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Unformatted text preview: Modern Biology Study GuideNameClassDateSEC T I O N 1 - 1 R E VIEWT HE W ORLD OF B IOLOGYVOCABULARY REVIEW Define the following terms.1. development2. reproduction3. organ4. tissueMULTIPLE CHOICE Write the correct letter in the blank.Copyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.1. Biology is the study ofa. animals.b. plants and animals.c. all living things.d. energy transfer.2. A short segment of DNA that contains instructions for the development of a single trait ofan organism is known as aa. DNA loop.b. gene.c. library.d. membrane.3. As the cells in a multicellular organism multiply, they become specialized for differentfunctions in a process calleda. sexual reproduction.b. descent with modification.c. photosynthesis.d. cell differentiation.4. Homeostasis refers to thea.b.c.d.organization of cellular structures.stable level of internal conditions in organisms.organized structure of crystals.destruction of tropical rain forests.5. Photosynthesis is part of a plantsa. metabolism.b. homeostasis.c. development.d. response to stimuli.Modern Biology Study Guide1NameClassDateSHORT ANSWER Answer the questions in the space provided.1. Explain why the cell is called the basic unit of life.2. Give a specific example of homeostasis.3. Why is it important to study biology?4. Contrast the reproduction of bacteria with that of frogs.5. Critical Thinking The organization of a rock is much simpler than that of living things.By what other criteria can a rock be distinguished from living things?2Section 1-1 ReviewCopyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONS Explain how the drawing below illustrates thecharacteristics of life.NameClassDateSEC T I O N 1 - 2 R E VIEWT HEMES IN B IOLOGYVOCABULARY REVIEW Distinguish between the terms in each of the following groupsof terms.1. domain, kingdom2. diversity of life, unity of life3. adaptations, evolution4. ecosystem, ecologyMULTIPLE CHOICE Write the correct letter in the blank.Copyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.1. A tree of life explainsa.b.c.d.how organisms are related to each other.how organisms differ from each other.the lineages of various organisms.All of the above2. Which of the following is NOT an important unifying theme in biology?a.b.c.d.the diversity and unity of lifethe relationship between organisms and societythe interdependence of living organismsthe evolution of life3. An example of a domain isa. Animalia.b. Protista.c. Fungi.d. Eukarya.4. A trait that improves an individuals ability to survive and reproduce is a(n)a. mutation.b. natural selectionc. adaptation.d. domain.5. Which of the following statements is true?a.b.c.d.Destruction of rain forests has no effect on living things.Destruction of rain forests increases the rate of evolution of rainforest organisms.Humans have had no impact on the worlds environment.Humans have had a large impact on the worlds environment.Modern Biology Study Guide3NameClassDateSHORT ANSWER Answer the questions in the space provided.1. Give an example of how two organisms are interdependent.2. Why must an adaptation be inheritable if it is to cause a population to evolve?3. What is natural selection?4. If two organisms share the same kingdom, must they also share the same domain? Explain.5. Critical Thinking A female frog has a genetic trait that prevents it from producing eggs. Howlikely is it that this trait will spread through the frog population? Explain your answer.STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONS Briefly describe the interactions among the panther, thedeer, and the grass in the drawing below.Copyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.4Section 1-2 ReviewNameClassDateSEC T I O N 1 - 3 R E VIEWT HE S TUDY OF B IOLOGYVOCABULARY REVIEW Define the following terms.1. prediction2. control group3. dependent variable4. independent variableCopyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.5. theoryMULTIPLE CHOICE Write the correct letter in the blank.1. A field biologist who studies the behavior of birds in a rain forest most likely collectsdata througha. experimenting.b. modeling.c. observing.d. inferring.c. observing.d. predicting.2. Constructing a graph is an example ofa. measuring.b. organizing data.3. Of the following steps in a scientific investigation, the last to be done is usuallya. experimenting.b. observing.c. producing a model.d. hypothesizing.4. A statement that explains observations and can be tested is calleda. a hypothesis.b. an inference.c. a theory.d. a model.5. A visual, verbal, or mathematical explanation that is supported by data is calleda. a hypothesis.b. an inference.c. a theory.d. a model.Modern Biology Study Guide5NameClassDateSHORT ANSWER Answer the questions in the space provided.1. What are quantitative data? Give two examples of quantitative data.2. What is an advantage of a peer review of a scientific paper?3. How are a hypothesis, a prediction, and an experiment related?4. What are some of the things scientists might do to analyze data?5. Critical Thinking A scientist wanted to study the effect of a drug on the blood pressure of rats.She set up an experiment in which the experimental group consisted of rats that were injectedwith a salt solution containing the drug. What should the control group have consisted of?STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONS Examine the drawing of the owl. In each space below,provide an observation that would support the inference given or provide an inferencethat could be derived from the observation given.ObservationsInferencesOwls live in trees.Owls feed on mice.Owls kill prey withtheir talons.The owl has wings.Both of the owlseyes face forward.It is night.6Section 1-3 ReviewCopyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.What were the dependent and independent variables in her experiment?NameClassDateSEC T I O N 1 - 4 R E VIEWT OOLS AND T ECHNIQUESVOCABULARY REVIEW Circle the term that does not belong in each of the followinggroups, and briefly explain why it does not belong.1. compound light, transmission electron, light electron, scanning electron2. base unit, stage, nosepiece, objective lens3. magnification, power of magnification, resolution, mass density4. second, minute, meter, kilogramCopyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.5. meter, square meter, cubic meter, kilogram per cubic meterMULTIPLE CHOICE Write the correct letter in the blank.1. The ability of a microscope to show details clearly is calleda. enlargement.b. magnification.c. reduction.d. resolution.2. One limitation of the scanning electron microscope is that it cannot be used toa.b.c.d.examine specimens smaller than cells.view living specimens.produce an enlarged image of a specimen.produce an image of the surface of a specimen.3. A microscope with a 10 ocular lens and a 25 objective lens has a total power of magnification equal toa. 2.5.b. 35.c. 250.d. 2,500.c. hour.d. day.4. The SI base unit for time is thea. second.b. minute.5. The SI prefix that represents 1,000 times the base unit isa. deci.b. centi.c. kilo.d. micro.Modern Biology Study Guide7NameClassDateSHORT ANSWER Answer the questions in the space provided.1. Arrange the following parts in the order that matches the light path through a light microscope:specimen, ocular lens, objective lens, light source.2. What are the maximum magnifications of the LM, TEM, and SEM?3. Write the abbreviation for each of the following units: meter, kilometer, centimeter, millimeter,micrometer. What is the mathematical relationship between these units?4. Critical Thinking A group of scientists want to determine whether the bacteria they are studying have viruses inside them. Which type of microscope should they use? Explain your answer.abcde8Section 1-4 ReviewCopyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONS Label each part of the figure in the spaces provided.NameClassDateSEC T I O N 2 - 1 R E VIEWC OMPOSITION OF M ATTERVOCABULARY REVIEW Define the following terms.1. atom2. neutron3. compound4. covalent bondCopyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.5. ionMULTIPLE CHOICE Write the correct letter in the blank.1. The atomic number of carbon is 6. Therefore, the number of protons in a carbon atom equalsa. 3.b. 6.c. 7.d. 12.2. One of the kinds of particles found in the nucleus of an atom is thea. proton.b. electron.c. ion.d. boron.3. The maximum number of electrons that can be held in the orbitals in an atoms secondenergy level isa. 2.b. 4.c. 6.d. 8.4. Of the following elements, the one that is most likely to form ionic bonds isa. hydrogen.b. carbon.c. sodium.d. oxygen.c. oxygen gas.d. chloride ion.5. An example of a compound isa. water.b. hydrogen gas.Modern Biology Study Guide9NameClassDateSHORT ANSWER Answer the questions in the space provided.1. What is the difference between mass and weight?2. Identify the elements and the number of atoms of each element in each of the following compounds:BO2KClC6H12O6NH33. How many pairs of electrons do the two oxygen atoms in an oxygen molecule share with eachother? Explain your answer.4. Critical Thinking The atomic number of argon is 18. Will argon tend to form bonds with otherelements? Explain your answer.The diagram below shows bonding of a hydrogen atom with a chlorine atom. The atomic numberof hydrogen is 1. The atomic number of chlorine is 17. The orbitals corresponding to the thirdenergy level can hold up to 8 electrons.ClHHCl1. What kind of bond is formed between hydrogen and chlorine atoms?2. Describe the formation of this bond and the total number of electrons in the orbitals of eachenergy level.10Section 2-1 ReviewCopyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONS Use the figure to answer the following questions.NameClassDateSEC T I O N 2 - 2 R E VIEWE NERGYVOCABULARY REVIEW Distinguish between the terms in each of the following pairsof terms.1. reactant, product2. catalyst, enzyme3. oxidation reaction, reduction reactionMULTIPLE CHOICE Write the correct letter in the blank.1. The state of matter in which particles move most rapidly isCopyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.a. liquid.b. gas.c. solid.d. heat.2. Every chemical reaction involves aa. change in the state of the matterin the reactants.b. net release of energy.c. transfer of energy.d. transfer of electrons between atoms.3. Enzymesa. increase the amount of energyreleased in a reaction.b. decrease the amount of energyreleased in a reaction.c. catalyze only redox reactions.d. reduce the activation energy neededfor a reaction.4. In chemical reactions, the number of each kind of atom in the reactants isa. the same as in the products.b. less than in the products.c. more than in the products.d. b or c, depending on the kind of chemicalreaction.5. Redox reactionsa. involve either reduction or oxidation,but not both.b. involve the transfer of electronsbetween atoms.c. do not occur in living things.d. always involve oxygen.Modern Biology Study Guide11NameClassDateSHORT ANSWER Answer the questions in the space provided.1. In the chemical reaction shown below, write R over the reactants and P over the products:C12H22O11H2O C6H12O6C6H12O62. What role do catalysts play in chemical reactions?3. What does a two-direction arrow indicate in a chemical equation?4. In the chemical reaction shown below, write R over the substance that is reduced and O over thesubstance that is oxidized:NaCl NaCl5. Critical Thinking Sucrose, or table sugar, can react with water to form two other compounds,glucose and fructose. However, when you add sugar to a glass of water, this reaction proceedsextremely slowly. Why does it proceed slowly, and what else is needed to speed up the reaction?Energygiven offEnergyneededThe graph below represents the energy changes that occur as a chemical reaction progresses.ABReactantsProductsReaction progress1. What is represented by arrow A?2. What is represented by arrow B?3. Is energy absorbed or released in this reaction? Explain your answer.12Section 2-2 ReviewCopyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONS Use the figure to answer the following questions.NameClassDateSEC T I O N 2 - 3 R E VIEWW ATER AND S OLUTIONSVOCABULARY REVIEW Define the following terms.1. solvent2. aqueous solution3. hydroxide ion4. baseCopyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.5. bufferMULTIPLE CHOICE Write the correct letter in the blank.1. The concentration of a solution is the measurement of the amount ofa. acid dissolved in a fixed amountof base.b. solvent dissolved in a fixed amountof the solution.c. solute dissolved in a fixed amount ofthe solution.d. solvent dissolved in a fixed amountof the solute.2. When water dissociates, it formsa. H ions and H2O.b. H ions and OH ions.c. H ions and H3O ions.d. OH ions and H3O ions.3. An acid is a solution with morea. hydronium ions than hydroxide ions.b. hydroxide ions than hydronium ions.c. sodium ions than hydroxide ions.d. hydroxide ions than sodium ions.4. An example of a base isa. pure water.b. vinegar.c. ammonia.d. urine.c. acidic.d. alkaline.5. A solution with a pH above 7 isa. logarithmic.b. neutral.Modern Biology Study Guide13NameClassDateSHORT ANSWER Answer the questions in the space provided.1. What property of water allows it to stick to the sides of a vertical glass tube?2. What states of matter can solutions be composed of?3. How much sugar is there in 100 mL of a 10 percent aqueous sugar solution?What is the solvent in this solution?4. What are the relative numbers of H3O and OH ions in an acidic, an alkaline, and a neutral solution?5. How many times more hydroxide ions are there in a solution with a pH of 9 than in a solutionwith a pH of 3?6. How are buffers important to the functioning of living systems?of H3O ions in the solution were increased by 100 times? Explain your reasoning.STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONS The diagram below represents a single water molecule.Draw three other water molecules near it, and use dashed lines to indicate where hydrogen bonds would form between the molecule shown below and the ones you drew.OH14Section 2-3 ReviewHCopyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.7. Critical Thinking If a solution has a pH of 7.5, what would its new pH be if the concentrationNameClassDateSEC T I O N 3 - 1 R E VIEWC ARBON C OMPOUNDSVOCABULARY REVIEW Define the following terms and provide one example for each.1. organic compound2. functional group3. alcohol4. monomer5. polymerCopyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.MULTIPLE CHOICE Write the correct letter in the blank.1. Organic compounds containa. carbon and usually other elements.b. many kinds of elements except carbon.c. only carbon.d. only carbon and hydrogen.2. The number of covalent bonds a carbon atom can form with other atoms isa. 1.b. 2.c. 4.d. 8.3. A covalent bond formed when two atoms share two pairs of electrons is called aa. single bond.b. double bond.c. triple bond.d. quadruple bond.4. The breakdown of a polymer involvesa. hydrolysis.b. a condensation reaction.c. the breaking of hydrogen bonds.d. the breaking of ionic bonds.5. ATP releases energy whena. it undergoes a condensation reaction.b. a hydroxyl group is added to it.c. a phosphate group is added to it.d. a phosphate group is removed from it.Modern Biology Study Guide15NameClassDateSHORT ANSWER Answer the questions in the space provided.1. Give an example of how a functional group can affect the properties of an organic compound.2. Arrange the following in order of size, from smallest to largest: polymer, monomer, carbon atom,macromolecule.3. Explain how a water molecule is produced when glucose and fructose undergo a condensationreaction.4. What are the products of the hydrolysis of ATP? What else is released during this reaction?5. Critical Thinking How would the variety of organic compounds be different if carbon hadseven electrons in its outermost energy level instead of four?The formation of sucrose from glucose and fructose is represented by the chemical reactionshown below. Notice that this reaction can proceed in either direction.CH2OHCH2OHHCOCHOHHCCHCH2OHOHHOHCHHCOOH CCHOHHCCH+OHGLUCOSECHOH COHCH2OHOHOCHCH2OHHOFRUCTOSEHCCSUCROSE2. Is the forward reaction a condensation reaction or hydrolysis?3. What are the reactants and products of the reverse (right-to-left) reaction?16Section 3-1 ReviewHOH CCH+COHO1. What are the reactants and products of the forward (left-to-right) reaction?4. Is the reverse reaction a condensation reaction or hydrolysis?HOCH2OHH2OCopyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONS Use the figure to answer the following questions.NameClassDateSEC T I O N 3 - 2 R E VIEWM OLECULES OF L IFEVOCABULARY REVIEW Distinguish between the terms in each of the following pairsof terms.1. monosaccharide, polysaccharide2. amino acid, protein3. nucleotide, nucleic acidMULTIPLE CHOICE Write the correct letter in the blank.1. Glycogen, starch, and cellulose area. monosaccharides. b. disaccharides.c. polysaccharides.d. simple sugars.Copyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.2. The different shapes and functions of different proteins are determined bya. the R groups of the amino acidsthey contain.b. the amino groups of the amino acidsthey contain.c. the carboxyl groups of the amino acidsthey contain.d. whether or not they contain anyamino acids.3. Most enzymesa. are changed by the reactionsthey catalyze.b. increase the activation energy of thereactions they catalyze.c. strengthen the chemical bonds intheir substrate.d. are sensitive to changes in temperatureor pH.4. The large numbers of carbon-hydrogen bonds in lipidsa. make lipids polar.b. store more energy than the carbonoxygen bonds in other organiccompounds.c. allow lipids to dissolve in water.d. are found in the carboxyl group at theend of the lipid.5. The most important function of nucleic acids isa. catalyzing chemical reactions.b. forming a barrier between theinside and outside of a cell.c. storing energy.d. storing information related to heredityand protein synthesis.Modern Biology Study Guide17NameClassDateSHORT ANSWER Answer the questions in the space provided.1. What are the storage and quick-energy forms of carbohydrates found in animals, and how arethese forms structurally related to each other?2. How many different kinds of monomers are there in starch?How many different kinds of monomers are there in proteins?3. What compound composes most of the cell membrane?How is this compound suited to the function of the membrane?4. Steroids are made up of what type of molecule?Give two examples of steroids.5. Critical Thinking Insects that live on land have a coating of wax on the outer surface of theirbody. What function might the wax serve for these animals?The diagram below shows the interaction of an enzyme and its substrate during a chemical reaction.acb18Section 3-2 ReviewCopyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONS Label each part of the figure in the spaces provided.NameClassDateSEC T I O N 4 - 1 R E VIEWTHE HISTORY OF CELL BIOLOGYVOCABULARY REVIEW Define the following terms.1. cell2. cell theoryMULTIPLE CHOICE Write the correct letter in the blank.1. One early piece of evidence supporting the cell theory was the observation thata. only plants are composed of cells.b. only animals are composed of cells.c. cells come from other cells.d. animal cells come from plant cells.2. The scientist who described cells as many little boxes wasCopyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.a. Robert Hooke.b. Anton van Leeuwenhoek.c. Theodor Schwann.d. Rudolf Virchow.3. Living and nonliving things are different in that onlya. nonliving things are made of cells.b. nonliving things are made of atoms.c. living things are made of cells.d. living things are made of atoms.4. Microscopes were used to study cells beginning in thea. 16th century.b. 17th century.c. 18th century.d. 19th century.5. The advantage of van Leeuwenhoeks microscopes was thata. they were simple.b. they had two lenses.c. the lenses could be moved.d. the lenses were ground very precisely.6. Which of the following was a major event in the history of cell biology?a. cloning animalsb. growing bone tissue for transplantc. discovery of cell partsd. All of the above7. A light microscope uses optical lenses to magnify objects bya. bending light rays.b. bending electron beams.c. reflecting beams of light.d. reflecting beams of electrons.Modern Biology Study Guide19NameClassDateSHORT ANSWER Answer the questions in the space provided.1. State the three parts of the cell theory.2. Why did it take 150 years for the cell theory to be developed after microscopes were invented?3. Why did Hookes cork cells appear to be empty?4. Critical Thinking If you read that a new organism had been discovered, what would you knowabout the organism without examining it in terms of cells?TimelineHistory of Cell BiologyRobert Hookeobserves cork cells.Rudolf Virchow addsto the cell theory.18271665Camillo Golgi discovers theGolgi apparatus in cells.18571855Karl Von Baer discoversthe mammalian egg.Tissue engineering used to grownew skin and bone for transplant.19961897Kolliker describesmitochondria in muscle.2004Researchers in Scotland clone asheep from an adult sheep cell.1. Approximately how many years elapsed between the time cells were discovered and theobservation of cell parts in muscle cells?2. When was the third part of the cell theory added? What was the time interval between thisevent and the discovery of cells?20Section 4-1 ReviewCopyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONS Use the figure to answer the following questions.NameClassDateSEC T I O N 4 - 2 R E VIEWI NTRODUCTION TO C ELLSVOCABULARY REVIEW Define the following terms.1. organelle2. nucleus3. eukaryote4. prokaryoteMULTIPLE CHOICE Write the correct letter in the blank.Copyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.1. Cells are limited in size by thea. rate at which substances needed bythe cell can enter the cell throughits surface.b. rate at which the cell can manufacturegenetic information.c. amount of material the cell can collectto fill itself.d. amount of cell membrane the cellcan produce.2. The diameter of most plant and animal cells is abouta. 0.1 to 0.2 m.b. 10 to 50 m.c. 1 to 2 mm.d. 10 to 50 mm.3. The characteristic of a nerve cell that relates directly to its function in receiving andtransmitting nerve impulses is itsa. long extensions.b. flat shape.c. ability to change shape.d. ability to engulf and destroy bacteria.4. One difference between eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells is that onlya. prokaryotic cells are surrounded bya cell membrane.b. prokaryotic cells have a nucleus.c. eukaryotic cells have genetic information.d. eukaryotic cells have membrane-boundorganelles.Modern Biology Study Guide21NameClassDateSHORT ANSWER Answer the questions in the space provided.1. How is the shape of a skin cell suited to its function?2. How are the organelles of a single cell like the organs of a multicellular organism?3. Name two features of eukaryotic cells that prokaryotic cells lack.4. Critical Thinking When a spherical cell increases in diameter from 2 m to 20 m, by what factordoes its surface area change? By what factor does its volume change? (The surface area of a sphere4 radius2, and the volume of a sphere 4/3 radius3. Remember that diameter 2 radius.)STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONSX1. These figures represent a eukaryoticcell and a prokaryotic cell. In thespaces below the diagrams,indicate which type of cell eachdiagram represents.b2. List two features that formed the basis for your identification of these cells.3. Identify the structures labeled X and Y.S EC T I O N 4 - 3 R E VIEW22Section 4-2 ReviewCopyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.aYNameClassDateSEC T I O N 4 - 3 R E VIEWC ELL O RGANELLES AND F EATURESVOCABULARY REVIEW Distinguish between the terms in each of the following pairsof terms.1. nucleoplasm, nuclear envelope2. cytoskeleton, microtubule3. cilia, flagellaMULTIPLE CHOICE Write the correct letter in the blank.Copyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.1. The plasma membranea. allows all substances to pass into andout of the cell.b. prevents all substances from passinginto and out of the cell.c. is composed mainly of a protein bilayer.d. is composed mainly of a lipid bilayer.2. Substances produced in a cell and exported outside of the cell would pass through thea. endoplasmic reticulum andGolgi apparatus.b. mitochondria and Golgi apparatus.c. nucleus and lysosomes.d. vacuoles and lysosomes.3. Cells that have a high energy requirement generally have manya. nuclei.b. flagella.c. mitochondria.d. microfilaments.4. Viruses, bacteria, and old organelles that a cell ingests are broken down ina. ribosomes.b. lysosomes.c. the rough endoplasmic reticulum.d. the smooth endoplasmic reticulum.5. Organelles that are surrounded by two membranes and contain DNA are thea.b.c.d.nucleus, the endoplasmic reticulum, and lysosomes.nucleus, the endoplasmic reticulum, and chloroplasts.nucleus and mitochondria.endoplasmic reticulum and the Golgi apparatus.Modern Biology Study Guide23NameClassDateSHORT ANSWER Answer the questions in the space provided.1. What roles do membrane proteins play in transporting only certain substances into a cell?2. What are ribosomes made of?What cellular function are they involved in?3. What is the cytoskeleton, and what are three of its major components?4. Describe the structural organization shared by cilia and flagella.5. Critical Thinking When lipid is added to a solution of a detergent in water, the detergent breaksup large globules of the lipid into much smaller globules. What effect do you think a detergent wouldhave on the integrity of cells? Explain your answer.a.aeb.bc.cd.dfe.f.24Section 4-3 ReviewCopyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONS This diagram represents a typical animal cell. Label eachpart of the figure in the spaces provided.NameClassDateSEC T I O N 4 - 4 R E VIEWU NIQUE F EATURES OF P LANT C ELLSVOCABULARY REVIEW Define the following terms.1. cell wall2. plastid3. thylakoids4. chlorophyll5. central vacuoleCopyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.MULTIPLE CHOICE Write the correct letter in the blank.1. Which of the following organelles is found in plant cells but not in animal cells?a. nucleusb. chloroplastc. mitochondriond. Golgi apparatus2. The end products of photosynthesis includea. carbon dioxide and water.b. sugars.c. carbon dioxide and oxygen.d. oxygen and water.3. A cell that contains a cell wall, chloroplasts, and a central vacuole is aa. plant cell.b. animal cell.c. prokaryotic cell.d. bacterial cell.4. A central vacuole forms froma. chloroplasts.b. fusion of amyloplasts.c. the fusion of smaller vacuoles.d. the products of photosynthesis.5. Thylakoids are locateda.b.c.d.between the two membranes of a chloroplast.outside the outer membrane of a chloroplast.inside the inner membrane of a chloroplast.in chromoplasts.Modern Biology Study Guide25NameClassDateSHORT ANSWER Answer the questions in the space provided.1. How are secondary cell walls different from primary cell walls?2. What are plant cell walls made of?What is the function of cell walls?3. What is the appearance of a plant cell when water is plentiful?4. Critical Thinking Bacteria have a region called a nucleoid, in which their genetic material islocated. Why, then, are bacteria classified as prokaryotes?This diagram represents a typical plant cell.abcdefghi26Section 4-4 ReviewCopyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONS Label each part of the figure in the spaces provided.NameClassDateSEC T I O N 5 - 1 R E VIEWP ASSIVE T RANSPORTVOCABULARY REVIEW Explain the relationship between the terms in each of thefollowing pairs of terms.1. concentration gradient, diffusion2. osmosis, turgor pressure3. hypertonic, plasmolysisCopyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.MULTIPLE CHOICE Write the correct letter in the blank.1. Substances that can pass through cell membranes by diffusion includea. Na ions.b. Cl ions.c. glucose.d. oxygen.2. The contractile vacuole of a paramecium should be active when the paramecium is ina. an isotonic environment.b. a hypotonic environment.c. a hypertonic environment.d. any environment.3. When a human red blood cell is placed in a hypotonic environment, it willa. undergo cytolysis.b. undergo plasmolysis.c. experience a decrease in turgor pressure.d. be at equilibrium.4. Facilitated diffusion is often used to transporta. ions.b. water.c. molecules that are not soluble in lipids.d. molecules that are too small to diffuseacross the membrane.5. Na ions enter cells bya. diffusing across the lipid bilayerwithout assistance.b. diffusing through Na ion channels.c. binding to Na carrier proteins.d. binding to Cl ions.Modern Biology Study Guide27NameClassDateSHORT ANSWER Answer the questions in the space provided.1. What happens to the movement of molecules at equilibrium?2. How do carrier proteins transport substances across cell membranes?3. What types of stimuli can cause the gates on ion channels to open or close?4. Critical Thinking How does the interaction between a