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1Socialization Theory of Sexual ViolenceJasmine HoltColumbia Southern UniversityVictimologyProfessor Amy Vanderford
2Socialization Theory of Sexual ViolenceResearch suggests that socialization is a contributing factor to sexual violence. Socialization helps individuals function in today's society, and it is the process in which we learn to adopt the norms, values, and customs in our community. Socialization theories seek to explain the individual development of a human personality within a social environment. Socialization theories suggest that individuals are taught how to behave and that criminal behavior, like sexual violence, is not necessarily an innate characteristic but learned through interactions with others[ CITATION Sch168 \l 1033 ]. Gender and group socialization must also be highlighted as many individuals are taught how to behave socially based on their assigned gender or peers. The concept suggests that these interactions with various organizations, institutions, and processes and the influences of family relationships and peer-group associations can lead someone to commit acts of sexual violence.Influence of Socialization on Sexual ViolenceAs mentioned above, socialization can have a major impact on someone committing sexual violence against others. According to [ CITATION Wal19 \l 1033 ], youth are taught to be aggressive, forceful, tough, and to try to win in all aspects of life. It notes that this type of socialization can lead to aggressive behavior and encourages them to engage in sexual violence, as they are typically taught to initiate as many sexual relationships as possible. In many ways, masculinities are "constructed based on social, cultural, and contextual norms[ CITATION Aluil \l 1033 ]." Other factors like peer and family relations and societal factors increase the likelihood of sexual violence. To further on this notion, [CITATION Aluil \l 1033 ], Christopher Liang, an associate professor of counseling psychology argues that many times boys are taught atyoung ages to not show emotions, like sadness or feelings of hurt that they are not allowed to be
3weak and to only show strength. On the other hand, young girls are taught to be kind, nurturing, and giving, and "appeasing or attractive to men."In no way does this research paper argue that men are the only aggressors, however, Liang argues that women are more times than less the victims, and men are typically the perpetrators and what their gender may have to do with that. He notes that because men are taught to be aggressive and are taught not to accept the word "no," and girls are taught to be