06_syntax

06_syntax - Syntax 1. Unboundedness of syntax 2. Three...

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1 Syntax 1. Unboundedness of syntax 2. Three aspects of syntax 2.1 Grouping 2.2 Function 2.3 Word order 3. Recursion in syntax 4. Abstractness of syntax 1 Unboundedness of syntax Phonemes b Phoneme inventory Morphemes Lexicon (morpheme inventory) Sentences No inventory possible 1 Unboundedness of syntax Why is a sentence inventory impossible? Many sentences we hear are new to us Everyday, we use sentences that we’ve just invented Humans do not use a sentence inventory when they utter and understand sentences 1 Unboundedness of syntax Humans do not use a sentence inventory. Linguists make a stronger claim: A sentence inventory is not even possible Human languages have infinitely many possible sentences 1 Unboundedness of syntax There is no limit to the length or complexity of sentences: This is the house that Jack built. This is the malt that lay in the house that Jack built. This is the rat that ate the malt that lay in the house that Jack built. 1 Unboundedness of syntax There is no limit to the length or complexity of sentences: This is the cat that killed the rat that ate the malt that lay in the house that Jack built. This is the farmer sowing the corn that kept the cock that crowed in the morn that waked the priest all shaven and shorn that married the man all tattered and torn that kissed the maiden all forlorn that milked the cow with the crumpled horn that tossed the dog that worried the cat that killed the rat that ate the malt that lay in the house that Jack built.
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2 1 Unboundedness of syntax The unboundedness of syntax results from one of the six characteristics of human language that we talked about: Creativity. 2 Three aspects of syntax Grouping Function Word order 2.1 Grouping Words are grouped into meaningful and functional phrases Phrases are members (constituents) of larger phrases 2.1 Grouping Some types of phrases: Noun phrase (NP) Verb phrase (VP) Prepositional phrase (PP) 2.1 Grouping A noun phrase: 2.1 Grouping A prepositional phrase (preposition + NP)
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3 2.1 Grouping Another NP (with a PP constituent): 2.1 Grouping A verb phrase: 2.1 Grouping A sentence: 2.2 Function Function : the relationships between words and constituents in a phrase. Grammatical relations
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06_syntax - Syntax 1. Unboundedness of syntax 2. Three...

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