carrier protein and the substance ittransports resemble the interaction between an enzyme and its substrate?RED BLOOD CELLabcefPLANT CELLd28Section 5-1 ReviewCopyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONS The drawings below show the appearance of a red bloodcell and a plant cell in isotonic, hypotonic, and hypertonic environments. Label eachenvironment in the spaces provided.NameClassDateSEC T I O N 5 - 2 R E VIEWA CTIVE T RANSPORTVOCABULARY REVIEW Define the following terms.1. active transport2. endocytosis3. vesicle4. phagocytosisMULTIPLE CHOICE Write the correct letter in the blank.Copyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.1. Facilitated-diffusion carrier proteins and cell-membrane pumps botha. require an input of energy.b. are specific for the kinds ofsubstances they transport.c. transport substances up theirconcentration gradients.d. carry out active transport.2. The sodium-potassium pump transportsa. Na out of the cell and K into the cell.b. Na and K in both directions acrossthe cell membrane.c. K out of the cell and Na into the cell.d. Na during some cycles and K duringother cycles.3. The energy needed to power the sodium-potassium pump is provided by thea. binding of ATP to the pump.b. transport of ATP by the pump.c. removal of a phosphate group from ATP.d. formation of ATP.4. Pinocytosis involves the transport ofa. large particles out of a cell.b. fluids into a cell.c. whole cells into another cell.d. lysosomes out of a cell.5. Exocytosis is aa.b.c.d.type of passive transport.mechanism by which cells ingest other cells.transport process in which vesicles are formed from pouches in the cell membrane.way for cells to release large molecules, such as proteins.Modern Biology Study Guide29NameClassDateSHORT ANSWER Answer the questions in the space provided.1. Why is the sodium-potassium transport mechanism called a pump?2. Explain how a phagocyte destroys bacteria.3. Describe how a cell produces and releases proteins.4. Critical Thinking Why is it important that ions being transported across a cell membrane beshielded from the interior of the lipid bilayer?STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONS Use the figure to answer the following questions.1. The diagrams below represent the six steps in one cycle of the sodium-potassium pump. The orderof the steps has been scrambled. Beginning with diagram d (numbered 1), sequence the remainingdiagrams by writing the appropriate numeral in each blank.3. On which side of the membrane are K ions released from the pump?abcKNaKNaKATPPdNaK1PPefNaNaNaNaNaNa30Section 5-2 ReviewKKPCopyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.2. On which side of the membrane are Na ions released from the pump?NameClassDateSEC T I O N 6 - 1 R E VIEWT HE L IGHT R EACTIONSVOCABULARY REVIEW Explain the relationship between the terms in each of thefollowing pairs of terms.1. granum, stroma2. chlorophyll a, carotenoids3. chemiosmosis, ATP synthaseMULTIPLE CHOICE Write the correct letter in the blank.1. Chlorophyll aCopyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.a. absorbs mostly orange-red andblue-violet light.b. absorbs mostly green light.c. is an accessory pigment.d. is responsible for the red color of manyautumn leaves.2. The photosystems and electron transport chains are located in thea. outer chloroplast membrane.b. inner chloroplast membrane.c. thylakoid membrane.d. stroma.3. Both photosystem I and photosystem IIa. receive electrons from otherphotosystems.b. donate electrons to a transport chainthat generates NADPH.c. donate protons to each other.d. contain chlorophyll a molecules.4. Water participates directly in the light reactions of photosynthesis bya. donating electrons to NADPH.b. donating electrons to photosystem II.c. accepting electrons from the electrontransport chains.d. accepting electrons from ADP.5. The energy that is used to establish the proton gradient across the thylakoid membranecomes from thea. synthesis of ATP.b. synthesis of NADPH.c. passage of electrons along the electrontransport chain of photosystem II.d. splitting of water.Modern Biology Study Guide31NameClassDateSHORT ANSWER Answer the questions in the space provided.1. Why is photosynthesis referred to as a biochemical pathway?2. How does the structure of a chloroplast enable it to build up a concentration gradient of protons?3. What are the energy-carrying end products of the light harvesting reactions?4. Explain the function of accessory pigments.5. Critical Thinking Which photosystemI or IImost likely evolved first? Explain your reasoning.STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONS Label the substances represented by the letters ad below.STROMALightPhotosystem IILightNADPb+Photosystem IHcADP+phosphateATPsynthaseadINSIDE OF THYLAKOID32Section 6-1 ReviewCopyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.The diagram below summarizes the light reactions of photosynthesis.NameClassDateSEC T I O N 6 - 2 R E VIEWT HE C ALVIN C YCLEVOCABULARY REVIEW Define the following terms.1. Calvin cycle2. carbon fixation3. stoma4. C4 pathway5. CAM pathwayCopyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.MULTIPLE CHOICE Write the correct letter in the blank.1. The Calvin cycle begins when CO2 combines with a five-carbon carbohydrate calleda. RuBP.b. PGA.c. 3-G3P.d. NADPH.2. For every three molecules of CO2 that enter the Calvin cycle, the cycle producessix molecules ofa. RuBP.b. ATP.c. 3-PGA.d. NADPH.3. Organic compounds that can be made from the products of the Calvin cycle includea. only carbohydrates.b. only amino acids.c. only lipids.d. carbohydrates, amino acids, and lipids.4. C3 and C4 plants differ in terms of the number ofa. steps in the Calvin cycle.b. carbon atoms in the compound thatCO2 is initially incorporated into.c. carbon atoms in the end product of theCalvin cycle.d. ATP molecules used in the Calvin cycle.5. As light intensity increases, the rate of photosynthesisa. continues to decrease.b. continues to increase.c. initially decreases and then levels off.d. initially increases and then levels off.Modern Biology Study Guide33NameClassDateSHORT ANSWER Answer the questions in the space provided.1. How many molecules of ATP and NADPH are used in a single turn of the Calvin cycle?2. Using (CH2O) as the general formula for a carbohydrate, write the simplest overall equation forphotosynthesis.3. How do CAM plants differ from both C3 and C4 plants?4. Why does the rate of photosynthesis increase, peak, and then decrease as temperature increases?5. Critical Thinking Stomata can open and close in response to changes in the CO2 concentrationinside the leaf. Would you expect stomata to open or close if the CO2 concentration decreased?Explain.The diagram below summarizes the Calvin cycle.CO2RuBPADPATP3-PGAATPADPG3PNADPHNADP34Section 6-2 ReviewCopyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONS In the blank spaces provided in the diagram, indicatethe number of molecules of each substance that are involved when three CO2 moleculesenter the cycle.NameClassDateSEC T I O N 7 - 1 R E VIEWG LYCOLYSIS AND F ERMENTATIONVOCABULARY REVIEW Define the following terms.1. cellular respiration2. glycolysis3. lactic acid fermentation4. alcoholic fermentationMULTIPLE CHOICE Write the correct letter in the blank.Copyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.1. Glycolysis takes placea. in the cytosol.b. in the mitochondria.c. only if oxygen is present.d. only if oxygen is absent.2. During glycolysis, glucose isa. produced from two molecules ofpyruvic acid.b. converted into two moleculesof ATP.c. partially broken down and some of itsstored energy is released.d. partially broken down and its storedenergy is increased.3. Both lactic acid fermentation and alcoholic fermentation producea. a two-carbon molecule from asix-carbon molecule.b. CO2 from a three-carbon molecule.c. ATP from ADP and phosphate.d. NAD from NADH and H .4. The efficiency of glycolysis is approximatelya. 0.2%.b. 2%.c. 20%.d. 200%.5. The anaerobic pathways provide enough energy to meet all of the energy needs ofa. all organisms.b. all unicellular and most multicellular organisms.c. many unicellular and some multicellular organisms.d. no organisms.Modern Biology Study Guide35NameClassDateSHORT ANSWER Answer the questions in the space provided.1. Why are the fermentation pathways referred to as anaerobic pathways?2. What are the energy-containing products of glycolysis?3. Of what importance are lactic acid fermentation and alcoholic fermentation to the cells that usethese pathways?4. Critical Thinking The vitamin niacin is an essential component of NAD . Niacin can be consumedin food or manufactured in the body from tryptophan, an amino acid. How would a persons abilityto break down glucose through glycolysis be affected if the persons diet were deficient in bothniacin and tryptophan? Explain your answer.STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONS The diagram below depicts the stages of fermentation.Complete the diagram by writing the names of the pathways in the ovals and the namesof the molecules in the boxes.Copyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.accccccbc2cccO2 absentdegfcccccCO236Section 7-1 ReviewNameClassDateSEC T I O N 7 - 2 R E VIEWA EROBIC R ESPIRATIONVOCABULARY REVIEW Define the following terms.1. aerobic respiration2. mitochondrial matrix3. Krebs cycle4. FADCopyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.MULTIPLE CHOICE Write the correct letter in the blank.1. The breakdown product of glucose that diffuses into the mitochondrial matrix for furtherbreakdown isa. acetyl CoA.b. pyruvic acid.c. oxaloacetic acid.d. citric acid.2. The starting substance of the Krebs cycle, which is regenerated at the end of the cycle, isa. acetyl CoA.b. pyruvic acid.c. oxaloacetic acid.d. citric acid.3. The Krebs cyclea. produces two molecules of CO2.b. produces a six-carbon molecule fromsix molecules of CO2.c. produces NAD from NADH and H .d. generates most of the ATP producedin aerobic respiration.4. The electron transport chain of aerobic respirationa.b.c.d.generates O2 from H2O.produces NADH by chemiosmosis.pumps electrons into the mitochondrial matrix.pumps protons into the space between the inner and outer mitochondrial membranes.5. The maximum efficiency of aerobic respiration is approximatelya. 0.39%.b. 3.9%.c. 39%.d. 390%.Modern Biology Study Guide37NameClassDateSHORT ANSWER Answer the questions in the space provided.1. In the Krebs cycle, what molecule acquires most of the energy that is released by the oxidationof acetyl CoA, and how many of these molecules are produced during each turn of the cycle?2. Which reactions of aerobic respiration occur in the inner mitochondrial membrane?3. Write the equation for the complete oxidation of glucose in aerobic respiration.4. Critical Thinking How is the structure of a mitochondrion well adapted for the activities itcarries out?STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONS Use the diagram to answer the following questions.bATP synthasecaFADATPegdfNADHInner mitochondrialmembrane38Section 7-2 ReviewMITOCHONDRIALMATRIXCopyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.The diagram below summarizes the electron transport chain and chemiosmosis in aerobicrespiration. Label the substances that are transported along the arrows labeled ad in the spacesprovided. Label the reactants or products that are represented by eg in the spaces provided.NameClassDateSEC T I O N 8 - 1 R E VIEWC HROMOSOMESVOCABULARY REVIEW Distinguish between the terms in each of the following pairsof terms.1. histone, nonhistone protein2. chromatid, centromere3. sex chromosome, autosome4. diploid cell, haploid cellMULTIPLE CHOICE Write the correct letter in the blank.Copyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.1. During cell division, the DNA in a eukaryotic cell is tightly packed and coiled intostructures calleda. centromeres.b. histones.c. haploids.d. chromosomes.2. Between cell divisions, the DNA in a eukaryotic cell is uncoiled and spread out; in thisform it is calleda. chromatid.b. chromatin.c. histone.d. nonhistone.3. The chromosomes of most prokaryotes consist of proteins anda.b.c.d.a single circular DNA molecule.a single linear DNA molecule.a pair of linear DNA molecules joined in the center.a pair of homologous, circular DNA molecules.4. Humans have 46 chromosomes in all cells except sperm and egg cells. How many of thesechromosomes are autosomes?a. 2b. 23c. 44d. 465. If an organism has a diploid, or 2n, number of 16, how many chromosomes do its spermcells or eggs cells contain?a. 8b. 16c. 32d. 64Modern Biology Study Guide39NameClassDateSHORT ANSWER Answer the questions in the space provided.1. What role do proteins play in enabling the enormous amount of DNA in a eukaryotic cell to fitinto the nucleus, and what are those proteins called?2. In what ways are homologous chromosomes similar?3. What is the picture below called, and how is it used to determine the sex of a person?12345678910111314151617181920212212XYSTRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONS The diagram below shows structures isolated from thenucleus of a dividing eukaryotic cell. Label each structure or pair of structures in thespace provided.abcd40Section 8-1 ReviewCopyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.4. Critical Thinking Some relatively simple eukaryotes, such as the adders tongue fern, may havemany more chromosomes than a more complex eukaryote, such as a mammal. What might thissuggest about the size and organization of chromosomes in different species?NameClassDateSEC T I O N 8 - 2 R E VIEWC ELL D IVISIONVOCABULARY REVIEW Circle the term that does not belong in each of the followinggroups, and briefly explain why it does not belong.1. G1 phase, G2 phase, S phase, telophase2. anaphase, interphase, metaphase, prophase3. binary fission, mitosis, meiosis, cytokinesis4. cleavage furrow, cytokinesis, spindle fiber, cell plateCopyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.5. centrioles, vesicles, kinetochore fibers, polar fibersMULTIPLE CHOICE Write the correct letter in the blank.1. Prokaryotic cells reproduce by a process calleda. mitosis.b. meiosis.c. binary fission.d. binary fusion.2. In eukaryotic cells, DNA is copied during a phase of the cell cycle calleda. M phase.b. S phase.c. G1 phase.d. G2 phase.3. The cytoplasm of a eukaryotic cell divides by a process calleda. mitosis.b. meiosis.c. replication.d. cytokinesis.4. The fibers that extend from centrosome to centrosome during mitosis area. polar fibers.b. spindle fibers.c. kinetochore fibers. d. binary fibers.5. In the G0 phase, cellsa. synthesize DNA.b. prepare for cell division.c. exit from the cell cycle.d. move their chromosomes to thecell equator.Modern Biology Study Guide41NameClassDateSHORT ANSWER Answer the questions in the space provided.1. List the five main phases of the cell cycle, and briefly explain what occurs during each phase.2. List the four phases of mitosis, and briefly explain what occurs during each phase.3. Describe cytokinesis in a plant cell.G1 phase during their cell cycle? Explain.STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONS In the spaces provided below, label each figure with thephase of mitosis that it represents.a42bSection 8-2 ReviewcdCopyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.4. Critical Thinking What would happen to a cell and its offspring if the cells did not go through aNameClassDateSEC T I O N 8 - 3 R E VIEWM EIOSISVOCABULARY REVIEW Define the following terms.1. oogenesis2. tetrad3. independent assortment4. polar bodiesMULTIPLE CHOICE Write the correct letter in the blank.1. During synapsis, theCopyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.a. DNA in each chromosome is copied.b. spindle fibers disappear.c. cytoplasm divides.d. chromosomes line up next to theirhomologues.2. During crossing-over, portions of chromatidsa. double the amount of DNA ineach chromosome.b. move from autosomes tosex chromosomes.c. break off and attach to adjacent chromatids on the homologous chromosome.d. separate from each other and move toopposite poles of the cell.3. In which phase of meiosis do tetrads form?a. prophase Ib. telophase Ic. metaphase IId. anaphase II4. Meiosis IIa. is preceded by the copying of DNA.b. separates chromatids into oppositepoles of the cell.c. separates homologous chromosomesinto opposite poles of the cell.d. produces diploid offspring cells.5. In oogenesis, a diploid reproductive cell divides meiotically to producea. one diploid gamete.b. four diploid gametes.c. one haploid gamete.d. four haploid gametes.Modern Biology Study Guide43NameClassDateSHORT ANSWER Answer the questions in the space provided.1. Describe two ways in which genetic recombination occurs during meiosis.2. List the four phases of meiosis I, and briefly explain what occurs during each phase.3. How do the products of meiosis I differ from those of meiosis II?4. Critical Thinking What are one advantage and one disadvantage of asexual reproductionSTRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONS In the spaces provided below, label each figure with thephase of meiosis that it represents.a44bSection 8-3 ReviewcdCopyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.compared with sexual reproduction?NameClassDateSEC T I O N 9 - 1 R E VIEWM ENDELS L EGACYVOCABULARY REVIEW Distinguish between the terms in each of the following pairsof terms.1. F1 generation, F2 generation2. dominant, recessive3. self-pollination, cross-pollinationMULTIPLE CHOICE Write the correct letter in the blank.1. Mendel obtained plants that were true-breeding for particular traits byCopyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.a. growing plants from the seeds ofother plants that showed that trait.b. discarding plants that showedother traits.c. allowing plants to self-pollinate for severalgenerations.d. allowing plants to cross-pollinate forone generation.2. When Mendel crossed a strain of tall pea plants with a strain of short pea plants, heobserved that all of the plants in the F1 generation were tall. This suggests thata. the tall trait was controlled by adominant factor.b. the short trait was controlled bya dominant factor.c. both traits were controlled by arecessive factor.d. the strain of short plants was not capable of pollinating the strain of tall plants.3. A cross between true-breeding green-podded pea plants and true-breeding yellow-poddedpea plants produces only green-podded plants. When the F1 generation is allowed to selfpollinate, the F2 generation consists ofa.b.c.d.only green-podded plants.only yellow-podded plants.about three-quarters yellow-podded plants and one-quarter green-podded plants.about three-quarters green-podded plants and one-quarter yellow-podded plants.4. When alleles for different characteristics are on separate chromosomes, they aredistributed to gametes independently. This observation is summarized by the law ofa. cross-pollination.b. independent assortment.c. segregation.d. molecular genetics.Modern Biology Study Guide45NameClassDateSHORT ANSWER Answer the questions in the space provided.1. What does the term allele mean as it is used in genetic crosses?2. Explain how the events of meiosis account for the law of segregation and the law of independentassortment.3. If orange flower color in a plant is controlled by an allele F and red flower color is controlled byan allele f, which flower color is dominant?If true-breeding orange-flowered plants are crossed with true-breeding red-flowered plants, whatwill be the flower color(s) of the F1 plants?4. Critical Thinking How would Mendels observations and conclusions have been different ifmany of the characteristics he studied, such as seed color and seed texture, had been controlledby genes located close together on the same chromosome?The diagram below shows the assortment of two pairs of homologous chromosomes duringmeiosis. One pair has a gene for flower color (R allele = red, r allele = white). The other pair has agene for seed color (B allele = brown, b allele = gray).REPRODUCTIVE CELLRGAMETES46Section 9-1 ReviewrBbCopyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONS In the spaces inside each gamete, indicate the four possible combinations of alleles the gametes could receive.NameClassDateSEC T I O N 9 - 2 R E VIEWG ENETIC C ROSSESVOCABULARY REVIEW Define the following terms, and provide one example for each.1. complete dominance2. incomplete dominance3. codominanceMULTIPLE CHOICE Write the correct letter in the blank.Copyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.1. The appearance of an organism is itsa. genotype.b. phenotype.c. genotypic ratio.d. phenotypic ratio.2. A genetic cross performed many times produces 798 long-stemmed plants and 266 shortstemmed plants. The probability of obtaining a short-stemmed plant in a similar cross isa. 266/1,064.b. 266/798.c. 798/266.d. 798/1,064.3. A monohybrid cross of two individuals that are heterozygous for a trait exhibitingcomplete dominance would probably result in a phenotypic ratio ofa. 4 dominant:0 recessive.b. 1 dominant:3 recessive.c. 3 dominant:1 recessive.d. 1 dominant:1 recessive.4. To determine the genotype of an individual that shows the dominant phenotype, youwould cross that individual with one that isa. heterozygous dominant.b. heterozygous recessive.c. homozygous dominant.d. homozygous recessive.5. In a dihybrid cross between an individual with the genotype RRYY and an individual withthe genotype r ryy, all of the offspring will have the genotypea. RRYY.b. RrYY.c. RrYy.d. rryy.Modern Biology Study Guide47NameClassDateSHORT ANSWER Answer the questions in the space provided.1. What is the difference between a homozygous individual and a heterozygous individual?2. If the probability that a specific trait will appear in the F2 generation is 0.25, how many individuals would be expected to show that trait in an F2 generation consisting of 80 individuals?3. A homozygous dominant individual (AA) is crossed with an individual that is heterozygous forthe same trait (Aa). What are the possible genotypes of the offspring, and what percentage of theoffspring is likely to show the dominant phenotype?4. Critical Thinking Some animals, such as cows, normally produce only one offspring from eachmating. If a cow showed a dominant phenotype, why would a typical testcross be a difficult wayto determine the genotype of that animal?STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONS Write the possible genotypes of the offspring in thePunnett square below. Then answer the questions in the spaces provided.WwRr1. What proportion of the offspring willbe dominant for both traits?2. What proportion of the offspringwill have the same genotype astheir parents?3. What proportion of the offspring will behomozygous dominant for both traits?WwRr4. What proportion of the offspring will behomozygous recessive for both traits?48Section 9-2 ReviewCopyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.A plant with the genotype WwRr is crossed with another plant with the same genotype.NameClassDateSEC T I O N 10 - 1 R E VIEWD ISCOVERY OF DNAVOCABULARY REVIEW Define the following terms.1. virulent2. transformation3. bacteriophageMULTIPLE CHOICE Write the correct letter in the blank.1. The virulent strain of the bacterium S. pneumoniae causes disease because ita. has a capsule.c. undergoes transformation.b. lacks a capsule.d. does not undergo transformation.Copyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.2. Oswald Avery and his colleagues showed that the transforming agent in Griffithsexperiments wasa. RNA.b. protein.c. DNA.d. an enzyme.3. Hersheys and Chases experiment led to the conclusion thata. protein is the hereditary molecule in viruses.b. DNA is responsible for transformation in bacteria.c. hereditary material can pass from cell to cell.d. DNA is the hereditary molecule in viruses.4. Hershey and Chase used what organism in their experiments?a. E. colib. S. pneumoniaec. S. aureusd. B. transformis5. The S strain and the R strain of S. pneumoniae are different in thata. the R strain produces a capsule but the S strain does not.b. the S strain produces a capsule but the R strain does not.c. the R strain is virulent but the S strain is not.d. the R strain contains protein but the S strain does not.Modern Biology Study Guide49NameClassDateSHORT ANSWER Answer the questions in the space provided.1. What was the purpose of Griffiths experiment 1, in which he injected a mouse with live R cells?2. What was the purpose of Griffiths experiment 2, in which he injected a mouse with live S cells?3. What was the purpose of Griffiths experiment 3, in which he injected a mouse with heat-killedS cells?4. What was the purpose of Griffiths experiment 4, in which he injected a mouse with a mixture ofheat-killed S cells and live R cells?5. Critical Thinking Why is an S strain of bacteria able to cause disease in mammals but a R strainis not?Hershey-Chases ExperimentsExperiment NumberPreparationActionResultExperiment 1radioactive sulfurused to label proteinin phageinfect E . Coli withsulfur-labeled phageradioactive sulfurdid not enterbacterial cellExperiment 2radioactivephosphorous used tolabel DNA in phageinfect E . Coli withphosphorous-labeledphageradioactivephosporous enteredbacterial cell1. DNA is the hereditary material.2. Protein is not the hereditary material.50Section 10-1 ReviewCopyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONS In the spaces provided, write the number of theexperiment that resulted in the following conclusions.NameClassDateSEC T I O N 10 - 2 R E VIEWDNA S TRUCTUREVOCABULARY REVIEW Define the following terms and provide one example for each.1. purine2. pyrimidine3. complementary base pair4. nitrogenous baseMULTIPLE CHOICE Write the correct letter in the blank.Copyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.1. The primary function of DNA in cells is toa.b.c.d.serve as a storage form for unused nucleotides.occupy space in the nucleus to keep the nucleus from collapsing.store information that tells the cells which proteins to make.serve as a template for making long, spiral carbohydrates.2. The two strands of a DNA molecule are held together bya. ionic bonds.b. covalent bonds.c. peptide bonds.d. hydrogen bonds.3. According to the base-pairing rules, guanine binds witha. cytosine.b. adenine.c. thymine.d. guanine.4. Which of the following is NOT a correct structure of a nucleotide?a. adeninedeoxyribosephosphatec. cytosinedeoxyribosephosphateb. adenineribosephosphated. guaninedeoxyribosephosphate5. The percentage of adenine in DNA isa. equal to the percentage of cytosine.b. equal to the percentage of thymine.c. not related to the percentage of thymine.d. equal to the percentage of guanine.Modern Biology Study Guide51NameClassDateSHORT ANSWER Answer the questions in the space provided.1. What are the three parts of a DNA nucleotide, and how are they connected to each other?2. If 15% of the nucleotides in a DNA molecule contain guanine, what percentage of the nucleotidescontain each of the other three bases? Explain your reasoning.3. Why is complementary base pairing important in DNA structure?4. Critical Thinking How did X-ray diffraction photographs help Watson and Crick determine thestructure of DNA?STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONS Label each part of the figure in the spaces provided.caCTbd52Section 10-2 ReviewCopyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.The diagram below shows two nucleotide base pairs in a segment of a DNA molecule.NameClassDateSEC T I O N 10 - 3 R E VIEWDNA R EPLICATIONVOCABULARY REVIEW Define the following terms.1. replication fork2. helicase3. semi-conservative replicationMULTIPLE CHOICE Write the correct letter in the blank.1. Before replication can take place,Copyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.a.b.c.d.DNA polymerases must add complementary nucleotides to the DNA.the two strands of DNA must separate.the covalent bonds in DNA must break.helicases must break the bonds in the nucleotides.2. Replication of the two DNA strands takes placea.b.c.d.in two different directions.in the same direction of the replication fork.in a direction opposite to that of the replication fork.at right angles to the direction of the replication fork.3. In replication in prokaryotes,a.b.c.d.there are two origins.two replication forks move in opposite directions.replication proceeds in one direction.there are no replication forks.4. A mutation is aa. change in the direction of a replication fork.b. form of cancer.c. kind of DNA replication.d. change in the nucleotide sequence of DNA.5. Which of the following enzymes is involved with breaking hydrogen bonds?a. DNA polymeraseb. DNA ligasec. DNA helicased. Both a and bModern Biology Study Guide53NameClassDateSHORT ANSWER Answer the questions in the space provided.1. How does replication occur so quickly in eukaryotes?2. Why is it important that exact copies of DNA are produced during replication?3. How is DNA replication related to cancer?4. Critical Thinking Why is it advantageous to have weak hydrogen bonds between complementarybases and strong covalent bonds between phosphate and deoxyribose groups in a DNA molecule?STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONS