Unformatted text preview: 1 Prisons, Punishment & Corrections C115 Winter 2008
Release into the community Supervision on parole The situation in California 3 Release Mechanisms Nearly ALL Prisoners Come Home 4 93% of all prisoners are eventually released Just 7% of all prisoners are serving life or death terms 44% of all those now in state prison will be released within the year 5 6 7 How Inmates are Released 16 States Have Abolished Discretionary Parole for Most Inmates
Percent of Prison Releases with No Post-Prison Supervision Varies by PostState 8 9 Organization of Releasing Authorities Issues
parole board consolidated vs. autonomous? inside dept. of corrections more responsive to corrections needs & programs independent agency of government less affected by institutional/dept. pressures field services under parole board vs. under corrections? board members full vs. part time? appointment by governor vs. by department? who is "qualified" to be on a board? qualified" what makes one "qualified?" qualified?" 10 Criteria for Parole Release
offense severity & attitude toward offense public attitude about offense 1 criminal record attitude toward family, victim, authority institutional behavior, participation, & improvement behavior, history of community adjustment health (physical, mental, emotional) insight into causes of behavior adequacy of parole plan
11 "Parole Guidelines"
Method for structuring decisions of paroling authorities (like sentencing guidelines), by standardizing release decisions according to the objective measurement of relevant criteria along two dimensions: a "severity scale" rates crimes according to their seriousness scale" a "salient factor score" measures the offender's criminal history & factors regarded as relevant to his/her score" offender' success on parole 12 "Presumptive Parole Date"
The presumed release date stipulated by parole guidelines, as long as the offender serves his/her time without disciplinary (or other) incidents 13 Estimated Time to Be Served
by adults convicted of various offenses 14 More People are Leaving Prison About 600,000 prisoners released/year 15 Outline
Release into the community Supervision/failure on parole The situation in California 16 Key Points about Prisoner Reentry
More people are leaving prison Costs are high Returning prisoners are less prepared Diminished capacity to support reentry Significant consequences for prisoners, their families, and communities communities California's challenges especially acute California' 17 Prisoners are Less Prepared for Reentry; Longer Prison Terms Than in the Than 2 Past
18 19 Prison Program Participation Rates are Down Offender's Difficulties with Post-release Experience 20 Civil Disabilities
right to vote 3/4 states return the right after some period 10 states permanently disenfranchise felons 1.4 million Afr.-Amer. men (13% ) cannot vote Afr.- Amer. = 1/3 of black men in Alabama, Florida right to hold public office 21 states return the right after discharge from all forms of custody custody 19 permanently restrict the right other rights variously restricted jury service holding position of public trust (eg, most government jobs) eg, 21 Employment Difficulties
Especially problematic, because of legal restrictions public distrust of ex-convicts ex unrealistic expectations of parolees some prison-trained jobs are restricted prisoneg, barber, beautician, nurse eg, Occupations require `restricted' licenses restricted' Jobs exclude people of `moral turpitude' turpitude' Available jobs are low-paying low- 22 23 "Revocation"
the cancellation or rescission of parole, accompanied by the return of the offender to prison, for either: parole, prison, the commission of a new crime; or crime; a technical violation (failing to comply with the conditions of parole) revocations: most revocations occur when parolee is arrested on a serious charge or cannot be located by the charge parole officer total failure rates: from 25 to 50% failure rate highest in 1st year after release 24 Parole Violations Now Account for Most Prison Entries
Little known about technical violations, revocation process, and impact on crime control Large numbers of parolees return to prison for violations Parole violators now account for 34% of new prison admissions up from 18% in 1980 Substantial fiscal implications 25 26 Prisoner Recidivism Rates
39% of released prisoners are re-arrested at least once during the first year out reof prison 3 54% in two years 62% in three years
27 Profile of a Recidivist
Released at age 24 or younger Had more than 7 prior arrests Had a history of prior escape attempts or revocation Committed burglary, robbery or property crime First arrested at an early age Had a prior drug and violent crime record 28 Prisoner Reentry-and-Return Has Implications Beyond Criminal Reentry- andJustice
For public health For communities and social capital For civic participation For families and children 29 30 Inmates Account for Disproportionate Share of Infectious Disease
Returning Prisoners Concentrated in a Few Communities
Increased incarceration destabilizes social networks, and leads to increases in crime? Loss of stigma attached to prison term Civic Participation
4 million barred from voting (13% of U.S. black male population)
31 Civic Participation Impacted
4 million individuals are barred from voting 13% of adult African American male population In 13 states, felons lose their right to vote for life 1 in 4 African American men have lost right to vote for life in Alabama, Florida, Iowa, Mississippi, New Mexico, Virginia, and Wyoming (sometimes lose their RIGHT to vote before they are even 21) Uggen and Manza analyzed impact: Assuming 25% turnout and 75% Democratic preference, Gore--not Bush--would have won preference, Gore-- Bush--would last Presidential election 32 Implications for Families: More Children Now Have Incarcerated Parents Parents
1.5 million children with incarcerated parents 50% increase since 1990 2% of all minor U.S. children 7% of African-American children African3% of Hispanic children 1% of white children That's just on any 1 day 10 million children will have a parent incarcerated during their That' their lifetime
Of course, sometimes that is a "positive" positive" 4 33 Outline
Release into the community Supervision/failure on parole The situation in California 34 California Reentry Trends More Pronounced. Why?
