Assignment 5- PIV Research Paper.docx - Liberty University...

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Liberty UniversityMaster of Arts in Medical Sciences: Molecular MedicineMSCI 500-B02FALLOPIAN TUBE INFLAMMATORY PATHOLOGY – PELVIC INFLAMMATORYDISEASE (PID): FINAL DRAFTLaurie FreebornID: L30410313September 26, 2020Words: 673
INTRODUCTIONPelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is a very well-known pathology across the world and is described as a polymicrobial infection of the upper female reproductive system including the fallopian tubes (salpingitis), uterus (endometritis), cervix (cervicitis), and in severe cases can be spread to the ovaries (oophoritis) and peritoneum (peritonitis).1It has been found that approximately 10-15% of women worldwide experience PID at least once in their lifetime. Roughly one million American women undergo PID treatment a year, and about 75,000 of those same women develop infertility due to the destruction of their reproductive system.2Although these statistics already seem high, they only account for the 33.3% of women who display symptoms and seek professional assistance for the disease. The remaining 2/3 of women with PID do not display symptoms and therefore remain untreated and undocumented.2The longer PID remains untreated significantly increases the potential onset of detrimental effects such as infertility and increased risk of oncogenesis leading to cervical cancer. This paper aims to assist in advocacy by providing a brief, detailed summary of a variety of scientific literature and research regarding the epidemiology, etiology, types and classifications, signs and symptoms, pathologic features and genetic basis of disease, laboratory features, differential diagnosis, management and treatment, complications, and prognosis of PID related to the fallopian tubes. EPIDEMIOLOGYEpidemiology is the study of the origin of a disease or pathology, however it takes more of a direct focus on causation and spread of disease as a whole within specific groups and larger populations. Demographics, geographic patterns, other risk factors, and transmission are just a few of the areas covered within epidemiology. One of the most prominent demographical risk 2
factors associated with PID is age. Although women of all ages have been recorded to have PID, women between the ages of 16-25 are five times more likely to develop this disease.2-6The two most prominent reasons for this are increased sexually activity, and a more immature and penetrable cervical mucus membrane within this age group. These factors combined increase their risks of developing sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) leading to PID.3,4,5Additional demographic risk factors include a lower socioeconomic class and non-white races. Other risk factors associated with PID are directly associated with compromising the immune system or pH balance of the reproductive system.

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