The figure below shows DNA replicating. In the spaceprovided, describe what is occurring at each lettered section of the figure.Part a.Part b.Part c.Copyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.Part a.Part b.Part c.54Section 10-3 ReviewSEC T I O N 10 - 4 R E VIEWNameClassDateSEC T I O N 10 - 4 R E VIEWP ROTEIN S YNTHESISVOCABULARY REVIEW Define the following terms.1. codon2. translation3. anticodonMULTIPLE CHOICE Write the correct letter in the blank.1. A protein is a polymer consisting of a specific sequence ofa. amino acids.b. fatty acids.c. RNA nucleotides.d. DNA nucleotides.Copyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.2. The genetic code specifies the correlation betweena.b.c.d.a DNA-nucleotide sequence and an RNA-nucleotide sequence.an mRNA-nucleotide sequence and a tRNA-nucleotide sequence.an mRNA-nucleotide sequence and an rRNA-nucleotide sequence.an RNA-nucleotide sequence and an amino-acid sequence.3. During translation, one end of a tRNA molecule pairs with a complementarya. nucleotide sequence in DNA.b. mRNA codon.c. tRNA molecule.d. protein molecule.4. In eukaryotic cells, RNA is copied from DNA in thea. ribosomes.b. nucleus.c. nuclear membrane.d. cytosol.5. Two amino acids are linked by a peptide bond whena.b.c.d.two ribosomes attach simultaneously to the same mRNA transcript.two tRNAs pair with neighboring codons on an mRNA transcript.two codons on an mRNA transcript bind to each other.a ribosome attaches to two codons on an mRNA transcript.Modern Biology Study Guide55NameClassDateSHORT ANSWER Answer the questions in the space provided.1. List, in order, the tRNA anticodons that are complementary to the mRNA sequenceAUGCAUGCAAGUUAG.How many amino acids will be in the polypeptide that is initially formed when this mRNAsequence is translated?2. Explain why methionine is the first amino acid in every growing polypeptide.3. Describe three ways that RNA differs from DNA.4. Critical Thinking How would a deletion of one nucleotide in the middle of an mRNA transcriptaffect the polypeptide specified by that transcript?STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONS Label each part of the figure in the spaces provided.bcdeafgh56Section 10-4 ReviewCopyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.The diagram below summarizes the events that occur during translation.NameClassDateSEC T I O N 11 - 1 R E VIEWC ONTROL OF G ENE E XPRESSIONVOCABULARY REVIEW Explain the relationship between the terms in each of thefollowing pairs of terms.1. regulator gene, repressor protein2. operator, operon3. intron, exon4. transcription factor, enhancerMULTIPLE CHOICE Write the correct letter in the blank.Copyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.1. A gene is expressed when it isa.b.c.d.present in the genome of an individual.prevented from interacting with RNA polymerase.transcribed into mRNA.duplicated during the replication of DNA.2. In the lac operon of E. coli, lactose functions asa. a promoter.b. an operator.c. a repressor proteind. an inducer.3. In eukaryotic cells, transcription occursa. on parts of the DNA that are uncoiled.b. only on introns.c. only on exons.d. on all parts of the DNA.4. Unlike gene expression in prokaryotes, gene expression in eukaryotesa.b.c.d.cannot be regulated before transcription has occurred.can be regulated after transcription has occurred.does not involve promoters.involves the transcription of groups of genes called operons.5. Enhancersa. code for proteins called inducers.b. must be located close to the genesthey activate.c. are found only in prokaryotic genomes.d. facilitate transcription by binding totranscription factors.Modern Biology Study Guide57NameClassDateSHORT ANSWER Answer the questions in the space provided.1. What is an operon, and in what type of organism are operons found?2. Describe what occurs during activation of the lac operon.3. Describe what occurs during repression of the lac operon.4. Critical Thinking How does the absence of a nuclear envelope in prokaryotes preventprokaryotes from controlling gene expression by modifying RNA after transcription?STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONS Use the figure to answer the following questions.1. The diagram below represents the lac operon in the presence of lactose. Label each part of thediagram in the space provided.bcStructural genesRNA polymeraseea2. If the regulator gene were deleted, how would this affect expression of the structural genes?Explain your answer.3. Is transcription of the structural genes activated or repressed under the conditions shownabove? Explain your answer.58Section 11-1 ReviewCopyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.dNameClassDateSEC T I O N 11 - 2 R E VIEWG ENE E XPRESSION IN D EVELOPMENTAND C ELL D IVISIONVOCABULARY REVIEW Distinguish between the terms in each of the following pairsof terms.1. homeobox, homeotic gene2. proto-oncogene, oncogene3. sarcoma, lymphomaCopyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.4. oncogene, tumor-suppressor geneMULTIPLE CHOICE Write the correct letter in the blank.1. The expression of different genes in different cells of a multicellular organisma.b.c.d.contributes to the development of form in an organism.causes the uncontrolled proliferation of cells.is caused by the transfer of cells from one organism to another.results from mutations that destroy normal gene functioning.2. Homeoboxes area. found only in prokaryotes.b. found only in Drosophila.c. mutations that can have devastatingconsequences on development.d. DNA sequences that regulate patternsof development.3. The major distinguishing characteristic of cancer isa. uncontrolled cell division.b. production of viruses.c. metastasis.d. tumor formation.4. More than 85 percent of all lung cancers are caused bya. asbestos.b. tobacco smoke.c. X rays.d. ultraviolet light.Modern Biology Study Guide59NameClassDate5. A gene whose normal function is to prevent uncontrolled cell division isa. an oncogene.b. a cancer gene.c. a homeotic gene.d. a tumor-suppressor gene.SHORT ANSWER Answer the questions in the space provided.1. How do homeotic genes regulate development in Drosophila?2. What factors influence whether a person will develop cancer?3. How can viruses induce cancer?4. What are two key characteristics of cancer cells?5. Critical Thinking A great deal of research on the causes of and a possible cure for cancer focuseson the genes that control the cell cycle. Why?Tumor-suppressorgenesProto-oncogenesNormalEffect:60Section 11-2 ReviewMutationsEffect:NormalEffect:Copyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONS Complete the flowchart below by filling in the three boxesat the bottom.NameClassDateSEC T I O N 1 2 - 1 R E VIEWC HROMOSOMES AND I NHERITANCEVOCABULARY REVIEW Distinguish between the terms in each of the following pairsof terms.1. sex chromosome, autosome2. germ-cell mutation, somatic-cell mutation3. translocation, nondisjunction4. deletion, inversionCopyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.5. substitution, frameshift mutationMULTIPLE CHOICE Write the correct letter in the blank.1. Genes that belong to the same linkage group tend to bea. located on different chromosomes.b. inherited together.c. found only in males.d. found only in somatic cells.2. Two genes that are one map unit apart are separated by crossing-overa. 1% of the time.b. 20% of the time.c. 50% of the time.d. 100% of the time.c. germ cells.d. skin cells.3. Mutations that can be inherited arise ina. somatic cells.b. body cells.4. Which of the following sequences could result from an inversion of the sequence GAGACATT?a. GAGCATTb. GTGACATTc. CTCTGATTd. GATACAGT5. Which of the following is a point mutation that does not produce a frameshift?a. substitutionb. insertionc. deletiond. inversionModern Biology Study Guide61NameClassDateSHORT ANSWER Answer the questions in the space provided.1. In humans and fruit flies, which parent determines the sex of the offspring? Explain why.2. How did Morgan determine that red-eye color in Drosophila is an X-linked trait?3. Explain why traits that are controlled by genes on the same chromosome do not always appearin the expected ratio in offspring.4. Critical Thinking Would a frameshift mutation have a more serious effect if it occurred nearthe beginning of a gene or the end of a gene? Explain your answer.The Drosophila genes for whiteeyes, vermilion eyes, and miniature wings are located on the samechromosome. The table showshow often these genes areseparated by crossing-over.062Section 12-1 ReviewGenesFrequency ofcrossing-overVermilion eyes and miniature wings3%White eyes and vermilion eyes30%White eyes and miniature wings33%40Copyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONS Use the data in the table below to indicate the positionof these genes on the chromosome map shown below. Assuming that the gene for whiteeyes has a chromosome map unit number of 1, write the map unit numbers above eachgenes position on the chromosome map.NameClassDateSEC T I O N 1 2 - 2 R E VIEWH UMAN G ENETICSVOCABULARY REVIEW Name a trait or genetic disorder that is caused by each of thefollowing patterns of inheritance.1. polygenic inheritance2. multiple alleles3. autosomal dominant4. sex-influenced trait5. incomplete dominanceMULTIPLE CHOICE Write the correct letter in the blank.1. Which individual(s) in the pedigree shown below must be a carrier?Copyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.a.b.c.d.1 only4 only3 onlyboth 1 and 412342. Since the ABO blood group alleles are codominant, an individual with the genotype I AI Bwill have blood typea. A.b. B.c. AB.d. O.3. Which of the following human traits is not a polygenic trait?a. skin colorb. eye colorc. heightd. ABO blood type4. A trait whose expression is affected by the presence of sex hormones is said to bea. sex-influenced.b. sex-linked.c. X-linked.d. Y-linked.5. In humans, PKU can be treated bya. insulin injections.b. diet.c. gene therapy.d. surgery.Modern Biology Study Guide63NameClassDateSHORT ANSWER Answer the questions in the space provided.1. Why is pattern baldness more common in men than in women?2. Briefly describe how amniocentesis and chorionic villi sampling are used in genetic screening.3. Explain the difference between a sex-linked trait and a sex-influenced trait.4. Critical Thinking A couple has four children, and each child has a different ABO blood type.STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONS In the two pedigrees below, indicate all possible offspringin generation II by correctly filling in the male and female symbols for generation II. Use acompletely filled symbol to represent an individual who displays the trait and a half-filledsymbol to represent a carrier.X-linked recessive traitGeneration IGeneration II64Section 12-2 ReviewAutosomal recessive traitCopyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.What are the blood types and genotypes of the children and the parents?NameClassDateSEC T I O N 1 3 - 1 R E VIEWDNA T ECHNOLOGYVOCABULARY REVIEW Define the following terms.1. DNA fingerprint2. gel electrophoresis3. probe4. primerMULTIPLE CHOICE Write the correct letter in the blank.1. To cut DNA molecules into pieces at specific sequences of nucleotides, genetic engineers useCopyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.a. cloning vectors.b. insulin.c. bacteria.d. restriction enzymes.2. In gel electrophoresis, DNA fragments migrate toward one end of a gel because they area.b.c.d.pulled toward that end by gravity.attracted to complementary DNA fragments at that end of the gel.attracted to the positively charged end of the gel.repelled by hydrophobic molecules at the other end of the gel.3. The accuracy of DNA fingerprinting can be increased by comparinga.b.c.d.segments of DNA that tend to vary the least from person to person.noncoding segments from several loci.DNA from identical twins.repeat patterns at only one or two sites in the genome.4. In addition to DNA polymerase and primers, the polymerase chain reaction also requiresa. a large amount of DNA.b. restriction enzymes.c. a supply of the four DNA nucleotides.d. complementary sequences of RNA.5. To obtain bacteria that produce insulin, genetic engineersa.b.c.d.remove repressor proteins that inhibit the expression of the bacterial insulin gene.insert a vector containing the human gene for insulin into bacteria.search for bacteria that can grow in a medium that lacks insulin.grow normal bacteria in a nutrient medium that contains a large amount of sugar.Modern Biology Study Guide65NameClassDateSHORT ANSWER Answer the questions in the space provided.1. How are radioactive probes useful in DNA fingerprinting?2. How is the polymerase chain reaction useful in DNA fingerprinting?3. Critical Thinking Why is it necessary to use the same restriction enzyme to cut two pieces ofDNA that are to be joined together?4. List three ways that DNA technology could be used to improve the lives of humans.STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONS In the spaces provided, write the names for the objectslabeled af.The diagram below summarizes the procedure for transferring a human gene into a bacterium.bcedf66Section 13-1 ReviewCopyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.aNameClassDateSEC T I O N 1 3 - 2 R E VIEWT HE H UMAN G ENOME P ROJECTVOCABULARY REVIEW Define the following terms.1. proteomics2. bioinformatics3. single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP)4. Human Genome ProjectCopyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.MULTIPLE CHOICE Write the correct letter in the blank.1. One of the goals of the Human Genome Project is toa. increase the number of genes in the human genome.b. map the location of only the most important genes on each chromosome.c. clone the entire human genome in bacteria.d. determine the nucleotide sequence of the entire human genome.2. One of the surprising discoveries of the Human Genome Project was thata. the human genome consists of only about 30,000 to 40,000 genes.b. 98 percent of the human genome codes for proteins.c. each gene encodes only a single protein.d. the human genome contains no transposons.3. An understanding of the human genome is aided by an understanding ofa. mathematics.c. DNA fingerprints.b. computer science.d. the genomes of model species.4. What percentage of the human genome codes for proteins?a. 98 percentb. 10 percentc. 25 percentd. 2 percent5. A DNA microarray is an important tool because ita. can cure cancer.c. identifies an individual.b. shows which genes are active in a cell. d. dyes tumor cells to kill them.Modern Biology Study Guide67NameClassDateSHORT ANSWER Answer the questions in the space provided.1. Why did scientists want to map the human genome?2. List three important discoveries that resulted from the Human Genome Project.3. Critical Thinking Why is it more important to understand the human proteome than thehuman genome?STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONS Use the table to answer the following questions in thespaces provided.Genome size(million bases)Numberof genesArchaebacteriaPyrococcus1.92,065EubacteriaChlamydiaE. coli1.04.68944,289Amoeba34~9,000FungiYeast126,000PlantaeMustardEaster lily125100,00023,174~25,000AnimaliaFruitflyRoundwormFrogHumanMouseZebrafish120971,7003,3003,6301,70013,60019,049~30,00035,000~30,000~3,0002. What might explain why there is not a direct relationship between the size of an organismsgenome and the number of genes it contains?68Section 13-2 ReviewCopyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.Organism(common name)Protista1. What is the relationship, if any,between the complexity of anorganism and the size of itsgenome?KingdomNameClassDateSEC T I O N 1 3 - 3 R E VIEWG ENETIC E NGINEERINGVOCABULARY REVIEW Define the following terms.1. DNA vaccine2. telomere3. bioethics4. gene therapyMULTIPLE CHOICE Write the correct letter in the blank.1. Many of the pharmaceutical products being produced by DNA technology areCopyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.a. carbohydrates.b. lipids.c. proteins.d. polysaccharides.2. When the human body mobilizes its defenses against a pathogen, the body recognizes thepathogensa. surface proteins.b. DNA.c. RNA.d. genome.3. DNA technology is being used to develop crop plants that area. less toxic to the pests that normallyfeed on them.b. more susceptible to herbicides.c. unable to fix nitrogen in the atmosphere.d. resistant to some diseases.4. Scientists have inserted genes into rice plants thata.b.c.d.code for enzymes that cause rice to ripen quickly.increase the iron and beta carotene levels.code for substances that cause allergies in people.increase the thickness of the seed coat.5. Some people are concerned that genetically engineered crop plants coulda.b.c.d.transmit their new genes to wild plant species, producing superweeds.transmit their new genes to the animals that eat the plants, producing superanimals.exchange genes with animals, producing plant-animal hybrids.be wiped out by native plant species.Modern Biology Study Guide69NameClassDateSHORT ANSWER Answer the questions in the space provided.1. How does a DNA vaccine prevent future disease?2. If Dollys cloning was successful, why was her lifespan shorter than normal?3. Why doesnt gene therapy cure cystic fibrosis?4. Describe a potential problem that could arise from genetic engineering.5. Critical Thinking What is a possible beneficial change besides those mentioned in the text thatcould be made to crop plants using DNA technology?aof animals has producedbcGenetic engineeringof plants has producedde70Section 13-3 ReviewCopyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONS The flowchart below summarizes some of the successesof genetic engineering. Complete the chart by filling in the blanks.NameClassDateSEC T I O N 1 4 - 1 R E VIEWB IOGENESISVOCABULARY REVIEW Define the following terms.1. biogenesis2. spontaneous generation3. vital forceMULTIPLE CHOICE Write the correct letter in the blank.1. One of the observations that led people to think that life could arise from nonliving thingswas thata.b.c.d.maggots turned into oval cases from which flies eventually emerged.fish appeared in ponds that had been dry the previous season.large fish developed from smaller fish, which hatched from fish eggs.fish grew larger by eating other living things, such as flies.Copyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.2. The purpose of the netting in Redis experiment was to preventa.b.c.d.maggots from leaving the jar.air from leaving the jar.adult flies from entering the jar.bacteria from entering the jar.3. In the experimental group in Spallanzanis experiment, thea.b.c.d.broth remained clear.flask contained no broth.broth was not boiled.flask was not sealed.4. Spallanzanis opponents disagreed with his conclusion that microorganisms from the aircontaminated the boiled meat broth. They argued that Spallanzania.b.c.d.heated the flasks too long, killing the microorganisms in the broth.heated the flasks too long, destroying the vital force in the air inside the flasks.waited too long before he sealed the flasks after heating them.accidentally contaminated the broth when he sealed the flasks.5. In Pasteurs experiment, the function of the curved neck on the flask was to preventa.b.c.d.air from entering the body of the flask.air from leaving the body of the flask.solid particles from entering the body of the flask.broth from spilling out of the flask.Modern Biology Study Guide71NameClassDateSHORT ANSWER Answer the questions in the space provided.1. What observations made in the 1600s and 1700s led some people to believe that there was avital force in the air?2. Why did Spallanzani boil the broth in his experiment?3. How did Pasteurs experiment differ from Spallanzanis experiment?4. How did Pasteurs experiment answer the objections raised by supporters of the vital forcehypothesis?conclusion if Redi had not used a control group?STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONS The diagrams below illustrate steps in the control andexperimental groups of Spallanzanis experiment. In the spaces provided, list the steps ineach group in their proper order. A step may be used in more than one group.Broth becomescloudy.aFlask issealed.bBroth isboiled.cFlask isopen.Brothremains clear.deControlgroupExperimentalgroup72Section 14-1 ReviewCopyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.5. Critical Thinking How might the believers in spontaneous generation have disputed RedisNameClassDateSEC T I O N 1 4 - 2 R E VIEWE ARTHS H ISTORYVOCABULARY REVIEW Explain the relationship between the terms in each of thefollowing pairs of terms.1. radioactive isotope, radioactive dating2. radioactive decay, half-life3. microsphere, coacervateMULTIPLE CHOICE Write the correct letter in the blank.Copyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.1. The age of Earth is estimated to bea. about 700,000 years.b. about 50 million years.c. about 400 million years.d. more than 4 billion years.2. Sulfur has an atomic number of 16. Therefore, the isotope sulfur-35 hasa. 19 protons and 16 neutrons.b. 35 protons and 16 neutrons.c. 16 protons and 19 neutrons.d. 16 protons and 35 neutrons.3. When performing radioactive dating, scientists measure thea.b.c.d.number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of a radioactive isotope.amount of a particular radioactive isotope contained in a material.age of a living organism that is exposed to radioactive isotopes.rate at which the mass of an object decreases over time.4. Carbon-14 dating is useful for estimating the age ofa. relatively young organic material.b. old rocks.c. Earth.d. the solar system.5. Researchers using the technique of Miller and Urey have been able to producea. amino acids and nucleotides.b. proteins and DNA.c. ATP and mitochondria.d. cell membranes and simple cells.Modern Biology Study Guide73NameClassDateSHORT ANSWER Answer the questions in the space provided.1. Explain how the half-life of a radioactive isotope affects the usefulness of that isotope in datingspecific types of rocks.2. Why do some scientists think that areas protected from the atmosphere might have favored theproduction of organic compounds on early Earth?3. Why was the discovery of microspheres and coacervates an important contribution to theunderstanding of how life might have originated on Earth?4. Critical Thinking Does radioactive dating with isotopes of uranium and thorium provide anestimate of the beginning, middle, or end of the period of Earths formation? Explain your answer.The graph below represents the radioactive decay of an isotope. If the half-life of thorium-230is 75,000 years, how old is a rock that contains only 1/16th of its original thorium-230? Showyour calculations in the space below.Amount of isotoperemainingAll1214074121811634Half-livesSection 14-2 Review567Copyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONS Use the figure to answer the following question.NameClassDateSEC T I O N 1 4 - 3 R E VIEWT HE F IRST L IFE- F ORMSVOCABULARY REVIEW Define the following terms.1. ribozyme2. chemosynthesis3. cyanobacteria4. endosymbiosisMULTIPLE CHOICE Write the correct letter in the blank.Copyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.1. The idea that life may have started with self-replicating molecules of RNA is based on theobservation that RNA cana.b.c.d.take on a great variety of shapes and act as an enzyme.link nucleotides together to form proteins.create proteins that have the ability to replicate themselves.produce ribozymes that have the ability to produce other ribozymes.2. The first organisms on Earth were probablya. autotrophic, aerobic eukaryotes.b. heterotrophic, aerobic eukaryotes.c. autotrophic, aerobic prokaryotes.d. heterotrophic, anaerobic prokaryotes.3. The main difference between chemosynthetic autotrophs and photosynthetic autotrophsis that onlya.b.c.d.photosynthetic autotrophs use CO2 as a carbon source.chemosynthetic autotrophs use CO2 as a carbon source.chemosynthetic autotrophs obtain energy from inorganic molecules.photosynthetic autotrophs synthesize organic compounds.4. An early function of aerobic respiration may have been toa.b.c.d.increase the amount of oxygen in the upper atmosphere.prevent the destruction of essential organic compounds by oxygen.provide more oxygen for photosynthesis.enable land animals to breathe.5. The eukaryotic organelle that is thought to have evolved from aerobic prokaryotes is thea. chloroplast.b. nucleus.c. ribosome.d. mitochondrion.Modern Biology Study Guide75NameClassDateSHORT ANSWER Answer the questions in the space provided.1. Explain how early RNA molecules might have been able to respond to natural selection.2. What role did the appearance of the ozone layer play in the evolution of early life on Earth?3. Name three characteristics of mitochondria and chloroplasts that support the endosymbiotichypothesis of eukaryotic evolution.4. Critical Thinking How would endosymbiosis have been mutually beneficial for pre-eukaryoticcells and for the small prokaryotes that invaded them?a2.0Billion years agophotosynthetic prokaryotesphotosynthetic eukaryoteschemosynthetic prokaryotesaerobic eukaryotesheterotrophic prokaryotes2.53.03.5bcd4.0e76Section 14-3 ReviewCopyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONS Arrange the organisms listed below in the order in whichthey are thought to have originated on Earth by writing their names in the spaces providedin the figure.NameClassDateSEC T I O N 1 5 - 1 R E VIEWH ISTORY OF E VOLUTIONARY T HOUGHTVOCABULARY REVIEW Define the following terms.1. evolution2. natural selectionMULTIPLE CHOICE Write the correct letter in the blank.1. If Lamarcks hypothesis of species modification were true, the children of a person whodeveloped large muscles by lifting weights would be born witha.b.c.d.smaller-than-average muscles.normal-sized muscles.normal-sized muscles that would become larger only if the children also lifted weights.larger-than-average muscles.Copyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.2. What is the idea developed by Charles Lyell stating that the geologic processes thatshaped Earth in the past continue to operate today?a. inheritance of acquired characteristicsb. catastrophismc. uniformitarianismd. descent with modification3. Darwin used the phrase descent with modification to mean thata. new species descended from preexisting species, and species must be able to changeover time.b. organisms that descend from high elevations are modified as they acquire new traits.c. all living things descended from a recent common ancestor on the Galpagos Islands.d. individuals modify their behavior to survive and then pass those modifications on totheir descendants.4. According to Darwins theory of natural selection,a.b.c.d.individuals are modified by adverse environmental conditions.the environment affects all organisms in a population in the same way.populations of all organisms grow unchecked under natural conditions.organisms that have more favorable traits tend to leave more offspring.5. In an evolutionary sense, an individual organism has high fitness if ita.b.c.d.has a large number of acquired traits.can run long distances without becoming exhausted.reproduces more successfully than other individuals.evolves into another organism rather than becoming extinct.Modern Biology Study Guide77NameClassDateSHORT ANSWER Answer the questions in the space provided.1. Why are acquired traits not directly related to the process of evolution?2. How did the ideas of Thomas Malthus influence Darwins thinking about evolution?3. What is the relationship between evolution and natural selection?4. Critical Thinking If Lamarck and Darwin had debated why giraffes have such long necks, howwould their explanations have differed?STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONS Use the figure to answer the following question.ABSEC T I O N 1 5 - 3 R E VIEW78Section 15-1 ReviewCopyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.Which of the parent birds shown below (A or B) appears to have greater fitness? Explain your answer.NameClassDateSEC T I O N 1 5 - 2 R E VIEWE VIDENCE OF E VOLUTIONVOCABULARY REVIEW Explain the relationship between the terms in each of thefollowing pairs of terms.1. homologous structure, analogous structure2. fossil, principle of superposition3. relative age, absolute ageMULTIPLE CHOICE Write the correct letter in the blank.1. The wing of a bat and the foreleg of an alligator areCopyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.a. analogous features.b. homologous features.c. vestigial features.d. artificially selected features.2. Features that were useful to an ancestral organism but are not useful to a modernorganism that inherited them are said to bea. analogous.b. homologous.c. vestigial.d. artificially selected.3. According to the principle of superposition, the lowest layer in a cross section of a rocksequencea. is the most recent.b. is the oldest.c. has the fewest fossils.d. contains only the fossils of burrowinganimals.4. Embryological comparisons reveal thata.b.c.d.many vertebrate embryos look similar at early stages of development.embryos of different vertebrates look more similar as