Examination IV Study Guide - Examination IV Study Guide 1...

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Examination IV Study Guide 1. What is cultural relativism? (Lecture Material; Chapter 11) simply a factual claim that all reasonable people will accept. It is the notion that different cultures have different moral codes, values, customs, and practices . 2. What is ethical relativism (Lecture Material; Chapter 11) If the culture says that it is true, then it is true. In order to distinguish the two views, I think it is much better to call this latter view Ethical Relativism or Moral Relativism. 3. Who was Thrasymachus? (Lecture Material; Chapter 11) He was a sophist , one of the professional teachers who flourished in Athens around the time of socrates 4. What was Thrasymachus’s challenge to Socrates? (Chapter 11) The challenge of the Greek Sophist, Thrasymachus, is really the challenge of cultural relativism – the idea that morality is simply what a particular culture views as moral. 5. Why does the Cultural Differences Argument fail? (Lecture Material; Chapter 11) (1) Different cultures have different moral codes 2. Therefore, there is no such thing as objective right and wrong. Where ethics is concerned, the standards of the different societies are all that exist. 6. What is the fundamental claim of Moral Absolutism (also called Formalism)? (Lecture Material) An idea opposed to relativism is known as Moral Absolutism (also called Formalism). This position claims that there are at least some morals and values that are objectively real . 7. What is the culture neutral standard of right and wrong (Lecture Material; Chapter 11) The Culture-Neutral Standard of Right and Wrong is judging whether a practice promotes or hinders the welfare of the people whose lives are affected by the practice. 8. What is moral objectivism? (Lecture Material; Chapter 11) he position of Moral Objectivism is the idea that there are some valid general ethical principles that are binding on all rational beings . 9. According to Rachels, Ethics and Science are what? (Chapter 11) science provides our paradigm of objectivity and ethics seems to fall far short of science. 10. According to Rachels, we can prove an ethical opinion how often? (Chapter 11) Never 11. According to Rachels, in what two ways can an inquiry can be objective? (Chapter 11) An inquiry may be objective because there is an independent reality that it describes correctly or incorrectly. Science is objective in this sense. An inquiry may be ojective because there are reliable methods of reasoning that determine truth and falsity in it’s domain. Math is objective in that sense. 12. In Science reasoning terminates when what is reached? (Chapter 11) when we reach simple facts about the physical world.
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  • Summer '08
  • McQuillan
  • Ethics

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