History_Notes_Chapter_18 - Americas Move to Town ● Cities...

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Americas Move to TownCities (good invention) attract people in large numbers to live close but also stimulate innovation and creativity, productivity and energy. After Civil War, Americans migrated from rural areas to cities. Many were pushed off the land by new agricultural machinery that reduced the need for farmworkers. 4 men could not perform the farmwork that earlier had been required 14.Others drawn by jobs/opportunities. End of 19th century, settlement of the West was taking an urban form, with new towns forming around mines and railroad junctions. Still other migrants, bored by rural or small-town life, moved to cities for more excitement.Far West had the greatest proportion of urban dwellers, in cities such as San Francisco and Denver, the Northeast and Midwest held more people in huge cities- New York, Boston, Philadelphia, Pittsburgh, Chicago, Cincinnati, St. Louis, and others. More and more of these city dwellers had little or no money and nothing but their labor to sell. By 1900, more than 90% of the people in New York City’s most densely populated borough, Manhattan, lived in rented houses or in congested, low-cost building called tenements, where residents, (mostly immigrants), were packed like sardines in poorly ventilated and poorly lit apartments.Growth in All DirectionsMany advanced in technology helped city buildings with larger populations. In the 1870s,heating innovations (such as steam radiators) enabled the construction of much larger apartment buildings, since coal-burning fireplaces and chimneys, expensive to build, were no longer needed in each apartment. In 1889, theOtis Elevator Companyinstalled the first electric elevator, made taller buildings possible; before 1860s, fee structure had been more than 5/6 storied. During 1880s, engineers also developed cast-iron and steel-frame construction techniques that allowed for taller structured- “skyscrapers.”Cities grew out and up, as horse-drawn streetcars and commuted railways let people livefarther away from their downtown workplaces. In 1873, San Francisco became the first city to use cable cars that clamped onto a moving underground cable driven by a central power source. Some cities ran steam powered trains on elevated tracks, but by the 1890s electric trolleys were preferred. Mass transit received an added boost from

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Term
Spring
Professor
Mohan
Tags
Immigration to the United States, Apartment

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