Combat Ocean Acidification.pdf - From the SelectedWorks of Ryan P Kelly January 2013 Ten Ways States Can Combat Ocean Acidification(and Why They Should

Combat Ocean Acidification.pdf - From the SelectedWorks of...

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From the SelectedWorks of Ryan P Kelly January 2013 Ten Ways States Can Combat Ocean Acidification (and Why They Should) Contact Author Start Your Own SelectedWorks Notify Me of New Work Available at:
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1 Ten Ways States Can Combat Ocean Acidification (and Why They Should) Ryan P. Kelly 1 and Margaret R. Caldwell 2,3 Forthcoming in February, 2013, Harvard Environmental Law Review Abstract ........................................................................................................................................................................ 2 I. Introduction ............................................................................................................................................................ 2 II. The Science of Ocean Acidification .............................................................................................................. 5 Chemistry ................................................................................................................................................................ 5 Ecology and Biology ........................................................................................................................................... 7 III. Federal and International Response ......................................................................................................... 9 IV. Incentives and Rationale for Sub-­‐National Action ........................................................................... 11 The Costs and Benefits of Action ............................................................................................................... 12 State “No More Stringent” Laws ................................................................................................................. 14 V. Ten Suggestions for State and Local Action .......................................................................................... 15 1) Create More Stringent Technology-­‐Based Clean Water Act Standards for the Most Harmful Point Sources ................................................................................................................................... 15 2) Change Water Quality Criteria for Marine pH and Related Parameters ............................. 17 a. TMDLs for Non-­‐Atmospheric Drivers of Acidification ............................................................ 19 b. Criteria and TMDLs for Atmospheric Drivers of Acidification ............................................ 21 3) Create New Water Quality Criteria for Complementary Parameters; Create New Designated Uses ................................................................................................................................................ 22 a. Additional Water Quality Criteria to Aid Carbonate Chemistry Monitoring ................. 22 b. New Designated Uses for Coastal Waters .................................................................................... 24 4) Use the Clean Air Act to Decrease SOx/NOx Deposition Near Coast .................................... 24 5) Enhance Wastewater Treatment at Publicly-­‐Owned Treatment Works ............................ 26 6) Leverage CWA § 319(h) Money to Implement Enduring Best Management Practices (BMPs) and Permanent Nutrient-­‐Management Improvements .................................................. 28 7) Participate in the National Estuary Program and the National Estuarine Research Reserve System ................................................................................................................................................. 30 8) Incorporate Ocean Acidification Impacts into Environmental Review under State NEPA Equivalents ............................................................................................................................................. 32 9) Direct Action to Enforce: Public Nuisance and Criminal Statutes ......................................... 34 10) Practice Smart Growth and Smart Land Use Change ................................................................ 37 Direct CO 2 Management ................................................................................................................................. 39 VI. Conclusion .......................................................................................................................................................... 42 1 Analyst for Science, Law, and Policy, Center for Ocean Solutions, Stanford University. J.D., University of California, Berkeley, School of Law (Boalt Hall), Ph.D., Columbia University. Email: [email protected] 2 Executive Director, Center for Ocean Solutions, and Director, Environmental and Natural Resources Law & Policy Program, Stanford University. J.D., Stanford University. Email: [email protected] 3 The authors wish to acknowledge valuable input from Debbie Sivas, Michael Thomas, Al Wanger, Karen Worcester, Mark Gold, Brad Warren, Skyli McAfee, Sarah Sikich, Larry Crowder, Matt Armsby, Ashley Erickson, and Melissa Foley. David Weiskopf provided legal research that substantially improved the product.
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2 Abstract The ocean is becoming more acidic worldwide as a result of increased atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and other pollutants. This fundamental change is likely to have substantial ecological and economic consequences globally. In this Article, we provide a toolbox for understanding and addressing the drivers of an acidifying ocean. We begin with an overview of the relevant science, highlighting known causes of chemical change in the coastal ocean.
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