Equation Sheet 2

Equation Sheet 2 - Chem 6B Exam 2 Equation Sheet 1st Law:...

Info iconThis preview shows pages 1–3. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Chem 6B Equation Sheet (Exam 2) 1 Prof. Crowell Chem 6B Exam 2 Equation Sheet 1st Law : the total amount of energy in the universe is constant (energy is conserved). Uqw ∆=+ 2nd Law : in any spontaneous change the entropy of the universe increases. 0 universe S > 3rd Law : the entropy of any pure, perfect crystalline solid at absolute zero is zero. system S0 0 at K = D Ideal gas law: ; First law of thermodynamics: ; ext P Vn R T Uqww PV =∆ = + = Isothermal Constant Temperature with corresponding changes in Pressure , Volume , and with Heat added or removed. ;l n ( / ) ; 0 0 final init P Vc o n s tw n R T V V T U q w == = = = Isobaric Constant Pressure with corresponding changes in Volume , Temperature , and with Heat added or removed. ,, ;; Pm w P V q nC T U q w P V nC T =− ∆ = ∆ = + =− ∆ + Isosteric (or Isochoric ) Constant Volume with corresponding changes in Pressure , Temperature , & with Heat added or removed. 0s in c e 0 ; ; Vm pm wV q n C T U q w n C T = = = + = Adiabatic Constant Heat (No Heat Flow) with corresponding changes in Pressure , Volume , and Temperature . P V C 1 constant; = ; 0 C P Vq U w U w n R T γ α γα + = = =⇒∆= ∆= = Heat is the transfer of energy as a result of a temperature difference. Exothermic processes release heat & Endothermic processes absorb heat. Calorimetry is the measurement of heats of rxn using heat capacity: mS Heat Capacity: C = ; Molar Heat Capacity: C = ; Specific Heat Capacity: C = (constant volume) ; (constant pressure) V P VP qq q Tn T m T q q UH CC C C TT ∆∆ = = Enthalpy: - A state function that is a measure of the energy (heat) associated with a constant pressure process. Enthalpy = , ( ) H UP V H U P V =+ ∆= ∆+ For an Ideal Gas: H = U + (PV) = U + (nRT) = U + nR T (at const # moles) C P = C V + nR U (atom) = U translation U (molecule) = U translation + U rotation + … U vibration 35 Atoms (translational motion only): ; 22 57 Diatomic Molecules (trans., rot., & at high T, vib. contributions): ... ; ... Linear Polyatomic Molecules (trans., rot., & vib. cont V CR C C R R R R + = rib.): ...(3 5) ; ...(3 5) Nonlinear Polyatomic Molecules (trans., rot., and vib. contrib.): 3 ...(3 6) ; 4 ...(3 6) C R NR C R C R C R Chapter 7: Boltzmann's formula for statistical entropy: ln S kW = ; W = # of microstates Definition of entropy: rev q S T ; fus vap fus vap mb HH SS ⇒∆ = = Trouton's Rule : ∆ S vap ° 85 J/K-mol Change in entropy when a substance of constant heat capacity C is heated from to : ln final init final m init T S n C T 0 () ( ) ( 0 ) T fus vap PP P C s dT C liq dT C g dT ST S T T T + + + + ∫∫ Change in entropy when an ideal gas expands isothermally from V to V : ln ln final init if init final V P Sn R n R = Change in the surroundings' entropy for a process involving a system enthalpy change H: sys surr H S T −∆ = 1 ( ) ; Spontaneous if 0 or 0 sys sys univ sys surr sys sys sys univ sys HG H T S S G T ∆− = = = = > <
Background image of page 1

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Chem 6B Equation Sheet (Exam 2) 2 Prof. Crowell S total = S system + S surr = S sys H sys / T; Reversible Processes: S total = 0; Irreversible Processes: S total > 0;
Background image of page 2
Image of page 3
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

This note was uploaded on 04/07/2008 for the course CHEM 6B taught by Professor Crowell during the Winter '08 term at UCSD.

Page1 / 4

Equation Sheet 2 - Chem 6B Exam 2 Equation Sheet 1st Law:...

This preview shows document pages 1 - 3. Sign up to view the full document.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Ask a homework question - tutors are online