development proceeds.rabbit embryos look like adult fish.gorillas begin life as fish and then develop into gorillas during an embryonic stage.5. Fossils area.b.c.d.remains or traces of preexisting organisms.all extinct organisms.deeply buried sedimentary rock strata.from animals but not plants.Modern Biology Study Guide79NameClassDateSHORT ANSWER Answer the questions in the space provided.1. When trying to determine the evolutionary relationship between two species, would a biologistconcentrate on homologous features or analogous features? Explain why.2. If an animal has a vestigial structure, what might a biologist infer about the animals evolutionaryhistory?3. How does biogeography contribute to an understanding of evolution?4. Explain the evidence that indicates that species evolve over time.5. Critical Thinking Why do vestigial structures persist in modern organisms?trilobites, mammal fossils, oldest fossil, youngest fossil, first land plants, first dinosaursabcdef80Section 15-2 ReviewCopyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONS Indicate the relative ages of the fossilized organismslisted below by placing them in a strata on the diagram of a cross section of sedimentaryrock below.NameClassDateSEC T I O N 1 5 - 3 R E VIEWE VOLUTION IN A CTIONVOCABULARY REVIEW Provide one example for each of the following terms.1. adaptive radiation2. artificial selection3. coevolution4. convergent evolution5. divergent evolution6. resistanceMULTIPLE CHOICE Write the correct letter in the blank.1. What is the process called by which different species evolve similar traits?a. coevolution.b. convergent evolution.c. divergent evolution.d. adaptive radiation.Copyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.2. The evolutionary pattern illustrated by the finch species on the Galpagos Islandsis an example ofa. coevolution.b. convergent evolution.c. divergent evolution.d. artificial selection.3. Divergent evolution would be most likely in which of the following situations?a. A group of organisms is isolated from the main population on three isolated islandswith different environmental conditions.b. Individuals in a large population experience the same environmental conditions.c. Individuals in a small population experience the same environmental conditions.d. A group of organisms which are well adapted to the environment live on a remote island.4. The corresponding changes of two or more species that are closely associated with eachother, such as a plant and an animal that pollinates it, are calleda. adaptive radiation.b. divergent evolution.c. convergent evolution.d. coevolution.5. In artificial selection, humans select fora.b.c.d.a desirable trait.an undesirable trait.a vestigial trait.a trait that makes the organisms less fit.Modern Biology Study Guide81NameClassDateSHORT ANSWER Answer the questions in the space provided.1. What is adaptive radiation?2. What could happen to a tree-dwelling species of lizard if all the trees in an area died?3. Give three examples of artificial selection. Include examples of both animals and plants.4. Critical Thinking Would a species that lives a long time, but has few offspring, be more or lesslikely to become extinct after a sudden change in its environment than a species that has a shortlife, but produces large numbers of offspring? Explain.The diagram shows several groups of primates and a hypothesis of how they are related basedon differences in DNA. What pattern of evolution does the diagram represent? According to thishypothesis, when did the rhesus monkey and the green monkey diverge? Which group of primatesexisted before the others?humanchimpanzeegibbonrhesus monkey green monkeycapuchingalago1020304082Section 15-3 ReviewMillions of Years AgoDNA Difference0Copyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONSNameClassDateSEC T I O N 1 6 - 1 R E VIEWG ENETIC E QUILIBRIUMVOCABULARY REVIEW Define the following terms.1. population genetics2. gene pool3. allele frequency4. phenotype frequency5. Hardy-Weinberg genetic equilibriumCopyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.MULTIPLE CHOICE Write the correct letter in the blank.1. The smallest unit in which evolution occurs isa. an individual organism.b. a population.c. a species.d. a kingdom.2. Length, weight, and many other quantitative traits in a population tend to show variationthat, when plotted on a graph, looks likea. a population wave.b. a gene pool.c. a bell curve.d. an equilibrium plot.3. If a population of four oclock flowers consists of five RR plants (red flowers), two Rrplants (pink flowers), and one r r plant (white flowers), the phenotype frequency of plantswith pink flowers isa. 0.125.b. 0.25.c. 0.5.d. 0.75.4. In the population described in question 3, the frequency of the R allele isa. 0.125.b. 0.25.c. 0.5.d. 0.75.5. For a population to be in genetic equilibrium,a. individuals must not enter or leavethe population.b. the population must be evolving.c. the population must be small.d. selection must occur.Modern Biology Study Guide83NameClassDateSHORT ANSWER Answer the questions in the space provided.1. What types of individuals in a population are represented by the two ends of a bell curve?2. What are the three main ways that variations in genotype arise in a population?3. What five assumptions must be made for the Hardy-Weinberg genetic equilibrium to apply toa population?4. Critical Thinking Does a gene pool include the genes of individuals that cannot reproduce?Explain your answer.RedRedWhitePinkRedPinkWhiteRedRRRRrrRrRRRrrrRRPARENTSOFFSPRINGPhenotypefrequencyAllelefrequencyPhenotypefrequencyAllelefrequencyRed:R : 0.625Red:R:r : 0.375White:r:0.5White: 0.25Pink:840.25Section 16-1 ReviewPink:Copyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONS The drawing below shows a population of four oclockflowers. Using the information given in the table below the drawing, predict the phenotype frequencies and allele frequencies in the offspring of this population. Write youranswers in the table below. Show your calculations.NameClassDateSEC T I O N 1 6 - 2 R E VIEWD ISRUPTION OF G ENETIC E QUILIBRIUMVOCABULARY REVIEW Distinguish between the terms in each of the following pairsof terms.1. immigration, emigration2. gene flow, genetic drift3. random mating, assortative mating4. stabilizing selection, directional selectionMULTIPLE CHOICE Write the correct letter in the blank.Copyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.1. Any violation of the conditions necessary for Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium can result ina. independent assortment.b. disorganizing selection.c. evolution.d. eventual extinction.2. The movement of reproductive individuals from one population to another results ina. infertile offspring.b. spontaneous mutation.c. genetic drift.d. gene flow.3. Genetic drift is most likely to occur ina. small populations.b. large populations.c. populations that migrate.d. populations that have a low frequencyof mutation.4. Assortative mating occurs whena.b.c.d.one animal mates with a variety of other individuals during its lifetime.males choose to mate with females that are the most fertile.an individual chooses mates that are similar to itself.females choose to mate with males that are from other populations.5. Starlings produce an average of five eggs in each clutch. If there are more than five, theparents cannot adequately feed the young. If there are fewer than five, predators maydestroy the entire clutch. This is an example ofa. disruptive selection.b. stabilizing selection.c. directional selection.d. sexual selection.Modern Biology Study Guide85NameClassDateSHORT ANSWER Answer the questions in the space provided.1. List five conditions that can cause evolution to take place.2. Explain how a Hardy-Weinberg genetic equilibrium is affected by mutations.3. What is one potential negative consequence of nonrandom mating based on geographic proximity?4. How might being brightly colored increase the fitness of the males of some bird species?5. Why is genetic homozygosity dangerous to a nearly extinct species?6. Critical Thinking If a cow develops a preference for eating white four oclock flowers and ignoringpink and red four oclock flowers, what type of selection is being demonstrated? Would the coweventually eliminate all white four oclock flowers from the population on which it feeds?a86bSection 16-2 ReviewcCopyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONS Label the three types of selection illustrated by thegraphs below.NameClassDateSEC T I O N 1 6 - 3 R E VIEWF ORMATION OF S PECIESVOCABULARY REVIEW Define the following terms.1. morphology2. geographic isolation3. punctuated equilibriumMULTIPLE CHOICE Write the correct letter in the blank.1. One limitation of the morphological species concept is thatCopyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.a.b.c.d.morphological characteristics are not easy to observe.it cannot be applied to extinct organisms.members of different species often appear quite different.there can be morphological differences among individuals in a single population.2. According to the biological species concept, a species is a population of organisms thata.b.c.d.can successfully interbreed but cannot breed with other groups.have a similar structure and appearance.are physically separated from other organisms with a similar appearance.can hybridize with each other to produce infertile offspring.3. Fish populations that do not interbreed because they live in different ponds may evolveinto separate species due toa. ecological isolation.b. geographic isolation.c. prezygotic isolation.d. postzygotic isolation.4. Bird populations that do not interbreed because they cannot recognize each othersmating calls may evolve into separate species due toa. ecological isolation.b. geographic isolation.c. prezygotic isolation.d. postzygotic isolation.5. A pattern of rapid evolutionary changes followed by long periods of no change isdescribed asa. gradual evolution.b. punctuated equilibrium.c. reproductive isolation.d. continuous speciation.Modern Biology Study Guide87NameClassDateSHORT ANSWER Answer the questions in the space provided.1. What are two limitations of the biological species concept?2. What is one advantage of prezygotic isolation over postzygotic isolation?3. Describe two pieces of evidence indicating that speciation does not always occur at the same rate.4. Critical Thinking Some scientists predict that if global warming continues over the next few centuries, melting of the polar ice caps will raise the level of the oceans, causing some peninsulas tobecome islands. How might this change eventually affect the species that live on these peninsulas?Mating activityPeeper frogLeopard frogWood frogPickerel frogMarch88Section 16-3 ReviewAprilMayTree frogGreen frogBullfrogJuneJulyCopyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONS The graph below shows the mating seasons of severalspecies of frogs. On the basis of the information shown in the graph, do the peeper frogand the leopard frog likely have barriers to reproduction in addition to slightly differentmating seasons? What other barriers might be in operation? Explain your answers.NameClassDateSEC T I O N 1 7 - 1 R E VIEWB IODIVERSITYVOCABULARY REVIEW Distinguish between the terms in each of the following pairsof terms.1. taxonomy, taxon2. kingdom, species3. phylum, division4. species name, species identifierCopyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.5. species, subspeciesMULTIPLE CHOICE Write the correct letter in the blank.1. Aristotle classified animals on the basis ofa. their size.b. their evolutionary history.c. where they lived.d. what they ate.2. The main criterion used in Linnaeuss system of classification is an organismsa. evolutionary history.b. morphology.c. taxonomy.d. hierarchy.3. Each subset within a class of organisms is called a(n)a. order.b. family.c. genus.d. phylum.4. In the scientific name of an organism, the first part is thea. species identifier. b. variety.c. subspecies.d. genus.5. The species name of the pangolin isa. Manis temminckii.b. manis temminckii.c. Manis temminckii.d. Manis Temminckii.Modern Biology Study Guide89NameClassDateSHORT ANSWER Answer the questions in the space provided.1. How were the classification systems of Aristotle and Linnaeus similar?2. The word part bi- means two, and the word part nomen means name. Explain how these wordparts relate to the system scientists use to identify organisms.3. How does the classification process used by modern taxonomists differ from that used by Linnaeus?4. Critical Thinking Explain why Aristotles system of classifying animals is no longer used bybiologists. Use examples from the animal kingdom to support your answer.abcdabecdeffghgh90Section 17-1 ReviewCopyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONS Use the figure to fill in the names of the seven levels oforganization in the modern Linnaean system of classifying organisms, with a representingthe smallest category and h the largest category.NameClassDateSEC T I O N 1 7 - 2 R E VIEWS YSTEMATICSVOCABULARY REVIEW Define the following terms.1. systematics2. phylogenetic diagram3. cladisticsMULTIPLE CHOICE Write the correct letter in the blank.1. The scales of snakes and the scales of pangolinsCopyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.a. are shared derived characters.b. are homologous structures.c. suggest descent from a common ancestor.d. evolved independently in the two groups.2. In cladistics, what term is used for a group of organisms that includes an ancestor and allof its descendants?a. classb. cladec. phylumd. species3. The molecular-clock model of evolutionary relationships is based on the assumption thatchanges in macromolecule sequencesa.b.c.d.are not random.are affected by natural selection.are greater in species with more-distant common ancestors.occur at different rates in different organisms.4. One example of a derived character is provided by thea. feathers of birds.b. scales of snakes.c. scales of pangolins.d. chromosomes of chimpanzees.5. Which of the following do cladistic taxonomists NOT compare when hypothesizingevolutionary relationships among organisms?a. morphological similaritiesb. analogous structuresc. homologous chromosomesd. shared derived charactersModern Biology Study Guide91NameClassDateSHORT ANSWER Answer the questions in the space provided.1. List three types of evidence used by systematic taxonomists to construct phylogenetic diagrams.2. What is an out-group in cladistic analysis?3. How do derived characters help cladistic taxonomists determine phylogenetic relationships?STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONS Use the figure to answer the following questions.The phylogenetic diagram shown below indicates the evolutionary relationshipsfor a hypothetical group of modern organisms, labeled 15,and their ancestors, labeled AG.312451. Which two modern organisms are likely tobe most closely related?AB2. What was the most recent common ancestorCDof organisms 2 and 3?3. What was the most recent common ancestorFEof organisms 1 and 5?G92Section 17-2 ReviewCopyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.4. Critical Thinking A paleontologist studying two modern species finds a 7-million-year-old fossilorganism with a morphology similar to the modern species and concludes that it is an ancestorof both. A molecular biologist studying the amino acid sequence of a particular protein in bothmodern species concludes that the two species last shared a common ancestor 12.5 millionyears ago. Suggest possible reasons for the discrepancy in the two conclusions.NameClassDateSEC T I O N 1 7 - 3 R E VIEWM ODERN C LASSIFICATIONVOCABULARY REVIEW For each of the kingdoms listed below, state the cell type(prokaryotic or eukaryotic), number of cells (unicellular, multicellular, or both), andform of nutrition (autotrophy, heterotrophy, or both).1. Archaebacteria2. Eubacteria3. Protista4. Fungi5. Plantae6. AnimaliaMULTIPLE CHOICE Write the correct letter in the blank.Copyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.1. The organisms that live in hostile environments that cannot support other forms of lifeare members of the domaina. Bacteria.b. Archaea.c. Eukarya.d. None of the above2. Amoebas and paramecia belong to the kingdoma. Fungi.b. Plantae.c. Protista.d. Archaea.3. Mushrooms, puffballs, mildews, and some molds belong to the kingdoma. Fungi.b. Plantae.c. Protista.d. Eukarya.4. The domain that includes the oldest known fossil cells is calleda. Eukarya.b. Archaea.c. Bacteria.d. Eubacteria.5. The domain that includes organisms with true nuclei and membrane-bound organelles iscalleda. Bacteria.b. Archaea.c. Animalia.d. Eukarya.6. The domain Eukarya includesa.b.c.d.archaea, protists, fungi, and plants.protists, fungi, plants, and animals.protists, fungi, eubacteria, and archaea.fungi, eubacteria, plants, and animals.Modern Biology Study Guide93NameClassDateSHORT ANSWER Answer the questions in the space provided.1. What characteristics distinguish archaea from bacteria?2. What characteristics distinguish fungi from plants?3. Which kingdoms include multicellular heterotrophic organisms?4. What evidence led scientists to develop the three-domain system of classification?5. Critical Thinking Another possible way to classify organisms would be to separate them intounicellular and multicellular organisms. Explain why this is not a useful classification system.DomainscbKingdomsaEubacteria94Section 17-3 ReviewArchaebacteriadefAnimaliaCopyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONS The diagram below represents the relationship betweenthe three-domain system and the six-kingdom system of classifying organisms. Label eachbox in the diagram with the correct domain or kingdom name.NameClassDateSEC T I O N 1 8 - 1 R E VIEWI NTRODUCTION TO E COLOGYVOCABULARY REVIEW Define the following terms.1. ecology2. interdependence3. biosphere4. ecosystem5. communityCopyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.6. populationMULTIPLE CHOICE Write the correct letter in the blank.1. All the robins in an area would be an example of a(n)a. community.b. population.c. ecosystem.d. biosphere.2. The broadest, most inclusive level of ecological organization is thea. population.b. community.c. biosphere.d. ecosystem.c. a biosphere.d. an ecosystem.3. A pond is an example ofa. a population.b. a community.4. Ecologists use models toa.b.c.d.make predictions about the future behavior of an ecosystem.substitute for observations from the natural world.increase the complexity of simple ecosystems.account for the influence of every variable in a real environment.Modern Biology Study Guide95NameClassDateSHORT ANSWER Answer the questions in the space provided.1. How does the production of acorns by oak trees affect Lyme disease in humans?2. Why do ecological models commonly have limited applications?3. How does a population differ from a community?4. Critical Thinking How might the destruction of large areas of tropical rain forest have worldwide consequences?STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONS The drawings below represent five levels of ecologicalorganization. In the spaces provided, label the levels and number them from 1 to 5,with 1 being the most inclusive.Copyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.96Section 18-1 ReviewNameClassDateSEC T I O N 1 8 - 2 R E VIEWE COLOGY OF O RGANISMSVOCABULARY REVIEW Distinguish between the terms in each of the following pairsof terms.1. habitat, resource2. biotic factor, abiotic factor3. conformer, regulator4. dormancy, migrationCopyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.5. generalist, spetMULTIPLE CHOICE Write the correct letter in the blank.1. One biotic factor that could influence a plant might bea. the amount of sunlight.b. soil pH.c. carbon dioxide concentration.d. a pollinating insect.2. People who spend time at high elevations develop more red blood cells, which helpsthem obtain oxygen from the thin air. This phenomenon is an example ofa. acclimation.b. adaptation.c. migration.d. dormancy.3. An animal that maintains its body temperature within a narrow range even when the environmental temperature varies is an example of aa. spet.b. generalist.c. regulator.d. conformer.4. The role a species plays in its environment is called the speciesa. habitat.b. niche.c. resources.d. tolerance curve.5. An animal that feeds on leaves from only a few species of plants is an example of aa. spet.b. generalist.c. regulator.d. conformer.Modern Biology Study Guide97NameClassDateSHORT ANSWER Answer the questions in the space provided.1. Give three examples of abiotic factors and explain how they interact.2. What are two ways that some organisms can escape from unfavorable environmental conditions?3. Explain why the Virginia opossum is considered a generalist and the koala is considered a spet.4. Explain how a species habitat differs from its niche.5. Critical Thinking How could knowledge of a pest organisms tolerance limits be used inpest control?Body temperature ( C)a403020b1010203040Environmental temperature ( C)98Section 18-2 ReviewCopyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONS Label the curves in the graph below according to thetype of organism they represent, and give a specific example of each type of organism.NameClassDateSEC T I O N 1 8 - 3 R E VIEWE NERGY T RANSFERVOCABULARY REVIEW Distinguish between the terms in each of the following groupsof terms.1. producer, consumer2. gross primary productivity, net primary productivity3. food chain, food webMULTIPLE CHOICE Write the correct letter in the blank.1. The term biomass refers to theCopyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.a. weight of the biosphere.b. volume of plants in a community.c. organic material in an ecosystem.d. amount of energy produced throughchemosynthesis.2. A detritivore is an organism thata.b.c.d.feeds on both producers and consumers.feeds on the garbage of an ecosystem.converts biomass into garbage in an ecosystem.produces carbohydrates by using energy from inorganic molecules.3. An organisms position in the sequence of energy transfers in an ecosystem is knownas itsa. trophic level.b. energy level.c. net productivity.d. feeding location.4. The percentage of energy transferred from one level to another in a food chain is usuallya. greater than 90 percent.b. about 75 percent.c. about 50 percent.d. less than 20 percent.5. Compared to the lowest trophic level, the highest trophic level containsa. more individuals.b. less energy.c. more producers.d. fewer carnivores.Modern Biology Study Guide99NameClassDateSHORT ANSWER Answer the questions in the space provided.1. Rank the following ecosystems in order of their net primary productivity, from lowest to highest:open ocean, tropical rain forest, desert, lake.2. Why are producers the first trophic level to benefit from the activity of decomposers?3. Give three reasons why energy transfer between trophic levels is not 100 percent.4. Why are food chains short?5. Critical Thinking What would happen to the energy flow through an ecosystem if thedecomposers were eliminated?aHerbivoresOmnivoresbcCarnivoresedfDetritivores100Section 18-3 ReviewCopyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONS The diagram below shows part of a food web. Eacharrow indicates energy passing from one member (the food) to another (the consumer).Only some of the indicated relationships are possible. Write yes in the spaces corresponding to the possible relationships and no in the spaces corresponding to the relationshipsthat are not possible.NameClassDateSEC T I O N 1 8 - 4 R E VIEWE COSYSTEM R ECYCLINGVOCABULARY REVIEW Explain the relationship between the terms in each of thefollowing groups of terms.1. water cycle, carbon cycle, nitrogen cycle2. nitrogen fixation, nitrification, denitrificationMULTIPLE CHOICE Write the correct letter in the blank.Copyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.1. The term groundwater refers to water thata. exists in lakes or ponds.b. is found in soil or in undergroundformations.c. has fallen to sea level.d. lies on the surface of the ground after aheavy rain.2. At least 90 percent of the water that returns to the atmosphere from terrestrial ecosystems does so througha. transpiration in plants.b. excretion in animals.c. sweating in animals.d. precipitation.3. Two sources of carbon dioxide released into the atmosphere in the carbon cycle area. photosynthesis and decomposition.c. combustion and transpiration.b. cellular respiration and photosynthesis. d. cellular respiration and combustion.4. Two components of the nitrogen cycle that produce ammonia area. nitrification and denitrification.b. nitrogen fixation and nitrification.c. nitrogen fixation and ammonification.d. ammonification and denitrification.5. Animals obtain nitrogena.b.c.d.through a mutualistic relationship with nitrogen-fixing bacteria.from the proteins and nucleic acids in the organisms they consume.by absorbing nitrates and ammonia from the soil.by absorbing nitrogen gas from the atmosphere.Modern Biology Study Guide101NameClassDateSHORT ANSWER Answer the questions in the space provided.1. Name three processes in the water cycle, and state whether each process removes water fromthe atmosphere or returns it to the atmosphere.2. Describe the cycling of carbon in the carbon cycle.3. Where are nitrogen-fixing bacteria found? How do these bacteria benefit plants?4. Critical Thinking If a crop, such as corn, is grown in the same field year after year, a nitrogencontaining fertilizer must be added to the soil each time a new crop is planted. Why isnt a singleapplication of fertilizer sufficient?acH2O inCO2 inWATERCYCLECARBONCYCLEH2O outCO2 outbdeN2 inNITROGENCYCLEN2 outf102Section 18-4 ReviewCopyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONS The diagram below represents the effect of the water,carbon, and nitrogen cycles on the life of a plant. Identify the process indicated in thethree cycles.NameClassDateSEC T I O N 1 9 - 1 R E VIEWU NDERSTANDING P OPULATIONSVOCABULARY REVIEW Contrast the following terms.1. population density, dispersion2. death rate, life expectancyMULTIPLE CHOICE Write the correct letter in the blank.1. One can estimate a populations size by counting individuals in a sample of the population if thea.b.c.d.distribution of individuals in the sample is the same as that in the population.density in the sample is greater than the population density.dispersion in the sample is less than that in the population.sample size is larger than the population size.Copyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.2. A random distribution of individuals in a population would be most likely to result froma.b.c.d.clumped food resources.territorial behavior by the individuals in the population.herding behavior by the individuals in the population.the dispersal of seeds by the wind.3. Although the United States has a larger total population than Japan, population density isgreater in Japan because thea.b.c.d.people in the United States have less education and medical care.people in Japan all live in the cities.geographical area is greater in the United States.birth rate is lower than the death rate in Japan.4. A population is likely to grow most rapidly if it hasa.b.c.d.a high percentage of old individuals.a high percentage of young individuals.about the same percentage of individuals in each age range.individuals with a low birth rate.5. In a population with a Type I survivorship curve, the likelihood of dying isa.b.c.d.low until late in life, when it increases rapidly.high early in life and much lower in older individuals.high early in life and late in life, but much lower in middle-aged individuals.fairly constant throughout life.Modern Biology Study Guide103NameClassDateSHORT ANSWER Answer the questions in the space provided.1. How do the three main patterns of population dispersion differ from one another?2. Give an example of a social behavior that can produce a clumped distribution.3. Give an example of a social behavior that can produce a uniform distribution.4. Critical Thinking What would the survivorship curve for humans look like if there were aworldwide epidemic of a fatal disease that affected only children under five years of age?STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONS Use the figure to answer the following questions.100X10Y1Z0Age (as fraction of lifespan)1. Which curve corresponds to a species in which 0.3% of the individuals are alive after one-quarter oftheir lifespan has passed and 0.1% are alive after one-half of their lifespan has passed?2. Which curve corresponds to a species in which 95% of the individuals are alive after one-quarter oftheir lifespan has passed and 90% are alive after one-half of their lifespan has passed?3. Which curve corresponds to a species in which 10% of the individuals are alive after one-third oftheir lifespan has passed and 1% are alive after two-thirds of their lifespan has passed?4. Give an example of a species that would have each type of survivorship curve.X104YSection 19-1 ReviewZCopyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.Percentage survivingThe graph below shows three different types of survivorship