{muar 392} class notes.pdf - January 6 2020 Rhythmu200b...

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January 6, 2020 Rhythm: contains the beat, the steady pulse that underpins the song. Often articulated by instruments such as bass or drums. Meter: most songs are in 4/4, but not all of them. Might be in triple meter or compound meter. Melody: the tune, or the singable part, constructed as a succession of notes. Are the melodies: Conjunct? They move by step. Disjunct? Does not move by steps, but by jumps. They can have: Large range; large span of notes. Small range; smaller range of notes. Harmony: the colour of the song, constructed when pitches are played at the same time = a chord. Major or minor keys; major is happy, minor is sadder. Texture: how many instruments are playing and what are their roles. It can be sparse, rich/full, or dense. Timbre: refers to the quality of the sound. Can be Rough/Smooth. Form: what is repeated, what is different how something is organized. January 8, 2019 Popular Music in the Early 20th Century Popular music was transmitted via Sheet Music This comes from the traditions of Victorian Era; domestic sheet music was traditionally played by women who were expected to know how to play the piano. Innovations of the Time: Things such as the gramophone and Edison Cylinders and Phonograph were popular and new around this time (cylinders were like the record players but used cylinders instead of records). Player piano. Radio ; developed during the late 19th century, and one of the main technological advancements during WW1. Then started to become a main form of entertainment for people in their spare time. Tin Pan Alley Centre of the Music Industry in the USA - it was a physical place (west 28th street between west 42nd and 56th in NYC) as well as a style of writing at the time. This was the main area for song production at the time.
Offices harboured full-house operations including songwriters, lyricists, musical secretaries, etc. Industry of sheet music where it was written, bought, then taken home to be played. Practices that came from this place: Verses, 16 or 32 bars. Chorus, equal length of the verse that took the form AABA . Piano intro Vamp First verse Chorus with first ending Repeat of chorus with second ending Vamp Second verse Chorus with first ending Repeat of chorus with second ending Crooners “Crooning” is a style of singing enables by changes in microphone technology. Popular singing style in 1930’s and 40’s. People had to send their voices to the back of the room typically, and when microphones were invented the style of singing had to change. This lead to male singers developing a close, sentimental styles with full groups of instruments behind them. Half-talking type of singing that teenage girls at the time loves; specifically by Frank Sinatra, Nat King Cole, Bing Crosby, etc.

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