Chapter 6 PPT Notes - Chapter 6 PPT Notes FEDERALISM REVISTED U.S fed gives dif function to each govt level About 89k local govt units in U.S About

Chapter 6 PPT Notes - Chapter 6 PPT Notes FEDERALISM...

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Chapter 6 PPT Notes FEDERALISM REVISTED U.S. fed gives dif function to each govt level About 89k local govt units in U.S. About 5000 local govt units in TX CREATURES OF THE STATE States can form local govt to help their police powers Municipalities + other local govt are restricted by state action States have discretion in types of authority they give local govts CREATURES OF THE STATE: LOCAL GOVTS CATEGORIZED General-purpose govt o Broad discretionary authority o Control own spending, revenue, personnel o Manage own govt structures o Ex. Municipalities Limited-purpose govt o Narrow authority o Little flexibility over revenue, spending, personnel o Govt structures are set by state o Ex. School districts, counties GENERAL LAW CITIES AND HOME RULE TX cities are chartered as general law city, defined in state statutes, or home rule city o Charter: city’s const. o 75% of TX cities are under gen law Home Rule o Allows greater latitude in governing local affairs o TX cities w/ pop <5000 can be chartered as home rules o HR cities can pass ordinances not prohibited by state law o HR cities may change charters w/ approval of voters INCORPORATION: THE PROCESS OF CREATING A CITY Cities: are municipal corporations Incorporation: the process of establishing a city o Local citizens first petition the state o Majority vote to approve establishment of city w/ explicit boundaries
o State then issues municipal corporate charter TX City Rules o At least 201 citizens must live w/in 2 sq mi area o Registered voters + 50% of property owners must petition for an election o If incorporation is approved, city will be granted general law charter o 2 nd election will determine city officials INCORPORATION: EXTRA-TERRITORIAL JURISDICTION Every TX City has ETJ that extends beyond city limits o General law cities only have ½ mi of ETJ Distance increases as pop increases, as much as 5 mi ETJ gives cities some measure of control over growth of surrounding areas o Cities cannot be incorporated w/in ETJ of existing city unless existing city approves ANNEXATION TX cities have broad annexation powers They may expand by annexing land w/in their EJT o City council can unilaterally annex land Why do cities annex land? o To avoid being surrounded by other incorporated cities o To protect + enhance their tax base o To become more politically important Rapid growth of TX cities has created counter pressure from ppl enjoying benefits of nearby cities w/o paying for those benefits TYPES OF CITY GOVT In U.S. 33% of cities use mayor-council govt o Two variations: strong major sys + weak mayor sys 59% use council-manager form Commission form is used by only few cities in U.S. o NOT TEXAS COUNCIL-MANAGER GOVT Voters elect mayor and city council Mayor + city council o appoint professional administrator to manage the city o establish mission, policy, and direction of city govt Most popular form of city govt in TX
All administrative authority rests w/ the city manager COUNCIL-MANAGER GOVT: ROLES

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