curves.NameClassDateSEC T I O N 1 9 - 2 R E VIEWM EASURING P OPULATIONSVOCABULARY REVIEW Explain the relationship between the terms in each of thefollowing groups of terms.1. growth rate, birth rate, death rate2. exponential growth, limiting factorMULTIPLE CHOICE Write the correct letter in the blank.1. If a countrys per capita growth rate is 0.01 and its present population is 50,000,000, whatwill the population be one year from now?a. 500,000b. 50,500,000c. 60,000,000d. 500,000,000Copyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.2. The exponential model of population growth appliesa.b.c.d.when there are no limiting factors.if the birth rate increases as the population grows.when the population size exceeds the carrying capacity.to all real populations that exist in nature.3. The logistic model of population growtha.b.c.d.reflects the fact that the carrying capacity fluctuates with environmental changes.does not accomodate the influence of limiting factors.reflects the fact that the birth rate decreases as the population grows.applies to all real populations that exist in nature.4. One example of a density-dependent limiting factor is aa. forest fire.b. flood.c. period of very severe weather.d. shortage of nesting sites.5. Which of the following is not a threat to the survival of small populations?a. breeding in captivityb. inbreedingc. habitat destructiond. disease outbreaksModern Biology Study Guide105NameClassDateSHORT ANSWER Answer the questions in the space provided.1. In 1996 in the United States, the number of live births was 4 million, the number of deaths was2.4 million, and the population was 265 million. Calculate the per capita birth rate, death rate,and growth rate. Show your calculations.2. What evidence did Charles Elton collect that suggested that fluctuations in hare and lynx populations were related?What other evidence indicates that these fluctuations may not have been related?3. Name three effects that inbreeding can have on a population.4. Critical Thinking If a populations per capita growth rate is 0.02 and its population is 100,000,000,how large will the population be in five years? Show your calculations.The graph below shows the growth of a population over time.Number ofindividualsABCKTime1. Describe the birth rate and death rate in region A.2. Describe the birth rate and death rate in region C.3. Identify the line labeled K.4. What model best describes the growth of this population?106Section 19-2 ReviewCopyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONS Use the figure to answer the following questions.NameClassDateS EC T I O N 1 9 - 3 R E VIEWH UMAN P OPULATION G ROWTHVOCABULARY REVIEW Define the following terms.1. hunter-gatherer lifestyle2. agricultural revolution3. developed country4. developing countryMULTIPLE CHOICE Write the correct letter in the blank.Copyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.1. The hunter-gatherer lifestyle is associated witha.b.c.d.large populations.ancient human populations but is not found in human populations today.high mortality rates among infants and young children.high rates of population growth.2. About 10,000 to 12,000 years ago, the human population began to grow more rapidly due toa. improvements in sanitation.b. control of disease.c. improved economic conditions.d. the agricultural revolution.3. The global growth rate of the human population isa.b.c.d.no longer increasing.not important to people in developed countries.increasing but at a slower rate than in the mid-1960s.decreasing each year.4. The current population growth rates of developed countriesa.b.c.d.are lower than those of developing countries.are high because the death rate is low.are increasing because the fertility rate is increasing.are low because the death rate is high.5. A country may have a negative growth rate if itsa. population is mostly young people.b. birth rate is higher than its death rate.c. death rate is higher than its birth rate.d. population has access to health care.Modern Biology Study Guide107NameClassDateSHORT ANSWER Answer the questions in the space provided.1. Why did the development of agriculture have a major impact on the human population growth rate?2. What factors caused human population growth to accelerate after 1650?3. What features characterize most developing countries?4. Why did population growth rates change after World War II?5. Critical Thinking Under what conditions might the per capita birth and death rates not beenough to accurately predict future human population size?STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONS Use the figure to answer the following questions.ABCDTimeE1. Which time interval best depicts human population growth over all of human history?2. Which time interval best depicts human population growth until about 1650?3. In which time interval is the birth rate approximately equal to the death rate?4. In which time interval does the birth rate greatly exceed the death rate?108Section 19-3 ReviewCopyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.Number ofindividualsThe graph below represents the hypothetical growth of a population over time. You may expressa time interval, for example, as from A to B, or from B to E.NameClassDateSEC T I O N 2 0 - 1 R E VIEWS PECIES I NTERACTIONSVOCABULARY REVIEW Explain the relationship between the terms in each of thefollowing pairs of terms.1. predator, prey2. herbivore, secondary compound3. parasite, hostMULTIPLE CHOICE Write the correct letter in the blank.Copyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.1. An example of mimicry that is important in anti-predator defenses is whena.b.c.d.a harmless species resembles a dangerous species.two harmless species look similar.a species resembles an inedible object.one individual uses bright colors to warn others of danger.2. One difference between predators and parasites is that parasitesa.b.c.d.usually do not cause the immediate death of the organism they feed on.feed only on the inside of other organisms.are always microorganisms.are not anatomically or physiologically specialized.3. Magpies and crows are scavenger birds that feed on the same food sources and cannotlive in the same community. This is an example ofa. character displacement.b. resource partitioning.c. symbiosis.d. competitive exclusion.4. A change in anatomy that results when two species compete for the same resource is calleda. mutualism.b. character displacement.c. competitive exclusion.d. resource partitioning.5. A symbiotic relationship in which one species benefits and the other is not affected is calleda. commensalism.b. mutualism.c. parasitism.d. competition.Modern Biology Study Guide109NameClassDateSHORT ANSWER Answer the questions in the space provided.1. How are secondary compounds useful to plants?2. What is the difference between the fundamental niche of a species and the realized niche of thespecies?3. How do ectoparasites differ from endoparasites?4. Explain how Darwins finches illustrate the principle of character displacement.5. Critical Thinking A biologist finds that when two species of paramecia are grown together in thelaboratory, one species always outcompetes and eliminates the other. In ponds and other naturalenvironments, however, the two species coexist. Suggest a hypothesis to explain this phenomenon.1. Tapeworm2. Thorns3. Kingsnake4. Poison ivy5. Deer tick6. Butterfly110Section 20-1 ReviewCopyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONS Label each drawing below with the most appropriateterm from the following list: pollinator, physical defense, secondary compound, endoparasite, ectoparasite, mimicry.NameClassDateSEC T I O N 2 0 - 2 R E VIEWP ATTERNS IN C OMMUNITIESVOCABULARY REVIEW Define the following terms.1. species richness2. primary succession3. species-area effectMULTIPLE CHOICE Write the correct letter in the blank.1. A community that has great species richness containsCopyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.a.b.c.d.many different species.many individuals in each species.a few species whose members control most of the communitys resources.species that are of great economic value.2. The measure that relates the number of species in a community to the relative abundanceof each species is calleda. species richness.b. species evenness.c. community stability.d. community interaction.3. Species that predominate early in the development of a community are calleda. pioneer species.b. climax species.c. dominant species.d. succession species.4. One explanation for the greater number of species in the Tropics than in temperate zonesis thata.b.c.d.tropical habitats are younger than temperate habitats.there is more energy available to support more organisms in the Tropics.people have been cultivating species for much longer periods in the Tropics.the climate is more stable in temperate habitats.5. The stable end point of succession is calleda. staged community.b. climax community.c. climatic change.d. community development.Modern Biology Study Guide111NameClassDateSHORT ANSWER Answer the questions in the space provided.1. Why does primary succession often proceed very slowly?2. How does species richness vary with latitude?3. Why are agricultural fields often less stable than natural communities in the same area?4. Critical Thinking A volcanic eruption removes all plant life from a valley below the volcanoExplain why succession following the eruption is likely to occur more quickly on the valley floorthan on the steep slopes that form the valley walls.SEC T I O N 21 - 3 R E VIEWIsland Carea = 150 km2latitude = 17NIsland Aarea = 50 km2latitude = 57NIsland Barea = 150 km2latitude = 57N112Section 20-2 ReviewIsland Darea = 1,200 km2latitude = 17NCopyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONS The map below shows four hypothetical islands: A, B, C,and D. Rank the islands from 1 to 4 in terms of the species richness you would expectthem to have, with the island that has the greatest richness as 1 and the island with theleast richness as 4.NameClassDateSEC T I O N 21 - 1 R E VIEWT ERRESTRIAL B IOMESVOCABULARY REVIEW Define the following terms.1. biome2. tundra3. taiga4. savanna5. canopyCopyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.MULTIPLE CHOICE Write the correct letter in the blank.1. The biome that is characterized by the presence of permafrost is calleda. savanna.b. desert.c. taiga.d. tundra.2. Plants living in the taiga are adapted fora. long, cold winters.b. long summers.c. nutrient-rich soil.d. very small amounts of precipitation.3. Prairie, steppe, and veldt are different names for the biome known asa. tundra.b. grassland.c. temperate deciduous forest.d. taiga.4. Which of the following is not an adaptation that limits water loss in desert plants?a. protective spinesb. a waxy coatingc. broad, thin leavesd. opening of stomata only at night5. The amount of light that reaches the floor of a tropical rain forest is limited by thea. short growing season in the tropics.b. forest canopy.c. dense growth of short vegetation thatcovers most of the floor.d. dense fog that exists within the forest.Modern Biology Study Guide113NameClassDateSHORT ANSWER Answer the questions in the space provided.1. Name two factors that limit tree growth in the tundra.2. What characteristic of grasses enables these plants to survive occasional fires and continuousgrazing by animals?3. How are the plants of savannas adapted to the rainfall patterns of this biome?4. Describe three adaptations of desert organisms that conserve water.5. Critical Thinking Why arent the forests of the taiga cut down and converted into farmland asoften as temperate deciduous forests?STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONS The bar graphs below summarize the typical temperaturerange, annual precipitation, and soil-nutrient level of four biomes. Label each graphaccording to the biome it represents.TemperaturePrecipitationSoil/nutrient contentHighMediumLowa114Section 21-1 ReviewbcdCopyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.6. Critical Thinking Why are vines so common in rain forests?NameClassDateSEC T I O N 21 - 2 R E VIEWA QUATIC E COSYSTEMSVOCABULARY REVIEW Distinguish between the terms in each of the following pairsof terms.1. photic zone, aphotic zone2. neritic zone, oceanic zone3. pelagic zone, benthic zone4. eutrophic lake, oligotrophic lakeCopyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.MULTIPLE CHOICE Write the correct letter in the blank.1. Which of the following is not an environmental factor that organisms in the intertidal zonemust cope with?a. periodic exposure to the airb. the force of crashing wavesc. constant darknessd. the possibility of dehydration2. Coral reefs form in thea. neritic zone.b. intertidal zone.c. pelagic zone.d. aphotic zone.3. There are fewer species in the oceanic zone than in the neritic zone because the oceanic zonea. receives very little sunlight.b. has low nutrient levels.c. is very cold.d. is under very high pressure.4. A salt marsh is an example of a(n)a. pelagic zone.b. species-poor community.c. estuary community.d. oligotrophic zone.5. Eutrophic lakesa. have very clear water.b. generally do not contain fish.c. contain little organic matter.d. are rich in vegetation.Modern Biology Study Guide115NameClassDateSHORT ANSWER Answer the questions in the space provided.1. What are some adaptations of intertidal organisms that enable them to survive in this zone?2. Why is plankton important to aquatic ecosystems?3. Explain why the productivity of the oceanic zone is high, even though nutrient levels are low.4. Explain how producers near deep-sea vents obtain energy.5. Critical Thinking Water that drains from agricultural fields during heavy rains or over-irrigationmay contain high levels of nitrogen, phosphorus, and other nutrients. What effect might this waterhave if it is allowed to enter an oligotrophic lake?agfdninetonCbecaebfcgd116Section 21-2 ReviewtalelfshCopyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONS Identify the ocean zones labeled ag in the diagrambelow.NameClassDateSEC T I O N 2 2 - 1 R E VIEWA N I NTERCONNECTED P LANETVOCABULARY REVIEW Define the following terms.1. biodiversity2. species evenness3. genetic diversityMULTIPLE CHOICE Write the correct letter in the blank.1. Which of the following is NOT a measure of biodiversity?Copyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.a. species evennessb. genetic recombinationc. genetic diversityd. species richness2. Of the following groups, which contains the greatest number of species?a. crustaceansb. mammalsc. plantsd. insects3. The mass extinction currently under way is different from previous mass extinctionsbecause ita.b.c.d.is being caused largely by humans.involves the loss of fewer species.is occurring at a time when biodiversity is already low.is actually causing an increase in biodiversity.4. The portion of Earth that includes all rivers, lakes, and the oceans is thea.b.c.d.geosphere.atmosphere.hydrosphere.biosphere.5. The ozone layer in the upper atmosphere is important because ita.b.c.d.causes Earth to heat up.absorbs most of the suns ultraviolet radiation.causes the greenhouse effect.causes Earth to cool.Modern Biology Study Guide117NameClassDateSHORT ANSWER Answer the questions in the space provided.1. Explain what makes up Earths three major layers and the biosphere.2. Why could a disease be more serious in a population with a low genetic diversity?3. What is the greenhouse effect?4. Critical Thinking Why might botanists store the seeds of newly discovered plant species orvarieties in dry, refrigerated seed banks?STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONS Use the drawings below to answer the followingquestions. The drawings show the number of individuals of four plant species found atthree sites. Each leaf represents one plant.Site B1. Which site has the greatest species richness?2. Which site has the lowest species richness?3. Which site has the greatest species evenness?4. Which site has the lowest species evenness?5. Which site has the greatest species diversity?6. Which site has the lowest species diversity?118Section 22-1 ReviewSite CCopyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.Site ANameClassDateSEC T I O N 2 2 - 2 R E VIEWE NVIRONMENTAL I SSUESVOCABULARY REVIEW Define the following terms.1. smog2. extinction3. keystone species4. chlorofluorocarbonCopyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.MULTIPLE CHOICE Write the correct letter in the blank.1. The increase in the concentration of pesticides in organisms at the top of the food chainis an example ofa. extinction.b. biological magnification.c. a keystone species.d. pollution.2. The ozone hole is aa.b.c.d.clearing in the smoggy air over a large city.zone of very low ozone concentration in the upper atmosphere over Antarctica.zone of very high ozone concentration in the lower atmosphere over Antarctica.circular patch of ozone in the upper atmosphere over the Arctic Ocean.3. One of the likely effects of damage to the ozone layer is a(n)a.b.c.d.decrease in global temperatures.shift in wind patterns over North America.decrease in the amount of ultraviolet radiation that reaches Earths surface.increase in the incidence of skin cancer in humans.4. Since the 1960s the levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide havea. stayed the same.b. increased rapidly.c. decreased rapidly.d. increased slightly.5. Doubling of the human population mighta. hasten global warming.b. decrease the amount of undeveloped land.c. All of the aboved. None of the aboveModern Biology Study Guide119NameClassDateSHORT ANSWER Answer the questions in the space provided.1. What causes acid precipitation?2. Identify three possible consequences of doubling Earths human population.3. What is sustainability?4. Critical Thinking Increased CO2 levels in the atmosphere are correlated with rising global temperatures, leading many scientists to believe that the first phenomenon has caused the second.What would it take to be certain that this correlation represents a cause-and-effect relationship?adecreasedlevels of ozonein the upperatmosphereharmful mutationsin plantsand animalsbcedburning offossil fuels120Section 22-2 ReviewincreasedglobaltemperaturesfCopyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONS The flowcharts below represent some of the effects ofhuman activity on the environment. Each arrow indicates a known or suspected causeand-effect relationship. Complete the flowcharts by writing an appropriate response inthe space corresponding to each box.NameClassDateSEC T I O N 2 2 - 3 R E VIEWE NVIRONMENTAL S OLUTIONSVOCABULARY REVIEW Define the following terms.1. conservation biology2. restoration biologyMULTIPLE CHOICE Write the correct letter in the blank.1. A species that is extremely sensitive to ecological changes is known as a(n)a.b.c.d.conservation species.bioindicator.keystone species.hotspot species.Copyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.2. In a debt-for-nature swap,a. developing countries destroy their natural ecosystems to build their economies.b. countries go into debt to pay for the conservation of their natural resources.c. richer countries pay off some of the debts of developing countries that take steps topreserve biodiversity.d. richer countries pay developing countries to convert their rain forests into farms.3. Why are small aircraft used in captive breeding programs of whooping cranes?a.b.c.d.to teach young cranes their migration routeto monitor whooping crane habitatto monitor the breeding habits of released cranesto scare off predators4. Negative consequences of ecosystem alteration in southern Florida includea. the extinction of the melaleuca tree.b. water shortages.c. overgrowth of sea grass in Florida Bay.d. an increase in the populations ofwading birds.5. The plan for restoring the Everglades ecosystem involvesa.b.c.d.building new drainage canals.planting more melaleuca trees.restoring the Kissimmee River to its original channel.adding fertilizer to the Everglades to increase its productivity.Modern Biology Study Guide121NameClassDateSHORT ANSWER Answer the questions in the space provided.1. What is a biodiversity hotspot?2. Why must efforts to protect migratory bird populations be international?3. What is ecotourism, and how can it be used to preserve biodiversity?4. What human actions lead to the disappearance of much of the wetlands in the Evergladesecosystem?5. Critical Thinking What might be the value of the Everglade restoration plan?Conservationbiologystrategiesincludesaving criticalhabitats in theform ofafororganismssuch asbdreintroducingendangeredspecies such ascwhichinvolvesRestorationbiologystrategiesincludeferestoring criticalhabitats such as122Section 22-3 ReviewwhichinvolvesCopyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONS The flowcharts below represent some aspects of conservation and restoration biology. Complete the flowcharts by writing an appropriateresponse in each box.NameClassDateSEC T I O N 2 3 - 1 R E VIEWP ROKARYOTESVOCABULARY REVIEW Distinguish between the terms in each of the following groupsof terms.1. halophile, thermoacidophile2. bacillus, coccus, spirillum3. staphylococcus, streptococcus4. Gram-positive bacterium, Gram-negative bacteriumMULTIPLE CHOICE Write the correct letter in the blank.Copyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.1. Fossil evidence indicates that the earliest prokaryotes on Earth lived abouta. 1 billion years ago.b. 5 billion years ago.c. 2.5 billion years ago.d. None of the above2. Which of the following types of bacteria would you be most likely to find in very salty water?a. chemoautotrophb. halophilec. cyanobacteriumd. thermoacidophile3. Archaea and Bacteria are placed in separate domains becausea. Bacteria lack cell membranes.b. Archaea have cells walls thatcontain peptidoglycan.c. proteins of Bacteria have no amino acids.d. their rRNA sequences are different.4. Actinomycetes area.b.c.d.archaea that are spiral-shaped.proteobacteria that cause tooth decay.Gram-positive bacteria that form branching filaments.Gram-negative bacteria that are photosynthetic.5. Which of the following types of bacteria would you be most likely to find in the humanintestinal tract?a. spirocheteb. cyanobacteriumc. thermoacidophile d. enteric bacteriumModern Biology Study Guide123NameClassDateSHORT ANSWER Answer the questions in the space provided.1. Why do some bacteria retain the Gram stain while others do not?2. Why are nitrogen-fixing bacteria important to plants?3. Identify two ecologically important characteristics of cyanobacteria.4. Identify one beneficial and one harmful role of Gram-negative enteric bacteria found in thehuman body.5. Explain how the evolution of aerobic organisms depended on a metabolic product of cyanobacteria.6. Critical Thinking How have explorations of saltwater lakes and hydrothermal vents on the oceanfloor led biologists to revise their ideas about the origin of eukaryotes?1.1242.Section 23-1 Review3.4.Copyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONS Label each drawing below with the most appropriateterm from the following list: coccus, streptococcus, spirochete, bacillus.NameClassDateSEC T I O N 2 3 - 2 R E VIEWB IOLOGY OF P ROKARYOTESVOCABULARY REVIEW Distinguish between the terms in each of the following pairsof terms.1. capsule, endospore2. pilus, conjugation3. obligate anaerobe, facultative anaerobe4. transformation, transductionCopyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.MULTIPLE CHOICE Write the correct letter in the blank.1. One structure you would not find in a bacterial cell is aa. cell wall.b. cell membrane.c. mitochondrion.d. chromosome.2. Which of the following is not a method of movement used by bacteria?a.b.c.d.gliding through a layer of slimeforceful expulsion of water from contractile vacuolesproducing a corkscrew-like motionpropulsion by flagella3. Photoautotrophic bacteria obtain energya. from the sun.b. by oxidizing inorganic compounds.c. by feeding on living organisms.d. by feeding on dead and decaying material.4. Which types of bacteria can live in the presence of oxygen?a. only obligate anaerobesb. only obligate aerobesc. only obligate aerobes and facultativeanaerobesd. all bacteria5. The process by which two living bacteria bind together and transfer genetic informationis calleda. conjugation.b. transformation.c. transduction.d. encapsulation.Modern Biology Study Guide125NameClassDateSHORT ANSWER Answer the questions in the space provided.1. Where does photosynthesis take place in a photoautotrophic bacterium?2. What is a glycocalyx, and what function does it serve?3. Name three environmental factors that affect the growth of bacteria.4. What type of genetic recombination in bacteria involves DNA transfer by viruses?5. Critical Thinking Why are bacterial transformation, conjugation, and transduction not consideredto be methods of reproduction?STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONS Briefly describe the function of each labeled structure inthe drawing of a bacterial cell shown below.CapsulePlasmidCell wall1. Pilus2. Capsule3. Cell wall4. Cell membrane5. Chromosome6. Plasmid7. Flagellum126Section 23-2 ReviewChromosomeFlagellumCopyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.Cell membranePilusNameClassDateSEC T I O N 2 3 - 3 R E VIEWB ACTERIA AND H UMANSVOCABULARY REVIEW Define the following terms.1. pathology2. exotoxin3. endotoxin4. zoonosis5. bioremediationMULTIPLE CHOICE Write the correct letter in the blank.Copyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.1. One bacterial disease that is transmitted by contaminated drinking water isa. Lyme disease.b. gonorrhea.c. tuberculosis.d. cholera.2. A poison that is released from the outer membrane of dead Gram-negative bacteria is calleda. a pathogen.b. an exotoxin.c. an endotoxin.d. a broad-spectrum toxin.3. Which of the following is not a way that bacteria cause disease in humans?a. destroying body tissuesb. conjugating with human cellsc. damaging blood vesselsd. dissolving blood clots4. Bacteria can become resistant to antibiotics bya.b.c.d.secreting antibiotics.assisting the passage of antibiotics through the cell wall.acquiring an R-plasmid for resistance.growing only on Petri dishes.5. One of the positive ways bacteria affect our lives is bya.b.c.d.producing dental caries.consuming improperly preserved foods.preventing the decomposition of dead plants and animals.helping to clean up oil spills.Modern Biology Study Guide127NameClassDateSHORT ANSWER Answer the questions in the space provided.1. Identify three ways that bacteria can be transmitted from person to person.2. Name one bacterial disease that affects nerves, one that affects the intestine, and one that affectsthe skin.3. Describe two ways that antibiotics work.4. List four foods that are produced with the assistance of bacteria.5. Critical Thinking Why are broad-spectrum antibiotics often used to treat infections caused byunidentified pathogens? What is the danger associated with overusing such antibiotics?A.B.BAC.CDD.128Section 23-3 ReviewCopyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONS The diagram below shows a Petri dish containing abacterial culture and four paper disks (labeled AD) treated with different antibiotics.The concentrations of all four antibiotics are the same. Dark areas on the dish indicatebacterial growth, and clear areas indicate inhibition of bacterial growth. State whetherthe bacteria in this culture are very sensitive, moderately sensitive, or insensitive to eachantibiotic, and explain your reasoning.NameClassDateSEC T I O N 2 4 - 1 R E VIEWV IRAL S TRUCTURE AND R EPLICATIONVOCABULARY REVIEW Define the following terms.1. virus2. capsid3. retrovirus4. lytic cycle5. lysogenic cycleCopyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.MULTIPLE CHOICE Write the correct letter in the blank.1. Viruses are not alive because theya. do not grow.b. lack cell parts.c. do not metabolize. d. All of the above2. Viruses can reproducea.b.c.d.independently of host cells.independently of host cells if they first take up organelles from the host cells.only within host cells.only with the assistance of other viruses.3. The enzyme reverse transcriptase usesa. DNA as a template to make more DNA.b. DNA as a template to make RNA.c. RNA as a template to make more RNA.d. RNA as a template to make DNA.4. The grouping of viruses is based partly on thea. presence or absence of an envelope.b. presence or absence of nucleic acid.c. type of organism they infect.d. structure of their organelles.5. Phage DNA that is integrated into a host cells chromosome is aa. coronavirus.b. retrovirus.c. prophage.d. capsid.Modern Biology Study Guide129NameClassDateSHORT ANSWER Answer the questions in the space provided.1. What did Wendell Stanleys work suggest about the nature of viruses?2. What kinds of factors can cause a prophage to become virulent?3. How does an RNA virus get viral DNA into a host cells genome?4. Why must a person receive a different flu vaccine each year to be protected against the flu?5. Critical Thinking How does the structure and function of bacteriophages make these virusesuseful tools for genetic engineering?a130bSection 24-1 ReviewcdeCopyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONS