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2. ID of genes which are strongly implicated
in inflammatory disorders. Protein Arrays
Protein New challenges in our
relationship to viruses,
bacteria, and parasites
bacteria, Challenge to the immune system
Challenge Rapid growth of the human population Crowding together in large cities High-speed, efficient means of travel Examples: 1992
Consequences The immune system no longer enjoys the
luxury of time New microbes come into being – HIV Old pathogens invent new tricks – drugresistant tuberculosis
Will we continue to coexist?
Will we survive? Answers
Answers Our immune system is intensely polymorphic The human immune system is now evolving
more rapidly than ever before
more Most of this change effects genes that express
many different forms of the same MHC or
antibody These molecules vary from one individual to another to such an
extent that a single combination is hardly ever duplicated
extent Our parasites breed far more rapidly than we do
and can therefore evolve more rapidly
and Answers (cont.)
Answers Challenge: opportunities have never been
greater for mixing hosts and parasites that have
no previous experience of one another
no “History”: seldom if ever does it pay a parasite
to kill its host
to Our best defense is immune system’s
polymorphism All of the existing structures of our immune
defense were anticipated in earlier forms of life.
There is no sign that new ones will emerge.
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- Spring '10