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Unformatted text preview: low dopant atoms: (a) 1016 cm‐3 boron atoms (b) 3 x 1016 cm‐3 arsenic atoms and 2.9 x 1016 cm‐3 boron atoms Problem #3: Grain boundaries and other structural defects introduce allowed energy states deep within the forbidden gap of polycrystalline silicon. Assume that each defect introduces two discrete levels: an acceptor level 0.51 eV above the top of the valence band and a donor level 0.27 eV above the top of the valence band. (Note that EA > ED and that these are NOT shallow levels.) The ratio of the number of defects with each charge state (+, ‐, or neutra...
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- Spring '08