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Unformatted text preview: Sentences and Syntax 1. Syntax is unbounded (1)
(2) There can be no inventory of sentences
> Novel sentences constantly being created
> It is always possible to expand a sentence Americans spend 6.6 billion hours on
a. Max lives in a tent
b. Max lives in a tent with a dog
0. Max lives in a small tent with a dog
(1. Max lives in a small tent with a big dog
e. Max lives.... > Creativity: People can say things in new
ways. 2. What is ‘sentence structure’? 0 There are three aspects of sentence struc— ture: a) Grouping
c) Word order Grouping > Words are grouped to form phrases, sen—
tences, and other constituents of the clause.
> Constituent structure can be indicated by
bracketing, or diagrammed as a tree. (3) a. [A [curiously strong] Ade mint]NP b. [Mary [had [a little lamb]NP]Vp]S
c. [After [the storm]NP]pp (4) (5) Det Adj N Julius rides a spiffy Vespa Function
> Words bear relationships to each other and
to the clause
> Grammatical relations:
c) Direct Object
d) Object of Preposition Howard built an aeroplane. l H l—lo S P (6) (7) > Heads and Modifiers: a) Head: The word that is central to the
form, function, and meaning of the constitu—
ent. b) Modifier: A word or phrase that expands
the constituent. Howard built aeroplanes. many aeroplanes. many fast aeroplanes with
Word order > Words are aligned in sequential temporal
order. > Languages may differ in WO even though
grouping and relations are the same. Ja nikogo ne videl.
I nobody not saw
‘I did not see anybody.’ [RUSSIAN] 3. Recursion ' A constituent may contain constituents of
same category. (8) a. [A portrait of [a girl]NP]NP
b. [[For Max to stutter] S seemed natural.]s
c. [[A ﬂowers [that blooms
early] S] Np Wilts fast.]s ° Recursion enables creativity
> It allows for the creation of infinite sen—
> Two mechanisms:
b) Coordination (9) a. You think [that I believe [that you expect... ]]
b. She saw [[[a horse] and [a donkey]]
or [[a rat] and ...]]] 4. Syntax is abstract 0 A linguist must develop procedures to iden—
> Replacement (10) Picasso draw a goat with a violin. that. >“that with a violin > Movement (1 l) a. That the Earth is round bafﬂes
b. It bafﬂes many people that the Earth
c. >“It round bafﬂes many people that
the Earth is. > Grouping ambiguity (12) Lucy went fishing and caught a man
eating shrimp with her pole. NP NP
Det Ade N D“ N IS N/\Adj VP
a man eating shrimp V N a man eating shrimp b) Functions
> Agreement (13) Max has/*have three poodles.
> Case (14) a. Puerum paella audit. [LATIN]
b0y.ACC girl.NOM hears
‘The girl hears the b0y.’ b. Paer paellam audit.
b0y.NOM girl.ACC hears
‘ The boy hears the girl.’ > Word Order (15) a. I like you, you like me.
b. >“Me like you, you like I. ...
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- Winter '08