Ch 11.5 - Outline.pdf - II War and Political Instability A...

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II. War and Political Instability A. Causes of the Hundred Years’ War a. In 1259, king henry 3 (england) unclaimed all france except gascony b. English king pledged loyalty as vassal to france c. Then a bunch of disputes happened between france-england d. 13thcen, capetian monarchs had greatly increased power e. King of england >? French king f. Dispute over succession to the throne happened g. 1328, last son of philipIV died w/o male heir h. Closest relative in line was Edward III i. Edward took control in 1330 j. French nobles argued that inheritance cant pass via female k. They chose cousin of capetians, philip duke of valois l. Then england and france declared war yet again over gascony m. Personalities of the monarchs also had to do with declaration n. Both kings only wanted resources for their own country benefit B. Conduct and Course of the War a. Knights saw this as an ability to flex b. Battle actually depended on peasant foot soldiers not knights c. English army included peasants as paid foot since at least anglo-saxon d. Edward III’s campaigns did not achieve much e. When he retired in 1346, invading normandy, philip responded by raising force to crush the english in South Flanders (battle of crecy) f. Larger french army just attacked english disorderly g. This devastated the french cavalry h. English wasted none of their arrows i. Stunning victory for english j. Battle was not decisive, english did not have all resources to kill france k. Black princes campaigns in france were devastating, his forces ravaged land on purpose and burnt crops and houses l. Battle of Poitiers was the first phase of hundred years war m. Under peace of bretigny, french paid large ransom for King John, english get more land in gascony, and edward renounced his claims to throne of france n. Treaty was never really enforced, next phase of the war, john’s son Charles V o. 1415, Henry V renewed war when France was having a civil war p. Battle of Agincourt 1415, the French suffered disastrous defeat and 1500 nobles died when knights attempted to attack across field mud q. 1412 Joan of Arc born into peasants from domremy in Champagne r. Very religious Joan experienced visions and thought she was being commanded by saints s. Inspired by her faith, french liberated Orleans, changed the course of war t. Entire Loire valley was freed of English u. For political reasons, the english gave joan over to inquisition bc of witchcraft v. She was condemned to death as a heretic and burned at the stake in 1431 w. 25 years later, a church court freed her of all charges x.

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