Sheer volume of returning prisoners and their geographical concentration concentration Inadequate resources devoted to reentry Sentencing laws and revocation policies Qualitative changes in offender needs, dangerousness, and social integration 35 California's Parole Population Doubled in Last Decade California'
About 134,000 inmates left Ca prisons last year--up from 60,000 in 1988 year-- 1 in 5 US parolees resides in California CA parole population growing faster than prison population (although both stabilizing) (although 36 Most California Parolees Have Serious Problems
CDCR Reports: 85% are chronic substance abusers 10% homeless (30-50% in LA and (30San Francisco) 70-90% are unemployed at release 7050% are functionally illiterate Nearly 20% have psychiatric problems Most have been in jail or prison > 3 times Significant mental health problems 37 Parolees Return to a Few Disadvantaged Communities
60% of parolees return to Southern California. Top 3 cities are LA, San Diego, and San Bernardino Most return to a few communities in those cities 75% of the parolees in San Diego and San Francisco come from just 11% of the zip codes in those just cities High crime, low income communities. In some, up to 30 percent of adult male residents are incarcerated on a given day 38 39 40 Most CA Prisoners Return to Southern Counties
Three Counties Account for Almost Half of Parolees 41 Release From CA Prison
Given $200, driven to bus station, told report to parole agent within 24 hours, or next business day within Parolees return to county of last legal residence 5 Standard Parole Conditions Not carry weapons Report changes of address and employment Not travel more than 50 miles from home or out of county for more than 48 hours without approval more Obey all parole agent instructions Not commit crimes Other special conditions 70% are subject to drug testing
42 43 California Parolees Have Differing Levels of Supervision 44 45 Many California Parolees Fail on Supervision
California Has Highest Return-to-Prison Rate in the Nation Return- to42% of all incoming CA inmates were parole failures Agents more likely to revoke?
Few resources, increased liability, surveillance-oriented surveillanceNew technology to detect drug use Other reasons??? 46 47 48 California Arrest Rates are Not Higher than Other States California Parolees "Churn" More than Other State Parolees What To Do? 4 Policy Options
Implement Better In-Prison Programs InChange Prison Release and/or Revocation Decisions Implement Better Post-Release Supervision or Treatment PostDevelop Community Partnerships to Increase Social Capital 49 What Reentry Programs Work?
Positive results for: vocational training and work release - reduced recidivism and improved job readiness; drug rehab graduates less likely to be arrested, commit a drug offense, continue drug use, or have a continue parole violation; education programs - increased education achievement but no reduced recidivism; General pre-release programs were inconclusive preActive Community programs work best 50 Things are Changing, New Policies Being Implemented
Some see "reentry" as politically-neutral reentry" politicallyan opportunity to retreat from punitive crime policies Hope so... so...
or could just be another fad, like intermediate sanctions or juvenile diversion juvenile No quick or inexpensive fixes
Depend on community partnerships to build social and family supports supports 6 51 52 Successful Supervision
California Connected: Crime Fighter in LA Helping Parolees 7 ...
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- Winter '08