The diagrams below represent five steps in the lyticcycle of a bacteriophage. The order of the steps has been scrambled. Arrange the stepsin their correct order by writing the letter of each step, and briefly describe what ishappening in each step.NameClassDateSEC T I O N 2 4 - 2 R E VIEWV IRAL D ISEASESVOCABULARY REVIEW Define the following terms.1. inactivated virus2. attenuated virus3. oncogene4. proto-oncogene5. protease inhibitorCopyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.MULTIPLE CHOICE Write the correct letter in the blank.1. One viral disease that can occur in childhood and then reappear in adulthood in a moreserious form isa. chickenpox.b. smallpox.c. rabies.d. hepatitis.2. The most successful approach to controlling viral diseases has been the use ofa. antibiotics.b. antiviral drugs.c. viroids.d. vaccines.3. Which of the following viral diseases is now considered to be eradicated?a. chickenpoxb. smallpoxc. rabiesd. hepatitis4. An emerging virus is one that arisesa.b.c.d.from a host cell when the cell undergoes lysis.from a lysogenic cycle and enters a lytic cycle.when isolated habitats are developed by humans.on the skin after hiding inside nerve cells.5. A disease-causing particle made of RNA without a capsid is calleda. a viroid.b. a retrovirus.c. a prion.d. an envelope.Modern Biology Study Guide131NameClassDateSHORT ANSWER Answer the questions in the space provided.1. Name four viruses that can cause diseases that are often fatal.2. Explain the relationship between shingles and chickenpox.3. Name two methods, other than vaccination, for controlling viral diseases.4. How are some viruses thought to cause cancer?5. Explain how an emerging virus might suddenly appear in a human population.6. Critical Thinking Why would a drug that blocks DNA transcription not be a desirable method fortreating a viral disease?abcde132Section 24-2 ReviewCopyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONS Identify the structures labeled ae in the diagram of thehuman immunodeficiency virus shown below.NameClassDateSEC T I O N 2 5 - 1 R E VIEWC HARACTERISTICS OF P ROTISTSVOCABULARY REVIEW Define the following terms.1. protist2. binary fission3. multiple fission4. conjugationMULTIPLE CHOICE Write the correct letter in the blank.1. Protozoans are members of the kingdomCopyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.a. Animalia.b. Plantae.c. Fungi.d. Protista.2. One characteristic that is not found in any protozoan isa. heterotrophy.b. multicellularity.c. motility.d. parasitism.3. All protists are capable ofa. asexual reproduction.b. sexual reproduction.c. either asexual or sexual reproduction.d. conjugation.4. All of the following are structures used for protist movement excepta.b.c.d.cilia.flagella.zoospores.pseudopodia.5. Protists are thought to have evolved froma. early viruses.b. early eukaryotes.c. ancient prokaryotes.d. modern fungi.Modern Biology Study Guide133NameClassDateSHORT ANSWER Answer the questions in the space provided.1. Describe the two major ways by which protists obtain energy.2. How are protists classified?.3. What is endosymbiosis4. Critical Thinking Bacteria and protists both can undergo conjugation. Why is this process morecomplex in protists than in bacteria?STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONS The diagram below represents asexual reproduction and sexualreproduction in Chlamydomonas. Label the two types of reproduction in the spaces provided.b.MeiosisMitosisZygospore(2n)ZoosporesZygoteMature cell(n)+ GameteMitosis Gamete134Section 25-1 ReviewZoosporesCopyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.a.NameClassDateSEC T I O N 2 5 - 2 R E VIEWA NIMAL-LIKE P ROTISTSVOCABULARY REVIEW Distinguish between the terms in each of the following pairsof terms.1. cilia, flagella2. mouth pore, anal pore3. macronucleus, micronucleusMULTIPLE CHOICE Write the correct letter in the blank.Copyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.1. Amoebas move by means of a process known asa. vacuolar contracting.b. cytoplasmic streaming.c. flagellar whipping.d. ciliary beating.2. Which of the following is formed from the tests of dead sarcodines?a. graniteb. limestonec. sandstoned. pearls3. Sexual reproduction in ciliates involvesa.b.c.d.binary fission and the formation of two identical offspring.the exchange of diploid macronuclei between two individuals.the exchange of haploid micronuclei between two individuals.the exchange of macronuclei and micronuclei between two individuals.4. One disease caused by a mastigophoran isa. amebic dysentery.b. malaria.c. sleeping sickness.d. toxoplasmosis.5. Most species in the phylum Apicomplexa area.b.c.d.aquatic and move by using cilia.terrestrial and move by extending pseudopodia.parasitic and have complex life cycles.free-living and reproduce only asexually.Modern Biology Study Guide135NameClassDateSHORT ANSWER Answer the questions in the space provided.1. How have foraminifera and radiolarians contributed to the formation of sedimentary layers onthe ocean floor?2. Describe the processes of feeding and digestion in a paramecium.3. Describe how protozoans use pseudopodia to move and to capture food.4. Critical Thinking Although the protozoans that cause malaria are nonmotile, they parasitize twohosts during their life cycle. How do they accomplish this?STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONS Label each structure of the paramecium in the spaceindicated.bcdefg136Section 25-2 ReviewCopyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.aNameClassDateSEC T I O N 2 5 - 3 R E VIEWP LANTLIKE AND F UNGUSLIKE P ROTISTSVOCABULARY REVIEW Define the following terms.1. fruiting body2. gametangium3. euglenoid4. accessory pigmentMULTIPLE CHOICE Write the correct letter in the blank.1. Algae differ from protozoans in that algae areCopyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.a. heterotrophic.b. photosynthetic.c. always multicellular.d. always unicellular.2. The body portion of a seaweed is called aa. pyrenoid.b. holdfast.c. sporophyte.d. thallus.3. Algae are classified into phyla based on all of the following except theira. type of photosynthetic pigment.b. form of food storage.c. presence or absence of flagella.d. cell wall composition.4. A plasmodial slime mold will generally form a fruiting body whena.b.c.d.its host dies.the number of cells in the plasmodium becomes too large.the environment becomes too cold.food or water is scarce.5. Separate sperm-containing and egg-containing structures are produced bya. cellular slime molds.b. plasmodial slime molds.c. water molds.d. chytrids.Modern Biology Study Guide137NameClassDateSHORT ANSWER Answer the questions in the space provided.1. Describe two differences between green algae and plants.2. Why is phytoplankton important to other organisms?3. List the four body forms that algae can have.4. What structural features distinguish dinoflagellates from other algae?5. List two plantlike and two animal-like characteristics of euglenoids.6. Critical Thinking Some biologists prefer to classify brown, red, and some green algae as plantsrather than protists. What characteristics of these algae support such a classification? Mass of cytoplasmwith many nuclei Sluglike colony ofmany cells Fertilization tubesbetween reproductive structuresa138 Long filamentous bodies Flagellated gametes andzoosporesbcdSection 25-3 ReviewCopyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONS Name the phylum of funguslike protists represented byeach of the drawings below.NameClassDateSEC T I O N 2 5 - 4 R E VIEWP ROTISTS AND H UMANSVOCABULARY REVIEW Distinguish between the terms in each of the following pairs ofterms.1. sporozoite, merozoite2. giardiasis, trichomoniasis3. alginate, agarMULTIPLE CHOICE Write the correct letter in the blank.1. Diatomaceous earth is valuable because itCopyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.a.b.c.d.produces much of the Earths oxygen.provides nutrients for many aquatic organisms.can be used to produce detergents, paint removers, and toothpaste.can be used as a source of petroleum.2. Which of the following is NOT an environmental role of protists?a.b.c.d.Protists produce large amounts of atmospheric oxygen.Photosynthetic protists are at the base of many food webs.Protists form important symbiotic relationships with other organisms.Protists form large amounts of cellulose.3. Algal blooms are caused bya. high nutrient concentrations.b. low nutrient concentrations.c. low water temperature.d. large numbers of fish.4. Malaria is characterized bya.b.c.d.severe chills, headache, fever, and fatigue.nerve damage.severe diarrhea, fever, and gastrointestinal hemorrhage.skin sores and swollen glands.5. Which of the following pathogens causes an intestinal tract disease?a.b.c.d.Trypanosoma sp.Plasmodium sp.Entamoeba sp.Anopheles sp.Modern Biology Study Guide139NameClassDateSHORT ANSWER Answer the questions in the space provided.1. Describe two symbiotic relationships between a protist and another organism.2. Why is carrageenan added to many commercial food products?3. Why are scientists studying chemotaxis in cellular slime molds?4. Critical Thinking Why are humans affected by red tides if they do not eat dinoflagellates?STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONS Identify the structures labeled af in the diagram of thelife cycle of Plasmodium shown below.badef140Section 25-4 ReviewCopyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.cNameClassDateSEC T I O N 2 6 - 1 R E VIEWO VERVIEW OF F UNGIVOCABULARY REVIEW Define the following terms.1. hypha2. mycelium3. coenocyte4. sporangiophore5. conidiumCopyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.6. buddingMULTIPLE CHOICE Write the correct letter in the blank.1. All fungi area. multicellular and prokaryotic.b. prokaryotic and photosynthetic.c. eukaryotic and nonphotosynthetic.d. unicellular and photosynthetic.2. Unlike animals, fungia.b.c.d.ingest their nutrients before digesting them.secrete enzymes and then absorb the digested nutrients through their cell wall.have cell walls made of cellulose without chitin.do not store energy in the form of glycogen.3. Which of the following is NOT an asexual reproductive structure of a fungus?a. septumb. sporangiumc. conidiophored. sporangiospore4. Throughout most of their life cycle, most fungi area. male.b. female.c. diploid.d. haploid.5. Biologists think that the first fungi on Earth arose froma. prokaryotes.b. algae.c. plants.d. animals.Modern Biology Study Guide141NameClassDateSHORT ANSWER Answer the questions in the space provided.1. How do the cell walls of fungi differ from those of plants?2. Describe an example of dimorphism in fungi.3. Explain how a fungus reproduces through fragmentation.4. What do plus and minus mean when used in reference to fungi?5. What characteristic do fungi share with animals?6. In what way are fungi resource recyclers?7. Critical Thinking In what ways are most fungi similar to unicellular protists?The drawings below depict two types of fungal hyphae.abd142Section 26-1 ReviewceCopyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONS Identify the structures labeled a c. In the spaces belowthe drawings, name the type of hyphae each drawing represents.NameClassDateSEC T I O N 2 6 - 2 R E VIEWC LASSIFICATION OF F UNGIVOCABULARY REVIEW Distinguish between the terms in each of the following pairsof terms.1. rhizoid, stolon2. basidium, basidiocarp3. ascogonium, antheridium4. ascocarp, ascusCopyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.5. lichen, mycorrhizaMULTIPLE CHOICE Write the correct letter in the blank.1. Fungi that have coenocytic hyphae and reproduce sexually through conjugation belong tothe phyluma. Zygomycota.b. Basidiomycota.c. Ascomycota.d. Deuteromycota.c. zygosporangium.d. basidiocarp.2. A mushroom is an example of aa. rhizoid.b. ascogonium.3. Fungi that produce spores inside saclike compartments belong to the phyluma. Zygomycota.b. Basidiomycota.c. Ascomycota.d. Deuteromycota.4. In the life cycle of an ascomycete, haploid nuclei fuse whena.b.c.d.conidia germinate.asci develop.a tube forms between the ascogonium and the antheridium.ascospores germinate.5. One of the functions of the fungus in a mycorrhizal relationship is toa. perform photosynthesisb. store sugars for the plant.c. absorb phosphate and other ions.d. decompose rock to form soil.Modern Biology Study Guide143NameClassDateSHORT ANSWER Answer the questions in the space provided.1. How do the above-ground, sexual reproductive structures of basidiomycetes differ in appearancefrom those of ascomycetes?2. How are fungi imperfecti different from other fungi?3. Explain the difference between a mycorrhiza and a lichen.4. What effect do lichens have on their physical environment?5. Explain why mushrooms cannot be grouped with deuteromycetes.6. What would be more beneficial to a growing plant, a mycorrhiza or lichen? Explain your answer.they form?STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONS Label each structure or process in the spaces provided.The diagram below illustrates asexual and sexual reproduction in zygomycetes.abfGerminationecd144Section 26-2 ReviewCopyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.7. Critical Thinking Why are fungi classified according to the sexual reproductive structuresNameClassDateSEC T I O N 2 6 - 3 R E VIEWF UNGI AND H UMANSVOCABULARY REVIEW Answer the questions in the space provided.1. What are aflatoxins?2. What effect do aflatoxins have on humans?3. Where are the organisms that produce aflatoxins found?4. What is a wheat rust?MULTIPLE CHOICE Write the correct letter in the blank.1. Sniffling, sneezing, and respiratory distress may be symptoms of an allergic reaction toa. cortisone.b. the Amanita mushroom.c. the yeast Candida albicans.d. mold spores.2. Which of the following is not a condition or disease that can be caused by fungi?Copyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.a. athletes footb. AIDSc. ringwormd. candidiasis3. Fungal diseases that affect human internal organs are often caused bya. dimorphic fungi.b. deuteromycetes.c. truffles.d. morels.4. The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is used to make all of the following excepta. bread.b. vaccines.c. ethanol.d. penicillin.5. Fungi of the genus Cephalosporium are used to producea. mushrooms.b. cheese.c. antibiotics.d. soy products.6. Which of the following is not a fungal product of importance to the food-processingindustry?a. vitamin B2b. wheat rustc. citric acidd. gluconic acid7. The automobile fuel gasohol is made in part witha.b.c.d.aflatoxins produced by Amanita.gluconic acid produced by Saccharomyces cerevisiae.ethanol produced by yeast.citric acid produced by yeast.Modern Biology Study Guide145NameClassDateSHORT ANSWER Answer the questions in the space provided.1. What conditions can cause Candida albicans to flourish?2. Name four specific medical products that are produced by or with the use of fungi.3. Name four types of foods that are produced by or with the use of fungi.4. How is Saccharomyces cerevisiae induced to manufacture substances that it does notnormally make?5. Critical Thinking Some fungi produce substances with attractive odors or flavors. Thesesubstances are often concentrated in the reproductive structures of the fungi. Why might it beadaptive for a fungus to produce such substances?acan produce foodssuch asbcdFungican produce nonfooditems such asefgcan cause diseasethrough mechanismssuch ashi146Section 26-3 ReviewCopyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONS This flowchart illustrates the effects that fungi can haveon humans. Fill in the blanks to complete the chart.NameClassDateSEC T I O N 2 7 - 1 R E VIEWP LANTS AND P EOPLEVOCABULARY REVIEW Distinguish between the terms in each of the following pairsof terms.1. botany, agriculture2. cereal, root crop3. legume, nut4. fruit, vegetableMULTIPLE CHOICE Write the correct letter in the blank.Copyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.1. In cultivating wheat, early farmers selected wheat plantsa.b.c.d.whose seeds were easily dispersed.whose stalks did not break easily in the wind.that produced the fewest grains.that had the largest seed pods.2. Legumes are valuable crops because they have protein-rich seeds and becausea.b.c.d.they improve the nitrogen content of soil.their leaves are used as herbs.their leaves are fed to livestock.their bark is a source of quinine.3. Black pepper is the ground-up seed of a pepper plant, which makes peppera. a fruit.b. a flavoring.c. an herb.d. a spice.4. All of the following plants are used for their medicinal value except thea. cinchona tree.b. white willow.c. coconut.d. foxglove.5. The artificial fabric rayon is made froma. rayon grass.b. processed wood fibers.c. coal.d. petroleum.Modern Biology Study Guide147NameClassDateSHORT ANSWER Answer the questions in the space provided.1. What is a cultivar?Give two examples of cultivars.2. What nutrients are usually deficient in diets consisting of cereals and root crops?How can people supplement such diets to overcome this deficiency?3. Explain how grains can be used to produce fuel.4. Critical Thinking Why do you think root crops rather than cereals make up the major part ofthe diet of people living in many parts of the world?STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONS Label each of the food plants shown below according toone of the following food categories: cereal, root crop, legume, fruit, vegetable, nut,spice, herb.CantaloupeCeleryPotatoPecan148OreganoLima beanSection 27-1 ReviewCopyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.NutmegRiceNameClassDateSEC T I O N 2 7 - 2 R E VIEWP LANTS AND THE E NVIRONMENTVOCABULARY REVIEW Define the following terms.1. plant ecology2. weed3. hay feverMULTIPLE CHOICE Write the correct letter in the blank.1. One of the inorganic nutrients recycled by plants isa. sugar.b. starch.c. phosphorus.d. cellulose.Copyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.2. Which of the following is not a reason why animals help pollinate plants?a.b.c.d.The animals want to help the plants reproduce successfully.The shape and color of the plants flowers attract the animals.The animals obtain nectar as they pollinate the plants.The plants flowers resemble females of the animals species.3. Mycorrhizal fungia.b.c.d.cause plant diseases that may result in major crop losses.infect plant roots without harming the roots.decrease a plants ability to absorb water and inorganic nutrients.supply plants with energy in exchange for water.4. Plants that are harmful when eaten or touched includea. poison oak.b. holly.c. American mistletoe.d. All of the above5. Most of the problems associated with hay fever are caused bya. airborne pollen.b. ingested fruits and berries.c. skin contact with weeds.d. cotton clothing.6. Which of the following is not likely to cause hay fever?a. deciduous treesb. wild grassesc. cereal cropsd. large flowersModern Biology Study Guide149NameClassDateSHORT ANSWER Answer the questions in the space provided.1. How do plants participate in the cycling of oxygen and carbon dioxide on Earth?2. How do plants contribute to the formation and maintenance of soil?3. What caused the near elimination of American chestnut trees in the early 1900s?4. What kinds of flowers usually produce allergy-inducing pollen?5. Critical Thinking Why have plants such as the water hyacinth and kudzu become so widespreadin some areas where they have been introduced by humans?producersadbc1. Which term describes the role of plants in the cycle?2. Provide an example of a nutrient that could be recycled in this manner.150Section 27-2 ReviewCopyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONS The diagram below represents the cycling of inorganicnutrients in the environment. Complete the diagram by filling in each space with one ofthe following terms: inorganic nutrients, death, consumers, decomposers.NameClassDateSEC T I O N 2 8 - 1 R E VIEWO VERVIEW OF P LANTSVOCABULARY REVIEW Distinguish between the terms in each of the following pairsof terms.1. sporophyte, gametophyte2. spore, seed3. xylem, phloem4. vascular plant, nonvascular plantCopyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.5. angiosperm, gymnospermMULTIPLE CHOICE Write the correct letter in the blank.1. Each of the following is a part of a seed except thea. embryo.b. endosperm.c. seed coat.d. gametophyte.2. The plant tissue that transports water from the roots to the leaves is thea. phloem.b. xylem.c. endosperm.d. woody tissue.b. seed plant.c. angiosperm.d. gymnosperm.c. gymnosperm.d. herbaceous plant.3. Ferns are a type ofa. vascular plant.4. Pine trees are a type ofa. nonvascular plant. b. angiosperm.5. The life cycle of a vascular plant is characterized bya.b.c.d.a large gametophyte and a small sporophyte.a large sporophyte and a small gametophyte.the absence of a sporophyte.the absence of a gametophyte.Modern Biology Study Guide151NameClassDateSHORT ANSWER Answer the questions in the space provided.1. Name two adaptations plants have made to life on land, and briefly describe the advantage ofeach adaptation.2. Describe three similarities between modern green algae and plants.3. What structures or stages in the life cycle of a plant are haploid?4. Critical Thinking In what two ways are the spores of land plants different from the spores ofalgae, which you learned about in an earlier chapter?STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONS The diagram below is a phylogenetic diagram of plantsand their algal ancestors. In the spaces provided, name the important adaptation(s) thatevolved at each of the positions indicated on the phylogenetic diagram.Seedlessvascular plantsGymnospermsAngiospermsabcdAlgal ancestors152Section 28-1 ReviewCopyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.Nonvascular plantsNameClassDateSEC T I O N 2 8 - 2 R E VIEWN ONVASCULAR P LANTSVOCABULARY REVIEW Define the following terms.1. bryophyte2. liverwort3. hornwortMULTIPLE CHOICE Write the correct letter in the blank.1. Bryophytes havea. true roots, stems, and leaves.b. an alternation-of-generations life cycle.c. vascular tissue.d. seeds.2. Bryophytes include all of the following plants exceptCopyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.a. ferns.b. hornworts.c. liverworts.d. mosses.3. Mosses are called pioneer plants because theya.b.c.d.are more closely related to algae than to plants.were the first plants to be cultivated by European settlers in North America.are often the first species to inhabit a barren area.gradually remove organic and inorganic matter from the surface of rocks.4. Peat bogsa.b.c.d.decompose rapidly.are composed mainly of algae and ferns.are found mostly in the southern hemisphere.are used as a source of fuel in many countries.5. The body forms of liverworts may include all of the following excepta.b.c.d.thin leaflike structures arranged along a stemlike axis.clusters of leaves and flowers at the end of a woody stem.a flat body with distinguishable upper and lower surfaces.an umbrella-shaped structure that holds reproductive cells.Modern Biology Study Guide153NameClassDateSHORT ANSWER Answer the questions in the space provided.1. What phase of the bryophyte life cycle is dominant?2. Why do bryophytes require a moist environment for sexual reproduction?3. Describe three ways that humans use peat moss.4. How are hornworts similar to algae and different from other plants?5. Explain how mosses benefit an environmentally disturbed area.6. Critical Thinking In what type of environment would you expect to find liverworts with a thalloidbody form? Explain your answer.abc154Section 28-2 ReviewCopyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONS The drawing below illustrates the main parts of a moss.Identify the phases of the moss life cycle represented by a and b, and name the structurelabeled c.NameClassDateSEC T I O N 2 8 - 3 R E VIEWV ASCULAR P LANTSVOCABULARY REVIEW Distinguish between the terms in each of the following pairsof terms.1. fiddlehead, frond2. monocot, dicot3. parallel venation, net venationMULTIPLE CHOICE Write the correct letter in the blank.1. The mobile sexual reproductive parts of all seedless plants area. rhizomes.b. cones.c. spores.d. epiphytes.Copyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.2. One of the adaptive advantages of seeds is that seedsa.b.c.d.do not remain inactive for long periods of time.can germinate without water.lack a tough outer coat.contain a nutrient supply.3. Naked seeds are produced by plants in the phyluma. Coniferophyta.b. Lycophyta.c. Anthophyta.d. Pteridophyta.4. One of the differences between angiosperms and gymnosperms is thata.b.c.d.most gymnosperms can reach maturity in a single growing season.angiosperms have a more efficient vascular system.gymnosperms are more likely to be associated with mycorrhizae.angiosperms are less diverse than gymnosperms.5. Most monocotsa.b.c.d.bear their seeds in cones.have vascular bundles that are arranged in a circle.do not produce flowers.have parallel venation.Modern Biology Study Guide155NameClassDateSHORT ANSWER Answer the questions in the space provided.1. Identify two ways that vascular plants differ from nonvascular plants.2. Briefly describe the distinguishing characteristics of gymnosperms in the phyla Cycadophyta,Ginkgophyta, and Coniferophyta.3. How do the reproductive structures of angiosperms differ from those of gymnosperms?4. Critical Thinking There are many more species of ferns (phylum Pteridoophyta) than there arespecies in the other three phyla of seedless vascular plants. Propose a hypothesis to explain this fact.STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONS Write the phylum name of the type of vascular plant represented by each of the drawings. Choose the name from the list of phylum names below.Ginkgoa156Whisk fernbSection 28-3 ReviewPteridoophytaCycadophytaGinkgophytaConiferophytaGnetophytaAnthophytaCycadcPinedCopyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.LycophytaPsilophytaSphenophytaNameClassDateSEC T I O N 2 9 - 1 R E VIEWP LANT C ELLS AND T ISSUESVOCABULARY REVIEW Distinguish between the terms in each of the following groupsof terms.1. parenchyma cells, collenchyma cells, sclerenchyma cells2. dermal tissue system, ground tissue system, vascular tissue system3. apical meristems, intercalary meristems, lateral meristemsCopyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.MULTIPLE CHOICE Write the correct letter in the blank.1. Which of the following plant cells is dead at maturity?a. epidermal cellb. companion cellc. vessel elementd. collenchyma cell2. The conducting parenchyma cell of angiosperm phloem is called aa. sieve tube member.b. tracheid.c. stoma.d. cuticle.3. Intercalary meristems are found in somea. conifers.b. gymnosperms.c. dicots.d. monocots.4. In woody stems and roots, the epidermis is replaced bya. the vascular cambium.b. cork cells.c. apical meristems.d. sieve plates.5. Primary growth refers toa.b.c.d.the germination of a seedling.an increase in the length of a plant.an increase in the diameter of a stem.growth produced by the lateral meristems.Modern Biology Study Guide157NameClassDateSHORT ANSWER Answer the questions in the space provided.1. What type of parenchyma cell is found in the nonwoody parts of plants, and what are the functionsof this cell type?2. Describe the appearance, primary function, and location of collenchyma cells.3. In what parts of a plant would you expect to find sclerenchyma cells?4. What kinds of meristems are found in monocots, and where are they located?What kinds of meristems are found in dicots, and where are they located?5. Critical Thinking Why is it advantageous for plants to have water-transporting cells that are dead?abcde158fSection 29-1 ReviewgCopyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONS The drawings below depict the major components ofxylem and phloem. Identify the structures labeled ad. In the spaces below the drawingslabeled eg, name the type of component each drawing represents.NameClassDateSEC T I O N 2 9 - 2 R E VIEWR OOTSVOCABULARY REVIEW Define the following terms.1. adventitious root2. cortex3. pericycle4. macronutrient5. micronutrientCopyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.MULTIPLE CHOICE Write the correct letter in the blank.1. One example of a plant with a fibrous root system is aa. carrot.b. cottonwood.c. radish.d. grass.2. All of the following adaptations increase the ability of roots to absorb water excepta. root caps.b. root hairs.c. fibrous root systems.d. mycorrhizal associations.3. The cortex of a primary root is made ofa. epidermal cells.b. parenchyma cells. c. vascular tissues.d. pith.4. Roots perform all of the following functions excepta.b.c.d.absorbing water and minerals from the soil.anchoring the plant in the soil.carrying out the light reactions of photosynthesis.storing water and organic compounds.5. One of the micronutrients plants absorb isa. manganese.b. nitrogen.c. potassium.d. carbon.Modern Biology Study Guide159NameClassDateSHORT ANSWER Answer the questions in the space provided.1. What kind of tissue forms the innermost cylinder of a root?2. What cells divide to form lateral roots?3. Where does a vascular