Wachtel, Albert. "Introduction, The First Trinity."
The Cracked Lookingglass: James
Joyce and the Nightmare of History
. Selinsgrove: Susquehanna UP, 1992. 15-38. Print.
Proposition: Joyce’s work is “more closely related to daily experience than written
Goal: The goal is to show that
has no factual base but instead contains
Plan: The plan is to offer background information on Joyce’s life and his works. Then
Wachtel opens the book with a proposition. He provides evidence for his statement and
quotes known people. He then explains the stories from his point of view and inserts
premises throughout the book.
Audience: The audience is anyone who read
and wants to have a better
understanding of the stories while receiving one person’s point of view.
Albert Wachtel believes that Joyce’s work is “more closely related to daily experience
than written history.” He believes that
is full of “probable events” and
“scrupulously uninterpreted accidental occurrences.” There are also those few times
where there is factual base in the stories but there is no direct reference. Wachtel agrees
that Joyce’s stories combine autobiography and fiction. Therefore he refers to them as
fictional histories. He quotes Aristotle by saying that “a person of a given kind will