GOB9e_with_art_ch09 - Frederick A Bettelheim William H Brown Mary K Campbell Shawn O Farrell www.cengage.com\/chemistry\/bettelheim Chapter 9 Nuclear

GOB9e_with_art_ch09 - Frederick A Bettelheim William H...

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Frederick A. Bettelheim William H. Brown Mary K. Campbell Shawn O. Farrell William H. Brown • Beloit College Chapter 9 Nuclear Chemistry
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9-2 Nuclear Chemistry Figure 9.1 Electricity and Radioactivity.
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9-3 Nuclear Radiation In this chapter, we study some of the properties of the nucleus, its particles, and nuclear radiation. Nuclear radiation: Nuclear radiation: Radiation emitted from a nucleus during nuclear decay. Alpha particle ( Alpha particle ( α α ): ): A helium nucleus, He 2+ ; contains two protons and two neutrons, has mass of 4 amu, and atomic number 2. Beta particle ( Beta particle ( β β - ): ): An electron; has a charge of -1, and a mass of 0.00055 amu. Positron ( Positron ( β β + ): ): Has the mass of an electron (0.00055 amu) but a charge of +1. +1. Gamma ray ( Gamma ray ( γ γ ): ): High-energy electromagnetic radiation.
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9-4 Electromagnetic Radiation All electromagnetic radiation consists of waves. The only difference between forms of electromagnetic radiation is the wavelength, wavelength, λ, λ, the distance between wave crests. Frequency, Frequency, ν ν : : the number of crests that pass a given point in a second. The higher the frequency, the shorter the wavelength. The higher the frequency, the higher the energy.
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9-5 Electromagnetic Radiation Figure 9.3 The electromagnetic spectrum.
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9-6 Nuclear Radiation Table 9.1 Particles and Rays Frequently Encountered in Radiation. Proton Electron Neutron Positron Helium nucleus Gamma ray Particle  or ray Common name of radiation Symbol Charge Mass (amu) Proton beam Beta particle Neutron beam Alpha particle Gamma ray H e  or  β n e  or  β + He  or  α γ +1 -1 0 +1 +2 0 1 0.00055 1 0.00055 4 0 1 1 -1 0 0 1 +1 0 2 4 Positron emission
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9-7 Nuclear Radiation There are more than 300 naturally occurring isotopes. Of these 264 are stable, meaning that the nuclei of these isotopes are not radioactive (they do not give off radioactivity); the remainder are radioactive isotopes. Among the lighter elements, stable isotopes have approximately the same number of protons and neutrons; this is the case of 12 6 C, 16 8 O, and 20 10 Ne. Among the heavier elements,stability requires more neutrons than protons; the most stable isotope of lead, for example, is lead-206, 124 82 Pb. More than 1000 artificial isotopes have been made in the laboratory; all are radioactive.
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9-8 Beta Emission Beta emission: Beta emission: A type of nuclear decay in which a neutron is converted to a proton and an electron, and the electron is emitted from the nucleus: Emission of a beta particle transforms the element into a new element with the same mass number but an atomic number one unit greater.
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