTION AND REHABILITATION WEEK DISABILITY LAWS PRESIDENTIAL PROCLAMATION NO. 711 NATIONAL AUTISM CONSCIOUSNESS WEEK PRESIDENTIAL PROCLAMATION NO. 1509 NATIONAL COMMISSION ON DISABILITY AFFAIRS DISABILITY LAWS DEPED EXECUTIVE NO. ORDER 437 COMMUNITY BASED REHABILITATION FOR PERSONS WITH DISABILITIES EXECUTIVE NO. ORDER 417 ECONOMIC INDEPENDENCE FOR PERSONS WITH DISABILITIES CHILD PROTECTION POLICY Protection of children in schools from violence, exploitation, discrimination, bullying, neglect, abuse, cruelty, and other conditions prejudicial to their development. Principles of Social Stratification In their 1945 paper about social stratification, Davis and Moore have enumerated several principles of stratification PRINCIPLES 1. Certain positions in any society are functionally more important than others and require special skills for their performance 2. Only a limited number of individuals in any society have the talents which can be trained into the skills appropriate to these positions 3. the conversation of talents into skills involves a training period that may cause sacrifice of other important social aspects 4. In order to induce the talented people to undergo training, they must be shown future positions with an inducement value(i.e., privileged access to the rewards that society has to offer 5. These rewards are attached to the positions, which may bring a) sustenance and comfort, b) humor and diversion, and c) self-respect and ego expansion 6. The differential access to the rewards of the society begets differentiation in prestige and esteem, which then constitutes social inequality 7. Therefore, social inequality is positively functional and inevitable in any society. OF SOCIAL STRATIFICATION Marxist View of Social Stratification Karl Marx (1859) studied the development of societies from a materialist perspective. In which he stated that society's economic condition determine the kind of society the member had. MARXIST VIEW OF Karl Marx (1859) SOCIAL STRATIFICATION "EVERY SOCIETY HAS A PARTICULAR INDIVIDUAL OR GROUP WHO CONTROLS THE MEANS OF PRODUCTION." MARXIST VIEW OF BOURGEOISIE PROLETARIAT SOCIAL STRATIFICATION MARXIST VIEW OF CLASS CONSCIOUSNESS AWARENESS OF ONE'S PLACE IN A SYSTEM OF SOCIAL CLASSES, ESPECIALLY (IN MARXIST TERMS) AS IT RELATES TO THE CLASS STRUGGLE. FALSE CONSCIOUSNESS WAYS IN WHICH MATERIAL, IDEOLOGICAL, AND INSTITUTIONAL PROCESSES ARE SAID TO MISLEAD MEMBERS OF THE PROLETARIAT AND OTHER CLASS ACTORS WITHIN CAPITALIST SOCIETIES, CONCEALING THE EXPLOITATION INTRINSIC TO THE SOCIAL RELATIONS BETWEEN CLASSES. SOCIAL STRATIFICATION Historical Materialism MATERIALISM -THE ECONOMIC FACTORS ARE THE BASES OF REALITY WHICH ARE ALSO CONSIDERED AS THE SUBSTRUCTURE OF SOCIETY. SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT Marx and Friedrich Engels (1932) "EACH STAGE OF SOCIETAL DEVELOPMENT HAVE ITS OWN SEEDS OF REVOLUTION OR DESTRUCTION THAT SERVE AS THE REASONS FOR THE BIRTH OF A NEW SYSTEM." SOCIAL Stages of Social Development DEVELOPMENT PRIMITIVE COMMUNAL SLAVE SOCIETY FEUDAL SOCIETY CAPITALIST SOCIETY SOCIALISM COMMUNISM Primitive Communal - This stage is composed of early tribal societies before the establishment of civilizations. - All members of the tribal groups have to engage in food gathering to survive. . Slave Society - Slaves have no rights and were owned by another person - The slave masters were the ones who owned and appropriated the surplus. Feudal Society - A mode of production that reflected land ownership, feudal society existed at the end of medieval Europe and before the rise of early capitalism. Capitalist Society - The most important characteristic of capitalist society is accumulation of capital through exploitation of workers - This type of society results to constant exploitation and alienation of the proletariat and give rise to class struggle or social revolution. - The relations of production is highly productive due to advanced technology and division of labor. Capitalist Society Proletarian Revolution The forces of production, on the other hand, still revolve on private ownership. Socialism - It is also called as pre-mature communism. The production is done to produce for the usevalue system, contrasting the primary goal of capitalism which is to accumulate profit. - The production is under the control of the state as the central planning agency. - The relations of production is highly productive due to advanced technology and division of labor. Socialism The way to compensate the people in a socialist system is based on true meritocracy. Communism There will be no exploitation of workers and unequal distribution of income among members of society. The advanced technology will play as an instrument for growth and productivity. All members of society will benefit from all these economic outputs because of equal sharing. Communism There is no need for private allocation of resources because all the resources are owned and controlled by the public. Weberian View of Stratification Every person uses his/her motivation to work on a specific social desirable. WEBERIAN VIEW OF STRATIFICATION Max Weber (1964) has given three social desirables that primarily keep people going. WEALTH POWER PRESTIGE the fortune and the need to be in comes along with possessions a person control. respect from the other has. members of the society. Analytical Components of Social Stratification STATUS REFERS TO THE GROUP OF PEOPLE WHO HAVE THE SAME LIFESTYLE AND PRESIGE REGARDLESS OF SOCIAL CLASS. CLASS A GROUP OF PEOPLE WHO HAVE SIMILAR LEVELS OF WEALTH AND INCOME POWER CAN BE ACQUIRED THROUGH ELECTION TO POLITICAL POSITIONS. is the movement of individuals, Social Mobility families, households, or other categories of people within or between social strata in a society. GOOGLE The change of social class position through either moving from one position to another or moving to another social class BOOK The ability to move from one class to another. SOCIAL MOBILITY has two systems OPEN (CLASS) SYSTEM - ALLOWS - CAN A PERSON'S MOVE HIS/HER THROUGH SKILLS, FREER MOBILITY CLASSES ABILITIES, BECAUSE OF ACHIEVEMENTS CLOSE (CASTE) SYSTEM -HAS THE LITTLE SOCIAL OR NO POSSIBILITY MOBILITY OF MOVING UP Types of Social Mobility 1. HORIZONTAL SOCIAL MOBILITY 2. VERTICAL SOCIAL MOBILITY YTILIBOM LAICOS FO SEPYT HORIZONTAL SOCIAL MOBILITY THE CHANGE PERSON TO POSITION SAME OF A ANOTHER OF THE RANK -Said to be common than vertical. YTILIBOM LAICOS FO SEPYT VERTICAL SOCIAL MOBILITY HAPPENS PERSON ONE WHEN MOVES SOCIAL TO A Vertical Social Mobility may occur Upward or Downward, and can be further analyzed in relation to time. FROM CLASS ANOTHER Two types of Vertical Social Mobility: 1. Intergenerational Mobility 2. Intragenerational Mobility TWO TYPES OF VERTICAL SOCIAL MOBILITY Intergenerational The movement of social position that started with the parents and was felt by even the children Intragenerational The movement in the social position that happens within a person's adult life Factors that may hinder Social Mobility 1. Educational Attainment 2. Childhood Poverty associated with Psychological and Behavioral development 3. The family and all the financial, social, and cultural aspects that are formed within it 4. attitude, aspirations, and expectations 5. economic barriers ...
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