cambium form during secondary growth in roots?4. What structures does this vascular cambium produce, and where are they produced?5. Name four macronutrients in plants.6. Critical Thinking Would you expect water absorption to be greater in parts of roots that haveundergone secondary growth or in parts that have not? Explain your reasoning.abcdefg160hSection 29-2 ReviewCopyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONS The drawings below show cross sections of a monocotroot and a dicot root. Identify the structures labeled af. In the spaces below thedrawings, name the type of root each drawing represents.NameClassDateSEC T I O N 2 9 - 3 R E VIEWS TEMSVOCABULARY REVIEW Distinguish between the terms in each of the following pairsof terms.1. heartwood, sapwood2. springwood, summerwood3. source, sink4. translocation, transpirationCopyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.5. pith, woodMULTIPLE CHOICE Write the correct letter in the blank.1. Which of the following are found in both roots and stems?a. budsb. vascular tissuesc. nodesd. internodes2. Lateral stems arise from meristems locateda. randomly along the main stem.b. deep inside the main stem.c. between the bark and the wood.d. at nodes on the surface of the main stem.3. One difference between monocot stems and dicot stems is that monocot stems usuallya.b.c.d.have vascular bundles arranged in a ring.replace primary tissues with secondary tissues.retain the primary growth pattern their entire lives.have secondary growth.4. In a stem cross section, an annual ring represents an abrupt change betweena. summerwood and springwood.b. heartwood and sapwood.c. bark and cork.d. xylem and phloem.5. The driving force for transpiration is provided bya. water pressure in the roots.b. water tension in the stems.c. the evaporation of water from the leaves.d. the hydrolysis of ATP.Modern Biology Study Guide161NameClassDateSHORT ANSWER Answer the questions in the space provided.1. What structures on a stem are analogous to the root cap on a root?How do these structures differ from a root cap?2. Explain how evaporation, tension, cohesion, and adhesion are involved in the movement of waterthrough a plant.3. Critical Thinking Besides serving as a conduit for water, what other function does wood havein trees and other woody plants? How is this function important in stimulating photosynthesis?STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONS The diagram below represents the movement of carbohydrates in a plant as described by the pressure-flow model. Identify the structureslabeled ad and the substances that are transported along the arrows labeled ei.adbfghci162Section 29-3 ReviewCopyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.eNameClassDateSEC T I O N 2 9 - 4 R E VIEWL EAVESVOCABULARY REVIEW Define the following terms.1. petiole2. mesophyll3. guard cellMULTIPLE CHOICE Write the correct letter in the blank.1. A leaf that is divided into leaflets is called aa. simple leaf.b. compound leaf.c. veined leaf.d. parallel leaf.Copyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.2. Leaves consist ofa.b.c.d.dermal tissue only.dermal tissue and ground tissue only.ground tissue and vascular tissue only.dermal tissue, ground tissue, and vascular tissue.3. One adaptation that reduces water loss from leaves without reducing the rate of photosynthesis is thea.b.c.d.closure of stomata during the night.closure of stomata during a water shortage.presence of large numbers of stomata.presence of epidermal hairs.4. Most photosynthesis occurs in a portion of the leaf called thea. vascular bundle.b. spongy mesophyll.c. palisade mesophyll.d. upper epidermis.5. Leaves that develop in full suna.b.c.d.are thicker.have a larger area per leaf.have fewer chloroplasts per unit area.have minimal shading of one chloroplast by another.Modern Biology Study Guide163NameClassDateSHORT ANSWER Answer the questions in the space provided.1. Describe three adaptations of leaves for functions besides photosynthesis.2. What is the usual function of the epidermal hairs on a leaf?3. What are the products of photosynthesis in a leaf used for, and where are they used within the plant?4. Explain how potassium ions are involved in the opening of stomata.5. Critical Thinking Why would an agricultural practice that eliminated transpirational water lossbe disadvantageous for plants?abcdef164Section 29-4 ReviewCopyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONS Identify the structures labeled af in the drawing of theinternal structure of a leaf shown below.NameClassDateSEC T I O N 3 0 - 1 R E VIEWP LANT L IFE C YCLESVOCABULARY REVIEW Distinguish between the terms in each of the following pairsof terms.1. antheridium, archegonium2. homospory, heterospory3. integument, micropyleMULTIPLE CHOICE Write the correct letter in the blank.Copyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.1. Which of the following is the correct order of formation of structures in the life cycle ofa moss?a.b.c.d.archegonium and antheridium, spores, sporophyte, egg and sperm, zygotezygote, spores, sporophyte, archegonium and antheridium, egg and spermsporophyte, spores, archegonium and antheridium, egg and sperm, zygoteegg and sperm, archegonium and antheridium, zygote, spores, sporophyte2. The production of a single type of spore is a characteristic of the life cycles ofa.b.c.d.mosses and most ferns.mosses and most gymnosperms.most ferns and gymnosperms.mosses, most ferns, and most gymnosperms.3. One structure that is found in ferns but not in mosses or conifers isa. an ovule.b. a pollen grain.c. a sporophyte.d. a sorus.4. The dominant stage in the life cycle of a conifer is thea. gametophyte.b. sporophyte.c. megasporangium. d. microsporangium.5. Sexual reproduction in conifers and other seed plants is independent of seasonal rainsbecausea.b.c.d.these plants grow only near streams and rivers.pollinators carry the sperm to the eggs.fertilization occurs inside structures within the sporophyte.fertilization always involves eggs and sperm of the same plant.Modern Biology Study Guide165NameClassDateSHORT ANSWER Answer the questions in the space provided.1. Which of the following structures in a moss life cycle are haploid and which are diploid: sporophyte,spore, archegonium, antheridium, gametophyte, zygote?Which structure represents the dominant phase of the life cycle?2. How do the sperm of conifers differ from those of mosses and ferns?How do the spores of conifers differ from those of mosses and most ferns?3. What kind of cell division results in the production of spores?What kind of cell division results in the production of gametes?4. Critical Thinking Why must mosses and ferns live in environments that are wet during at leastpart of the year?STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONS Identify the structures labeled ah in the diagram of thelife cycle of a fern shown below.acbefgh166Section 30-1 ReviewCopyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.dNameClassDateSEC T I O N 3 0 - 2 R E VIEWS EXUAL R EPRODUCTIONIN F LOWERING P LANTSVOCABULARY REVIEW Explain the relationship between the terms in each of thefollowing pairs of terms.1. anther, filament2. stigma, style3. polar nuclei, double fertilizationMULTIPLE CHOICE Write the correct letter in the blank.Copyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.1. During ovule formation in a flowering plant, the resulting structure containsa.b.c.d.four megaspores.one megaspore mother cell with four nuclei.one egg cell and two polar nuclei.four megaspores and four egg cells.2. In a flowering plant, the female gametophyte is referred to asa. an embryo sac.b. a megaspore mother cell.c. an ovule.d. a carpel.3. During pollen formation in a flowering plant, the resulting structure containsa. two sperm cells.b. a generative cell and a tube cell.c. one microspore mother cell.d. four microspores.4. Successful wind pollination usually requiresa.b.c.d.large, colorful flowers.the release of small amounts of pollen.wet weather.the relative proximity of individuals to one another.5. In a flowering plant, one sperm fertilizes the polar nuclei to form thea. micropyle.b. endosperm.c. pollen tube.d. zygote.Modern Biology Study Guide167NameClassDateSHORT ANSWER Answer the questions in the space provided.1. What happens to the four megaspores produced during ovule formation?What happens to the four microspores produced during pollen grain formation?2. Which of the following structures and events occur in both gymnosperms and angiosperms,and which occur only in angiosperms: wind pollination, animal pollination, pollen grain, pollentube, fertilization quickly following pollination, double fertilization, embryo sac, endosperm?3. What adaptive advantage does a plant gain by producing nectar?4. What is the function of endosperm?5. Critical Thinking Are plants that are pollinated by moths and bats more likely to have colorfulflowers or fragrant flowers? Explain your reasoning.cadStamenbefih168Section 30-2 ReviewgPistilCopyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONS Identify the structures labeled ai in the diagram of aflower shown below.NameClassDateSEC T I O N 3 0 - 3 R E VIEWD ISPERSAL AND P ROPAGATIONVOCABULARY REVIEW Define the following terms.1. radicle2. hypocotyl3. epicotyl4. plumule5. hilumMULTIPLE CHOICE Write the correct letter in the blank.Copyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.1. One structure that is not an adaptation for fruit or seed dispersal is thea. parachute on a milkweed seed.b. pair of wings on a pine seed.c. air chamber in a coconut.d. cotyledon of a corn grain.2. Fruits are classified partly on the basis of howa. they are dispersed.b. many seeds they contain.c. many pistils or flowers form the fruit.d. large they are.3. Which of the following plants has mature seeds that contain endosperm?a. cornb. lima beanc. pead. pine4. The first visible sign of seed germination is thea.b.c.d.growth of the shoot.emergence of the radicle.appearance of the cotyledons above the soil.unfolding of the plumules embryonic leaves.5. Vegetative propagation refers to thea.b.c.d.sexual reproduction of plants that are consumed as vegetables.growth of the leaves and stems of a plant.use of vegetative structures to produce new plants.crossing of two strains of plants to produce hybrid vegetables.Modern Biology Study Guide169NameClassDateSHORT ANSWER Answer the questions in the space provided.1. Name the category of fruit to which each of the following belongs: raspberry, pineapple, pea pod.2. Identify four environmental factors or conditions that are required for the germination of at leastsome seeds.3. What is the main advantage of asexual reproduction?What is the main disadvantage of asexual reproduction?4. Name four plant structures that are adapted for vegetative reproduction.5. Name three common methods of seed dispersal, and give an example of each method.necessary for plant seeds to contain food reserves?STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONS Identify the structures labeled ag in the diagram of acorn grain shown below.abcdef170Section 30-3 ReviewCopyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.6. Critical Thinking Because plants make their own food through photosynthesis, why is itNameClassDateSEC T I O N 31 - 1 R E VIEWP LANT H ORMONESVOCABULARY REVIEW Define the following terms.1. plant hormone2. apical dominance3. ethephon4. abscission5. cytokininCopyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.MULTIPLE CHOICE Write the correct letter in the blank.1. The major effect of indoleacetic acid is toa. inhibit the enlargement of fruit.b. stimulate cell growth.c. stimulate dormancy.d. inhibit germination.2. After a shoot has had its tip removed, apical dominance can be maintained artificially bythe application ofa. GA.b. 2,4-D.c. ABA.d. NAA.3. One of the effects of gibberellins is to stimulatea. germination.b. ripening.c. dormancy.d. abscission.4. Ethylene differs from other plant hormones in that ita. has only inhibitory effects on plants.b. is produced only in seeds.c. is a gas at room temperature.d. affects only the plant that produces it.5. By varying the ratio of auxins to cytokinins in a tissue-culture medium, botanists canselectively stimulate the formation ofa. roots or shoots.b. stems or leaves.c. flowers or fruits.d. seeds or lateral buds.Modern Biology Study Guide171NameClassDateSHORT ANSWER Answer the questions in the space provided.1. Why does the removal of seeds from a strawberry fruit prevent the fruit from enlarging?2. Identify three agricultural uses of gibberellins.3. Identify three agricultural uses of ethylene or ethephon.4. How is it adaptive for a water-stressed plant to produce ABA?5. Critical Thinking Abscisic acid was originally named dormin. Why was that an appropriatename for this hormone?172Section 31-1 ReviewCopyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONS The drawings below show two plants of the samespecies and the same age. The plant on the right was treated with a hormone. The planton the left was not. Which of the five major groups of plant hormones was used to treatthe plant on the right? Explain your answer.NameClassDateSEC T I O N 31 - 2 R E VIEWP LANT M OVEMENTSVOCABULARY REVIEW Define the following terms, and provide one example of a typeof plant or a plant part to which each term applies.1. thigmotropism2. thigmonastic movement3. nyctinastic movementMULTIPLE CHOICE Write the correct letter in the blank.1. The positive phototropism shown by shoots is caused by the movement ofa. auxin to the shaded side of the shoot.b. auxin to the lighted side of the shoot.c. ethylene to the shaded side of the shoot.d. ethylene to the lighted side of the shoot.Copyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.2. The coiling of a morning glory stem around a fence post is an example ofa. phototropism.b. chemotropism.c. thigmotropism.d. a thigmonastic movement.3. The opposite responses of stems and roots to gravity are thought to be due to thea. inhibition of cell elongation in the lower side of the stems and the stimulation of cellelongation in the lower side of the roots.b. stimulation of cell elongation in the lower side of the stems and the inhibition of cellelongation in the lower side of the roots.c. inhibition of cell elongation in the lower side of both the stems and the roots.d. stimulation of cell elongation in the lower side of both the stems and the roots.4. Unlike tropisms, nastic movements area. always positive.b. always negative.c. restricted to flowers.d. independent of the direction of stimuli.5. The daily change in the orientation of the prayer plants leaves is an example ofa. solar tracking.b. a nyctinastic movement.c. a thigmonastic movement.d. gravitropism.Modern Biology Study Guide173NameClassDateSHORT ANSWER Answer the questions in the space provided.1. What is the adaptive advantage of positive phototropism?What is the adaptive advantage of positive gravitropism?2. What type of plant hormone is thought to be involved in all plant tropisms that involvecell elongation?3. What cellular events make nastic movements possible?4. What are three adaptive advantages of thigmonastic movements?5. Critical Thinking The Venus flytrap obtains nitrogen and minerals by closing its leaves aroundinsects and then digesting the insects. Why would a thigmonastic movement be more useful thanthigmotropism for this type of plant response?STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONS Use the diagram of a seedling below to answer thefollowing questions.Light1. What tropisms are being exhibited by the various parts of this seedling?2. What hormones are involved in these responses?174Section 31-2 ReviewCopyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.SoilNameClassDateSEC T I O N 31 - 3 R E VIEWS EASONAL R ESPONSESVOCABULARY REVIEW Define the following terms.1. photoperiodism2. vernalization3. bolting4. critical night lengthMULTIPLE CHOICE Write the correct letter in the blank.Copyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.1. Long-day plants flowera.b.c.d.in the fall.when the day length is longer than 12 hours.when the night length is shorter than a critical number of hours.when the night length is longer than a critical number of hours.2. Flower growers can induce winter flowering in a long-day plant bya.b.c.d.spraying the plant with gibberellin.exposing the plant to low temperatures.covering the plant in the late afternoon with an opaque cloth.exposing the plant to a low level of light in the middle of the night.3. Plants monitor changes in day length with the pigmenta. anthocyanin.b. phytochrome.c. chlorophyll.d. carotenoid.4. Crop plants whose flowering is stimulated by vernalization are usually sown in thea. fall.b. winter.c. spring.d. summer.5. The fall colors displayed by many tree leaves are caused partly by thea.b.c.d.stimulation of carotenoid synthesis that occurs only in the fall.disappearance of chlorophyll, which allows the carotenoids to become visible.migration of chlorophyll from the stems into the leaves.replacement of carotenoids by anthocyanins.Modern Biology Study Guide175NameClassDateSHORT ANSWER Answer the questions in the space provided.1. Identify three processes that are affected by photoperiodism in at least some plant species.2. Name one short-day plant and identify the time of year when it flowers.Name one long-day plant and identify the time of year when it flowers.3. Identify three plant processes in which phytochrome is involved.4. How can plants whose flowering is stimulated by vernalization be prevented from flowering?5. Critical Thinking Spinach is a long-day plant with a critical night length of 10 hours. Why isspinach not usually grown in the northern United States during the summer?The diagrams below represent three different conditions of day and night length. A short-dayplant, with a critical night length of 14 hours, and a long-day plant, with a critical night length of8 hours, are grown under each condition. On the lines, indicate whether each plant will flowerunder each condition.Does short-dayplant flower?17 hr light9 hr light9 hr light7 hr dark1 hr light176Section 31-3 Reviewabc7 hr dark15 hr dark7 hr darkDoes long-dayplant flower?defCopyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONS Use the diagram below to fill in lines af.NameClassDateSEC T I O N 3 2 - 1 R E VIEWT HE N ATURE OF A NIMALSVOCABULARY REVIEW Define the following terms.1. vertebrate2. ingestion3. dorsal nerve cord4. cephalizationMULTIPLE CHOICE Write the correct letter in the blank.Copyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.1. Which of the following statements accurately describes animals?a.b.c.d.All animals are multicellular, all are heterotrophic, and all lack cell walls.All animals are multicellular, some are heterotrophic, and some lack cell walls.Some animals are multicellular, all are heterotrophic, and all lack cell walls.Some animals are multicellular, some are heterotrophic, and some lack cell walls.2. An animals ability to move results from the interrelationship betweena. dermal tissue and vascular tissue.b. vascular tissue and nervous tissue.c. nervous tissue and muscle tissue.d. muscle tissue and ground tissue.3. Scientists infer that the first invertebrates evolved froma. simple vertebrates.b. large groups of bacteria.c. loosely connected fungi.d. colonial protists.4. Cephalization is associated witha. bilaterally symmetrical animals.b. radially symmetrical animals.c. sponges.d. hydras.5. A body cavity aids in an animals movement bya.b.c.d.anchoring the animal firmly to objects in its environment.providing a firm structure against which muscles can contract.giving rise to muscle tissue during embryonic development.secreting a fluid that allows the animal to glide over surfaces.Modern Biology Study Guide177NameClassDateSHORT ANSWER Answer the questions in the space provided.1. Explain the relationship between differentiation and specialization.2. On what basis do taxonomists group animals into phyla?3. Why is cephalization important to animals?4. Name three functions of a coelom.5. Critical Thinking Why is it important for a taxonomist to look at patterns of development whentrying to classify animals?abcdWhat type of symmetry does this animal have?S EC T I O N 3 2 - 2 R E VIEW178Section 32-1 ReviewCopyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONS In the drawing of a prairie dog shown below, label theanimals anterior and posterior ends and its dorsal and ventral sides in spaces ad.NameClassDateSEC T I O N 3 2 - 2 R E VIEWI NVERTEBRATES AND V ERTEBRATESVOCABULARY REVIEW Explain the relationship between the terms in each of thefollowing pairs of terms.1. segmentation, vertebrae2. integument, exoskeletonMULTIPLE CHOICE Write the correct letter in the blank.1. In a closed circulatory system,a.b.c.d.cells exchange nutrients directly with the environment.the bloodlike circulatory fluid never leaves the coelom.blood circulates through the body in tubular vessels.the blood carries gases but not nutrients or wastes.Copyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.2. A gut is aa.b.c.d.structure specialized for gas exchange in water.simple excretory organ of invertebrates.digestive chamber with one opening.digestive tract that runs through the body.3. A hermaphrodite is an organism thata. produces only male gametes.b. produces only female gametes.c. produces both male and female gametes.d. does not produce any gametes.4. The moist skin of an amphibian functions asa. a respiratory organ.b. a structure for conserving water.c. an insulating material.d. a rigid exoskeleton.5. Development of zygotes outside the body of the female parent is a characteristic ofa.b.c.d.all fishes and amphibians.many fishes, amphibians, reptiles, and birds.all reptiles and birds.reptiles, birds, and some amphibians.Modern Biology Study Guide179NameClassDateSHORT ANSWER Answer the questions in the space provided.1. Name two animal phyla whose members show segmentation.2. What waste excretion problem is shared by invertebrates and vertebrates?How do some invertebrates and vertebrates deal with this problem?3. Explain how the legs of a deer and the integument of a reptile are adaptations for life on land.4. What is one advantage of the multichambered heart that is found in some vertebrates?STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONS The table below summarizes the functions of some vertebrate structures. Complete the table by filling in the missing structures and functions.SEC T I O N 3 4 - 4 R E VIEWSEC T I O N 3 2 - 3 R E VIEWStructureafilters wastes from the bloodLung or gillbcprovides a barrier against the environmentBrainde180Functionprovides structural support for the bodySection 32-2 ReviewCopyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.5. Critical Thinking Name one advantage and one disadvantage of being a hermaphrodite.NameClassDateSEC T I O N 3 2 - 3 R E VIEWF ERTILIZATION AND D EVELOPMENTVOCABULARY REVIEW Distinguish between the terms in each of the following pairsof terms.1. archenteron, blastopore2. pseudocoelom, coelom3. protostome, deuterostomeCopyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.4. schizocoely, enterocoelyMULTIPLE CHOICE Write the correct letter in the blank.1. The eggs of different animal species vary greatly in size, depending ona.b.c.d.whether the egg and sperm are haploid or diploid.how long the food supply in the yolk must last.the number of chromosomes in the egg.the number of chromosomes in the sperm.2. The central cavity of a blastula is called aa. blastocoel.b. coelom.c. blastopore.d. gastrula.3. Body parts formed by the mesoderm include thea. lungs.b. liver.c. muscles.d. pancreas.4. Animals in which the anus develops from the blastopore includea. mollusks.b. arthropods.c. annelids.d. chordates.5. Animals that develop from three germ layers without a body cavity are calleda. coelomates.b. pseudocoelomates.c. acoelomates.d. schizocoelomates.Modern Biology Study Guide181NameClassDateSHORT ANSWER Answer the questions in the space provided.1. Contrast the structure of a blastula with that of a gastrula.2. Name the three germ layers in order, from outside to inside.3. What features of development indicate that echinoderms and chordates are more closely relatedto each other than they are to other animals?4. Critical Thinking Why is it important to have a mechanism that prevents more than one spermfrom entering an egg?STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONS The diagrams below show coelom formation during thetwo distinct patterns of development that most animals can undergo. In spaces a and b,name each pattern of development. In spaces c and d, name each type of coelom formation. In spaces e and f, name the structure that the opening at the bottom becomes.cde182bfSection 32-3 ReviewCopyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.aNameClassDateSEC T I O N 3 3 - 1 R E VIEWP ORIFERAVOCABULARY REVIEW Define the following terms.1. choanocyte2. osculum3. spicule4. amoebocyteMULTIPLE CHOICE Write the correct letter in the blank.1. Invertebrates are animals that lackCopyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.a. true tissues.b. true organs.c. a skeleton.d. a backbone.2. Adult sponges are sessile, which means that theya. have no gastrula stage.b. attach to a surface and do not move.c. use a jellylike substance for body support.d. produce both eggs and sperm.3. Choanocytes perform all of the following functions excepta.b.c.d.pumping water into the interior of the sponge.engulfing and digesting food that is filtered from the water.passing nutrients to amebocytes.distributing nutrients throughout the rest of the body.4. Sponges eliminate carbon dioxide and cellular wastes bya.b.c.d.allowing them to diffuse into the water that passes through the sponge.excreting them into the surrounding water through pores in the body wall.transporting them to an excretory organ that empties into the osculum.converting them into usable carbohydrates.5. After a sponge egg is fertilized, it develops into a(n)a. external bud.b. gemmule.c. larva.d. gastrula.Modern Biology Study Guide183NameClassDateSHORT ANSWER Answer the questions in the space provided.1. On what basis are animals placed into the invertebrate category?2. What are the two substances that a sponges skeleton may be made of?How do these substances differ?3. How do choanocytes participate in the sexual reproduction of sponges?4. Why is hermaphroditism beneficial in sponges even though they rarely self-fertilize?5. Critical Thinking Would gemmules or larvae be better at distributing a population of spongesSTRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONS Identify the structures labeled ae in the diagram of asponge shown below.abcde184Section 33-1 ReviewCopyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.through an area? Explain your reasoning.NameClassDateSEC T I O N 3 3 - 2 R E VIEWC NIDARIA AND C TENOPHORAVOCABULARY REVIEW Distinguish between the terms in each of the following pairsof terms.1. polyp, medusa2. epidermis, gastrodermis3. mesoglea, planula4. cnidocyte, nematocystCopyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.5. colloblast, apical organMULTIPLE CHOICE Write the correct letter in the blank.1. Cnidarians and ctenophores are more complex than sponges because, unlike sponges,they havea. tissues and organs.b. both asexual and sexual reproduction.c. a skeleton.d. a backbone.2. The structure that coordinates the complex activities of a cnidarians body is thea. gastrovascular cavity.b. colloblast.c. nerve net.d. tentacle.3. An example of a cnidarian in the class Hydrozoa is aa. coral.b. sea anemone.c. jellyfish.d. Portuguese man-of-war.4. Corals exist in a symbiotic relationship witha. fungi.b. algae.c. hydras.d. mosses.5. Ctenophores move through the water bya. somersaulting.b. contracting their bell-shaped bodies.c. beating their cilia.d. rotating like a propeller.Modern Biology Study Guide185NameClassDateSHORT ANSWER Answer the questions in the space provided.1. How are nematocysts adapted for capturing prey?2. List three differences between hydras and most other hydrozoans.3. What is the dominant body form in the life cycle of a scyphozoan?What is the dominant body form in the life cycle of an anthozoan?4. Describe two examples of symbiosis found among cnidarians.5. How do coral polyps produce a coral reef?6. Critical Thinking Would you expect to find green hydras in a cave pond that receives little orSTRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONS Identify the structures labeled af in the diagram of acnidarian body shown below.abcdefWhich body form is represented by this diagram?186Section 33-2 ReviewCopyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.no light? Explain your reasoning.NameClassDateSEC T I O N 3 4 - 1 R E VIEWP LATYHELMINTHESVOCABULARY REVIEW Distinguish between the terms in each of the following pairsof terms.1. proglottid, tegument2. cerebral ganglia, eyespots3. primary host, intermediate hostMULTIPLE CHOICE Write the correct letter in the blank.1. Flatworms are the simplest animals witha. a backbone.b. a coelom.c. bilateral symmetry.d. radial symmetry.Copyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.2. The gastrovascular