exam 1 notes - Martin and Nakayama(Six imperative for...

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Martin and Nakayama ( Six imperative for studying intercultural communication) 1. Self-awareness: – intercultural communication raises awareness of our own cultural identity and background. Ethnocentrism: a tendency to think that our own culture is superior to other cultures 2. Demographic – Another source of increased opportunity for intercultural contact exists because of the increasing cultural diversity in the United States (changing U.S. demographics and more global interaction of people The characteristics of population, especially as classified by race, ethnicity, age, sex, and income Heterogeneous: differences in a group, culture, or population; homogeneous: similarity in a group, culture, or population 3. Economic – The recent trend toward globalization – the creation of a world market in goods, services, labor, capital, and technology – makes communication important for selling and buying those goods; to compete effectively in this new global market, Americans much understand how business is conducted in other countries. 4. Technological– Communication technology links us to events from the most remote parts of the world and connects us to persons we may never meet face-to-face from around the world. Increased information about people and culture/ increased contact with people who are different from us; increased contact with people who are similar to us who can provide communications of support; identity, culture, and technology; differential access to communication technology 5. The Peace – Can individuals from different backgrounds coexist on this planet? Contact among different cultural groups – from the earliest civilizations until today – has often led to disharmony (i.e. 911) 6. The Ethical Imperative – Ethical principles are often culture bound, and intercultural conflicts arise from various notions of what is ethical behavior. Clifford Geertz ( Thick description: toward an interpretive theory of culture) semiotic approach Culture: Sign(semiotic), interpretation, ethnography, way of life, social legacy, public/ not predictive The concept of culture is essentially a semiotic one ….man is an animal suspended in webs of significance he himself has spun, I take culture to be those webs, and the analysis of it to be therefore not an experimental science but an interpretive one in search of meaning…(the study of sign and sign process) Cultural analysis is (or should be) guessing at the meanings, assessing the guesses, and drawing explanatory conclusions from the better guesses…” Twitch (involuntary/wink communicating) Ethnography is thick description, multiplicity of complex conceptual structures, many of them superimposed upon or knotted into one another, which are at once strange, irregular, and inexplicit the whole point of a semiotic approach to culture is…to aid us in gaining access to the conceptual world in which our subjects live so that we can in some extended sense of the term, converse with them…." AAA statement on race and culture
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