Class Notes _ Homework (1).pdf - Chapter 5 Musical Form and...

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Chapter 5 - Musical Form and Style FORM: refers to the shape, arrangement, relationship, or organization of various elements. - Form in music includes rhythm, dynamics, tone color, melody, harmony, and texture. - A musical work is composed of repetitions of these elements, whether the repetitions are strict or free. - There is also an emotional aspect to the organization in musical pieces. - Two basic factors create musical form : repetition and contrast . - In the example A B A, A is the repetition, and B is the contrast - This combination, however lacks description and could really be telling us was more than just letters. STYLE: combination of qualities that make something distinctive. - In historical periods/places, musical styles bear some relation to the lifestyle in general. Monophony - one voice/line, no accompaniment Polyphony - multiple lines sounding at the same time Semantically, a CODA and an OUTRO are the same. Basic Concepts & Vocabulary SOUND: audible event created by a physical vibration transmitted to the ear. NOISE: a sound that contains many frequencies at the same time. PITCH: a level of sound/vibration that beats at a definite speed(i.e. A sharp raises the pitch of a note where a flat lowers the pitch.) INTERVAL: the distance between any two pitches (higher or lower). OCTAVE: interval between two pitches, the frequencies of which are 2:1. EQUAL TEMPERAMENT: division of the octave into 12 intervals (half step/minor second). SCALE: a collection of pitches. CADENCE: a pause or resting place in music, marking an arrival or completeness. 6 Basic Elements of Musical Style 1. Ensemble - the incorporation of certain aspects to a piece, such as instruments, vocals, and different dynamics. 2. Melody - pitch and rhythms in succession that form a characteristic whole. 3. Rhythm - analyzation of the organization of the music, including the beat, the meter, tempo, and accentuation. (2s or 3s, or compound) 4. Harmony - a discussion of the work’s harmonic aspects such as the chord progressions, key areas within a piece, etc. - Dissonance vs consonance - We can notice dissonance through the lack of continuation in music; i.e. hearing a scale and it is missing the last note it will bother us because it we are conditioned. - Chromatic: the notes that are in between the prominent notes 5. Form - the structure of a piece and analyzation of the major parts/arrangement of movements.
6. Texture - a look at the parts, such as if there are many individual parts, soubling parts, multiple layered voices, etc Chapter 6 - Songs and Dances of the Late Medieval and Early Renaissance Eras - Musical notation developed around the 8th or 9th century, lacking a fixed date. - Guido of Arezzo, ca. 1025, we begin to see staff notation. Organum - Comes from latin, meaning to “organize” - Way of singing more than on pitch simultaneously = polyphony - Added melody called “contrapunctus” or counterpoint (in fourths and fifths) - Added melody becomes independent, with many notes per chant tone - Notes could be slowed down - Long notes slowed with other notes above it = ORGANUM PURUM -

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