06_sentences_and_syntax3

06_sentences_and_syntax3 - Sentences and Syntax 1. Syntax...

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Unformatted text preview: Sentences and Syntax 1. Syntax is unbounded (1) (2) There can be no inventory of sentences > Novel sentences constantly being created > It is always possible to expand a sentence Americans spend 6.6 billion hours on taxes. a. Max lives in a tent b. Max lives in a tent with a dog 0. Max lives in a small tent with a dog (1. Max lives in a small tent with a big dog e. Max lives.... > Creativity: People can say things in new ways. 2. What is ‘sentence structure’? 0 There are three aspects of sentence struc— ture: a) Grouping b) Function c) Word order Grouping > Words are grouped to form phrases, sen— tences, and other constituents of the clause. > Constituent structure can be indicated by bracketing, or diagrammed as a tree. (3) a. [A [curiously strong] Ade mint]NP b. [Mary [had [a little lamb]NP]Vp]S c. [After [the storm]NP]pp (4) (5) Det Adj N Julius rides a spiffy Vespa Function > Words bear relationships to each other and to the clause > Grammatical relations: a) Subject b) Predicate c) Direct Object d) Object of Preposition Howard built an aeroplane. l H l—lo S P (6) (7) > Heads and Modifiers: a) Head: The word that is central to the form, function, and meaning of the constitu— ent. b) Modifier: A word or phrase that expands the constituent. Howard built aeroplanes. many aeroplanes. many fast aeroplanes with shiny wings. Word order > Words are aligned in sequential temporal order. > Languages may differ in WO even though grouping and relations are the same. Ja nikogo ne videl. I nobody not saw ‘I did not see anybody.’ [RUSSIAN] 3. Recursion ' A constituent may contain constituents of same category. (8) a. [A portrait of [a girl]NP]NP b. [[For Max to stutter] S seemed natural.]s c. [[A flowers [that blooms early] S] Np Wilts fast.]s ° Recursion enables creativity > It allows for the creation of infinite sen— tences > Two mechanisms: a) Subordination b) Coordination (9) a. You think [that I believe [that you expect... ]] b. She saw [[[a horse] and [a donkey]] or [[a rat] and ...]]] 4. Syntax is abstract 0 A linguist must develop procedures to iden— tify: a) Constituents > Replacement (10) Picasso draw a goat with a violin. that. >“that with a violin > Movement (1 l) a. That the Earth is round baffles many people. b. It baffles many people that the Earth is round. c. >“It round baffles many people that the Earth is. > Grouping ambiguity (12) Lucy went fishing and caught a man eating shrimp with her pole. NP NP A A Det Ade N D“ N IS N/\Adj VP a man eating shrimp V N a man eating shrimp b) Functions > Agreement (13) Max has/*have three poodles. > Case (14) a. Puerum paella audit. [LATIN] b0y.ACC girl.NOM hears ‘The girl hears the b0y.’ b. Paer paellam audit. b0y.NOM girl.ACC hears ‘ The boy hears the girl.’ > Word Order (15) a. I like you, you like me. b. >“Me like you, you like I. ...
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06_sentences_and_syntax3 - Sentences and Syntax 1. Syntax...

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