cavity of a flatworma.b.c.d.has no opening to the outside.has a single opening.has two openings.is connected to the outside by numerous pores.3. One difference between free-living flatworms and parasitic flatworms is thata.b.c.d.free-living flatworms have proglottids.free-living flatworms do not have a gastrovascular cavity.parasitic flatworms have simpler life cycles.parasitic flatworms have a tegument.4. The eggs of the blood fluke Schistosomaa.b.c.d.leave the primary host in feces or urine.are produced by hermaphroditic adults.must be deposited on dry land to develop.are ingested by the intermediate host.5. The primary hosts of beef tapeworms area. cows.b. snails.c. pigs.d. humans.Modern Biology Study Guide187NameClassDateSHORT ANSWER Answer the questions in the space provided.1. How do planarians eliminate excess water from their bodies?2. How do planarians and tapeworms differ in their ability to detect light?3. What are the primary host and the intermediate host of a blood fluke?How does a blood fluke enter its primary host?4. What stage of the beef tapeworm life cycle is spent inside a cyst?5. Critical Thinking Some people mistakenly believe that all organisms are perfectly adapted totheir environments. What aspect of blood fluke reproduction suggests that these flatworms arenot perfectly adapted to the environment inside their human hosts?abcdefg188Section 34-1 ReviewCopyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONS Identify the structures labeled ag in the diagram of atapeworm shown below.NameClassDateSEC T I O N 3 4 - 2 R E VIEWN EMATODA AND R OTIFERAVOCABULARY REVIEW Define the following terms.1. trichinosis2. filarial worm3. mastaxMULTIPLE CHOICE Write the correct letter in the blank.1. Pseudocoelomates have a hollow, fluid-filled cavity that isCopyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.a.b.c.d.lined by ectoderm on the outside and mesoderm on the inside.lined by mesoderm on the outside and endoderm on the inside.completely surrounded by mesoderm.completely surrounded by endoderm.2. The roundworm digestive tracta. has no opening.b. has a single opening.c. has two openings.d. is absent in parasitic roundworms.3. Ascaris eggs enter the body of a human host when thea.b.c.d.host ingests contaminated food or water.eggs attach to the bare sole of a human foot.eggs are inhaled as spores.cysts rupture inside uncooked meat.4. Hookworms normally reach the human intestine after theya.b.c.d.are ingested as cysts in contaminated meat.bore directly from the skin of the abdomen to the intestine.enter the hosts anus and migrate to the intestine.travel through the blood to the lungs and throat and are then swallowed.5. A rotifers excretory system includesa. flame cells and excretory tubules.b. contractile vacuoles.c. a single, small kidney.d. many excretory pores on the body surface.Modern Biology Study Guide189NameClassDateSHORT ANSWER Answer the questions in the space provided.1. What advantage does a digestive tract have over a gastrovascular cavity?2. Compare the sites where eggs hatch in the life cycles of Ascaris, hookworms, and pinworms.3. What insect carries the roundworm that causes elephantiasis?4. What structure on a rotifer looks like a pair of rotating wheels?What is the function of this structure?5. Critical Thinking Most roundworms that parasitize the digestive tract live in the small intestine,which is close to the stomach. What is the adaptive advantage of living in the small intestine for aworm that does not feed directly on its hosts tissues?STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONS Identify the structures labeled a g in the diagram of arotifer shown below.abfcd190gSection 34-2 ReviewCopyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.eNameClassDateSEC T I O N 3 5 - 1 R E VIEWM OLLUSCAVOCABULARY REVIEW Explain the relationship between the terms in each of thefollowing pairs of terms.1. visceral mass, mantle2. hemolymph, hemocoel3. incurrent siphon, excurrent siphonMULTIPLE CHOICE Write the correct letter in the blank.Copyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.1. One advantage of a coelom over a pseudocoelom is that a coeloma.b.c.d.contains fluid while a pseudocoelom does not.is completely surrounded by endoderm.eliminates the need for a circulatory system.allows body wall muscles to contract without hindering digestion.2. One feature that is shared by many mollusks and annelids is thea. radula.b. mantle cavity.c. trochophore.d. pseudopodium.3. Mollusks in the class Gastropodaa. lack a distinct head.b. have an open circulatory system.c. do not have a hemocoel.d. are usually sessile.4. Bivalves have all of the following structures excepta. a radula.b. adductor muscles. c. siphons.d. gills.5. An octopus generally moves bya.b.c.d.pumping a jet of water through its incurrent siphon.crawling along the bottom with its tentacles.gliding on a layer of mucus with the help of cilia.repeatedly opening its valves and snapping them shut.Modern Biology Study Guide191NameClassDateSHORT ANSWER Answer the questions in the space provided.1. Identify the two main regions of a typical mollusks body.Which region contains most of the internal organs?Which region is directly involved with locomotion?2. What is the usual function of the mantle in a snail or clam?3. Contrast the feeding methods of gastropods and bivalves.4. Contrast sexual reproduction of marine clams and most freshwater clams.5. Critical Thinking A cephalopod called the paper nautilus makes a type of shell with its foot.This shell, which consists largely of protein, is formed only by the female and is used to protectthe eggs. List four reasons why this shell is not a typical molluskan shell.aebfcgd192Section 35-1 ReviewhCopyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONS Identify the structures labeled ah in the diagram of thebasic body plan of a mollusk shown below.NameClassDateSEC T I O N 3 5 - 2 R E VIEWA NNELIDAVOCABULARY REVIEW Define the following terms.1. seta2. parapodium3. typhlosole4. nephridiumMULTIPLE CHOICE Write the correct letter in the blank.Copyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.1. Segmentation is an advantage for annelid worms because ita.b.c.d.requires the whole body to move as a single unit.reduces the number of setae on the parapodia.divides the pseudocoelom into multiple compartments.is accompanied by the duplication of some internal organs.2. Contraction of an earthworms longitudinal musclesa. pushes the anterior end forward.b. pulls the anterior end backward.c. pulls the posterior end forward.d. pushes the posterior end backward.3. An earthworm uses its setae toa. grip the soil surface.b. contract in a circular direction.c. contract in a longitudinal direction.d. form a protective case for its eggs.4. One difference between leeches and polychaetes is that leechesa. do not have segments.b. do not have setae.c. have parapodia.d. are never carnivorous.5. All annelids in the classes Oligochaeta and Hirudinea havea. gills.b. parapodia.c. a segmented coelom.d. an open circulatory system.Modern Biology Study Guide193NameClassDateSHORT ANSWER Answer the questions in the space provided.1. How does the function of an earthworms crop differ from that of its gizzard?2. List three benefits of earthworm activity.3. What is the function of an earthworms aortic arches?4. Describe the locomotion of a leech on land.5. Critical Thinking Some parasitic leeches are attracted by warmth. What type of host wouldyou expect such leeches to have, and what would be the adaptive advantage of this attraction?acbdefgh194Section 35-2 ReviewCopyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONS Identify the structures labeled ah in the diagram of anearthworm shown below.NameClassDateSEC T I O N 3 6 - 1 R E VIEWP HYLUM A RTHROPODAVOCABULARY REVIEW Define the following terms.1. arthropod2. compound eye3. tagma4. cheliceraMULTIPLE CHOICE Write the correct letter in the blank.1. An arthropods exoskeleton performs all of the following functions exceptCopyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.a. producing gametes.b. protecting internal organs.c. supporting the animals weight.d. helping prevent desiccation.2. One feature that arthropods share with annelids isa. a closed circulatory system.b. jointed appendages.c. a ventral nerve cord.d. a lack of cephalization.3. An arthropod sheds its old exoskeleton whena.b.c.d.the old exoskeleton wears out.the new exoskeleton exerts pressure on the epidermis.the animal is 12 years old.a hormone is produced that induces molting.4. Ancestral arthropods probably hada.b.c.d.no coelom.one pair of appendages on every segment.bodies consisting of a few, highly specialized tagmata.endoskeletons.5. The subphylum Crustacea includesa. insects.b. spiders.c. ticks.d. shrimps.Modern Biology Study Guide195NameClassDateSHORT ANSWER Answer the questions in the space provided.1. What substance makes an arthropods exoskeleton repel water, and where is this substance located?2. What substance makes some arthropods exoskeletons hard, and where is this substance located?3. List two examples of arthropod appendages.4. Identify three ways that arthropods show cephalization.5. Critical Thinking The extinct animal Marella is thought to have been a distant ancestor ofsome living arthropods. Marella had branched legs and unbranched antennae. Why is it difficultto place Marella in any of the subphyla of living arthropods?STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONS The figure below shows a phylogenetic diagram of livingarthropods. In the blank spaces at the top of the diagram, write the names of the animals that belong on each branch of the tree. Some branches will have more than onename. Choose the names from the following list:abcmiteinsecthorseshoe crabmillipedeedfsea spiderscorpionghiArachnidaPycnogonidaMerostomataMyriapodaCrustaceaChelicerataCommon ancestor196Section 36-1 ReviewHexapodaCopyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.spidershrimpcentipedeNameClassDateSEC T I O N 3 6 - 2 R E VIEWS UBPHYLUM C RUSTACEAVOCABULARY REVIEW Distinguish between the terms in each of the following pairsof terms.1. cirrus, cheliped2. cephalothorax, thorax3. antenna, antennule4. telson, swimmeretMULTIPLE CHOICE Write the correct letter in the blank.Copyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.1. Crustaceans are the only arthropods that havea.b.c.d.three pairs of legs.two pairs of feeling appendages on their head.chitin in their exoskeleton.chelicerae.2. Freshwater crustaceans includea. copepods and barnacles.b. barnacles and water fleas.c. water fleas and crayfish.d. crayfish and sow bugs.3. A crayfish uses its swimmerets toa. defend itself.b. propel itself during tailflips.c. manipulate food.d. create water currents.4. A crayfish has teeth in itsa. stomach.b. esophagus.c. uropods.d. green glands.5. The hairs that project from the exoskeleton of a crayfish are used toa.b.c.d.create water currents over the surface of the crayfish.sense vibrations and chemicals in the water.retain body heat within the crayfish.protect the crayfish from predators.Modern Biology Study Guide197NameClassDateSHORT ANSWER Answer the questions in the space provided.1. Describe the structural features of a nauplius.2. Explain how a barnacle feeds.3. List the functions of the mandibles, maxillae, and maxillipeds in a crayfish.4. Describe the path of hemolymph flow through a crayfish, beginning with the heart.5. Critical Thinking In a stagnant pool of water, a crayfish may spend much of its time lying withone side of its carapace near the surface of the water. In this position, it will move the walkinglegs on that side in a rhythmic back-and-forth motion. Explain the likely function of this behavior.adbecfg198Section 36-2 ReviewCopyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONS Identify the structures labeled ag in the diagram of theinternal structure of a crayfish shown below.NameClassDateSEC T I O N 3 6 - 3 R E VIEWS UBPHYLA C HELICERATA AND M YRIAPODAVOCABULARY REVIEW Define the following terms.1. arachnid2. pedipalp3. spiracle4. Malpighian tubule5. spinneretCopyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.6. book lungMULTIPLE CHOICE Write the correct letter in the blank.1. How many pairs of appendages are on the cephalothorax of most arachnids?a. twob. fourc. sixd. eightc. pedipalps.d. chelicerae.2. A spiders respiratory system may includea. tracheae.b. spinnerets.3. One difference between scorpions and spiders is that scorpionsa. are herbivores.b. have large pincerlike pedipalps.c. are not venomous.d. do not have an abdomen.4. A chigger is the larva of aa. centipede.b. spider.c. tick.d. mite.5. Millipedes havea.b.c.d.two pairs of legs on most body segments.long antennae.a flattened body.a waxy exoskeleton.Modern Biology Study Guide199NameClassDateSHORT ANSWER Answer the questions in the space provided.1. Name three ways that spiders use silk.2. Describe the structure and function of book lungs.3. Identify the two spiders in the United States whose bites are poisonous to humans, and describethe appearance of these spiders.4. How are centipedes adapted to a predatory way of life?5. Critical Thinking Some biologists believe that smaller animals can occupy a greater variety of habitats and are more abundant than larger animals. Which group of arthropods is an example of thisidea? Explain your reasoning, and list the habitats occupied by that group.abgdSection 36-3 Reviewfc200ehCopyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONS Identify the structures labeled ah in the diagram of theinternal structure of a spider shown below.NameClassDateSEC T I O N 3 7 - 1 R E VIEWT HE I NSECT W ORLDVOCABULARY REVIEW Distinguish between the terms in each of the following pairsof terms.1. labrum, labium2. tympanum, ovipositor3. incomplete metamorphosis, complete metamorphosisCopyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.4. nymph, pupaMULTIPLE CHOICE Write the correct letter in the blank.1. One of the most important factors responsible for the success of insects is theirc. long life span.d. ability to fly.a. large size.b. heavy exoskeleton.2. The protozoan that causes malaria is transmitted bya. fleas.b. mosquitoes.c. flies.d. cockroaches.3. Which of the following is a structure that insects do not share with spiders?a. chelicera.b. trachea.c. Malpighian tubule. d. abdomen.4. The life cycle of an insect that undergoes complete metamorphosis may include all of thefollowing stages except a(n)a. adult.b. pupa.c. nymph.d. larva.5. The bombardier beetle defends itself bya. dropping seeds on its enemies.b. spraying a noxious chemical.c. resembling the plants on which it feeds.d. resembling a bumblebee.Modern Biology Study Guide201NameClassDateSHORT ANSWER Answer the questions in the space provided.1. List three characteristics that insects share with other members of the subphylum Myriapoda.List two differences between insects and other members of the subphylum Myriapoda.2. What beneficial function do termites serve in wild habitats?3. Describe the roles of the salivary glands and the gastric ceca in digestion in a grasshopper.4. How does a chrysalis differ from a cocoon?5. Critical Thinking Female mosquitoes feed on blood, while male mosquitoes feed on plantsap or nectar. How is this difference in feeding behavior important for the reproductive successof mosquitoes?abc202Section 37-1 ReviewCopyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONS Identify the structures labeled ag in the drawing of agrasshopper shown below.NameClassDateSEC T I O N 3 7 - 2 R E VIEWI NSECT B EHAVIORVOCABULARY REVIEW Define the following terms.1. pheromone2. innate behavior3. royal jelly4. queen factor5. kin selectionCopyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.MULTIPLE CHOICE Write the correct letter in the blank.1. Insects that communicate at a distance by producing sounds includea. ants.b. mosquitoes.c. silkworm moths.d. fireflies.2. Honeybees that develop from unfertilized eggs are calleda. workers.b. queens.c. nurse bees.d. drones.3. A queen honeybee stops producing the queen factor when thea. first worker hatches from its egg.b. first drone hatches from its egg.c. hive becomes overcrowded.d. hive population drops below about 20 bees.4. Which body part does a scout bee move from side to side when the bee performs awaggle dance?a. abdomenb. labrumc. thoraxd. antenna5. The stinging behavior of worker honeybees isa. learned from the queen.b. learned from the drones.c. not an altruistic behavior.d. an innate behavior.Modern Biology Study Guide203NameClassDateSHORT ANSWER Answer the questions in the space provided.1. In which of the following kinds of insects does the male use its antennae to find distant females:cricket, mosquito, moth, firefly?Name the communication signal detected by the antennae in each case.2. What mechanism ensures that female crickets are attracted to males of the same species?3. Which of the three types of bees in a honeybee colony is (are) female?Which of the three types is (are) sterile?4. Under what conditions will worker honeybees kill drones?5. Critical Thinking For an altruistic behavior to be maintained in a population over time, it mustbe directed at close relatives. Why is that so?a204bSection 37-2 ReviewCopyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONS The diagrams below show two types of dances performed by honeybees. In the space below each diagram, identify the dance and brieflydescribe the information it conveys.NameClassDateSEC T I O N 3 8 - 1 R E VIEWE CHINODERMSVOCABULARY REVIEW Explain the relationship between the terms in each of thefollowing pairs of terms.1. ossicle, test2. tube foot, ampulla3. cardiac stomach, pyloric stomach4. water-vascular system, radial canalMULTIPLE CHOICE Write the correct letter in the blank.Copyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.1. Both echinoderms and chordatesa. lack a coelom.b. have radially symmetrical larvae.c. have bilateral symmetry as adults.d. are deuterostomes.2. One characteristic that is found only in echinoderms isa.b.c.d.a nerve net.the presence of only two tissue layers during development.a water-vascular system.an endoskeleton.3. Members of the class Echinoidea includea. sea urchins.b. sea cucumbers.c. sea stars.d. sea lilies.4. The surface that is opposite the mouth in a sea star is called thea. oral surface.b. aboral surface.c. posterior surface. d. dorsal surface.5. Sexual reproduction among sea stars usually involvesa.b.c.d.separate sexes and internal fertilization.separate sexes and external fertilization.hermaphrodites and internal fertilization.hermaphrodites and external fertilization.Modern Biology Study Guide205NameClassDateSHORT ANSWER Answer the questions in the space provided.1. What do the larvae of echinoderms indicate about the evolution of echinoderms?2. Name the class of each of the following echinoderms: basket star, sea star, feather star, brittle star.3. Describe the organization of a sea stars nervous system.4. How do sea stars reproduce sexually?5. How do sea stars use their ability to regenerate as a defensive mechanism?6. Critical Thinking Why is the lack of cephalization not a disadvantage for a sea star?daebfc206Section 38-1 ReviewCopyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONS Identify the structures labeled af in the drawing of partof a sea star shown below.NameClassDateSEC T I O N 3 8 - 2 R E VIEWI NVERTEBRATE C HORDATESVOCABULARY REVIEW Define the following terms.1. notochord2. lancelet3. tunicate4. atrioporeMULTIPLE CHOICE Write the correct letter in the blank.1. In most chordates, the function of the notochord is taken over by theCopyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.a. vertebral column. b. brain.c. spinal cord.d. pharynx.2. The gill chambers of aquatic chordates evolved from thea. dorsal nerve cord.b. backbone.c. pharyngeal pouches.d. postanal tail.3. Animals in the subphyla Cephalochordata and Urochordata livea. only in fresh water.b. only in the ocean.c. only on land.d. in fresh water, in the ocean, and on land.4. A lancelet feeds bya.b.c.d.pursuing and capturing small animals with its tentacles.sucking blood from the skin of a larger animal.digesting nutrients contained in the bottom sediments it swallows.filtering food particles from the water that passes through its pharynx.5. Unlike adult lancelets, adult tunicatesa. have segmented muscles in their tail.b. are radially symmetrical.c. are usually sessile.d. have separate sexes.Modern Biology Study Guide207NameClassDateSHORT ANSWER Answer the questions in the space provided.1. List the chordate characteristics that lancelets have as adults.2. How do lancelets use their tail?3. How did tunicates receive their name?4. What behavior do tunicates exhibit when touched?5. How does the structure of a larval tunicate differ from that of an adult tunicate?6. Critical Thinking How are most adult tunicates similar to sponges, and how are they differentfrom sponges?abcdef208Section 38-2 ReviewCopyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONS Identify the structures labeled af in the diagram of alancelet shown below.NameClassDateSEC T I O N 3 9 - 1 R E VIEWI NTRODUCTION TO V ERTEBRATESVOCABULARY REVIEW Define the following terms.1. vertebra2. cranium3. gill archMULTIPLE CHOICE Write the correct letter in the blank.1. All of the following are vertebrate characteristics excepta. a post-anal tail.b. pharyngeal pouches.c. a ventral hollow nerve cord.d. an endoskeleton.2. Skates belong to the classCopyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.a. Myxini.b. Chondrichthyes.c. Reptilia.d. Amphibia.c. guppyd. catfish3. Which of the following fishes is jawless?a. hagfishb. ray4. The earliest vertebrates werea. bony fishes.b. spiny fishes with skeletons of cartilage.c. amphibians with thin, moist skin.d. jawless fishes.5. The evolution of paired fins was important to early fishes because paired finsa.b.c.d.led directly to the evolution of gill arches.led directly to the evolution of paired legs in mammals.increased the stability and maneuverability of the fishes.allowed the fishes to seize and manipulate prey.6. Jaws are thought to have evolved from thea. second and third vertebrae.b. first pair of gill arches.c. first pair of fins.d. anterior half of the pharynx.Modern Biology Study Guide209NameClassDateSHORT ANSWER Answer the questions in the space provided.1. Compare modern jawless fishes with those that lived 500 million years ago.2. Compare and contrast the skin of amphibians with the skin of reptiles.3. Name the class to which horses belong, and describe two major characteristics of the animals inthat class.4. What two important evolutionary events occurred in fishes about 450 million years ago?5. Critical Thinking Explain why the class Chondrichthyes contains many more species thanthe class Cephalaspidomorphi.210Section 39-1 ReviewihgfedcbaAncestral chordateCopyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONS The figure below shows a phylogenetic diagram ofvertebrates. In the blank space at the end of each branch of the diagram, write thename of the vertebrate class represented by that branch.NameClassDateSEC T I O N 3 9 - 2 R E VIEWJ AWLESS AND C ARTILAGINOUS F ISHESVOCABULARY REVIEW Define the following terms.1. lateral line2. cartilage3. placoid scale4. chemoreceptionMULTIPLE CHOICE Write the correct letter in the blank.1. Fishes obtain the oxygen they need by absorbing it through theirCopyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.a. kidneys.b. gills.c. skin.d. rectal gland.2. The body of a freshwater fish usuallya.b.c.d.tends to gain chloride ions through diffusion.tends to gain sodium ions through diffusion.tends to lose water through osmosis.has a higher concentration of solutes than the surrounding water does.3. One characteristic of many lampreys but not of hagfishes isa. a parasitic lifestyle.b. a cartilaginous skeleton.c. the presence of unpaired fins.d. the presence of jaws.4. Fishes in the class Chondrichthyesa. have skeletons composed of bone.b. are usually herbivores.c. have movable jaws.d. usually live in fresh water.5. Some cartilaginous fishes store lipids in their liver as an adaptation thata.b.c.d.increases buoyancy.increases the overall density of their body.removes toxic ammonia from their body.allows the fishes to swim continuously.Modern Biology Study Guide211NameClassDateSHORT ANSWER Answer the questions in the space provided.1. Describe the feeding behavior of a hagfish.2. Describe how some sharks teeth are adapted to capturing large fish or mammals.3. Describe two methods by which cartilaginous fishes can cause water to flow across their gills.4. Contrast fertilization in lampreys with that in cartilaginous fishes.5. Critical Thinking Which type of fishes would you expect to produce more gametes each timethey reproducejawless fishes or cartilaginous fishes? Explain your reasoning.acbdhiefg212Section 39-2 ReviewCopyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONS Identify the structures labeled ai in the drawing of ashark shown below.NameClassDateSEC T I O N 3 9 - 3 R E VIEWB ONY F ISHESVOCABULARY REVIEW Define the following terms.1. swim bladder2. lobe-finned fish3. ray-finned fish4. countercurrent flowMULTIPLE CHOICE Write the correct letter in the blank.1. One of the functions of the scales on a bony fish is toCopyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.a. help reduce water resistance.b. conserve body heat.c. absorb salt from the surrounding water.d. sense vibrations in the water.2. The coelacanth is an example of aa. primitive, fishlike amphibian.b. jawless fish.c. lobe-finned fish.d. ray-finned fish.3. The part of a fishs digestive tract that secretes bile is thea. intestine.b. liver.c. stomach.d. pancreas.4. In a fish, the blood that leaves the heart goes first to thea. kidneys.b. brain.c. muscles.d. gills.5. Fish gills are efficient organs for gas exchange because theya. have a small surface area.b. have no other functions besides gas exchange.c. can transport oxygen out of the body at the same time they transport carbon dioxideinto the body.d. operate on the principle of countercurrent flow.Modern Biology Study Guide213NameClassDateSHORT ANSWER Answer the questions in the space provided.1. Explain how the scales of a bony fish can respond to changes in the food supply.2. What two organs are involved in maintaining water and ion balance in a bony fish?3. How does a bony fish adjust its buoyancy?4. Where does fertilization occur in bony fishes?5. Critical Thinking Why would a fish with faulty valves in its conus arteriosus probably sufferfrom a lack of energy?abcd214Section 39-3 ReviewCopyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONS Identify the structures labeled ad in the diagram of afishs heart shown below. Draw three arrows on the diagram to show where blood entersand leaves the heart.NameClassDateSEC T I O N 4 0 - 1 R E VIEWO RIGIN AND E VOLUTION OF A MPHIBIANSVOCABULARY REVIEW Define the following terms.1. preadaptation2. tadpoleMULTIPLE CHOICE Write the correct letter in the blank.1. One factor that may have favored the evolution of land-dwelling amphibians from aquaticvertebrates was thea.b.c.d.decreasing temperature of the worlds oceans.decreasing competition for food in lakes, rivers, and ponds.increasing abundance of food sources on land.increasing presence of predators on land.Copyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.2. The teeth of Ichthyostega indicate that it atea. fish.b. insects.c. plants.d. plankton.3. Most amphibian eggsa.b.c.d.are fertilized internally.have a shell around them.are surrounded by membranes.are laid in water or in moist places.4. The feet of most amphibiansa.b.c.d.are webbed.have claws.have eight toes.are homologous to the fins of fishes.5. Caecilians detect prey bya.b.c.d.using their keen eyesight.sensing electric fields generated by prey.using their forelimbs to feel for prey in the mud.using chemosensory tentacles on their head.Modern Biology Study Guide215NameClassDateSHORT ANSWER Answer the questions in the space provided.1. Explain why scientists think that amphibians evolved from lobe-finned fishes.2. What evidence suggests that Ichthyostega spent most of its time in the water?3. Name three ways that amphibians carry out gas exchange.4. Compare the skin and body shape of a frog with those of a salamander.5. Critical Thinking Many frogs are both poisonous and very colorful. What function does theircoloration likely serve?AmphibiaClassesabTaillessCommonnamesd216Section 40-1 ReviewecVisible tailfWithout feetgCopyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONS The diagram below summarizes the division of the classAmphibia into its three orders. In spaces ac, write the scientific name of each order. Inspaces dg, fill in the common names of the animals in each order.NameClassDateSEC T I O N 4 0 - 2 R E VIEWC HARACTERISTICS OF A MPHIBIANSVOCABULARY REVIEW Distinguish between the terms in each of the following pairsof terms.1. pulmonary circulation, systemic circulation2. pulmonary respiration, cutaneous respiration3. duodenum, ileum4. mesentery, columellaCopyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.5. nictitating membrane, tympanic membraneMULTIPLE CHOICE Write the correct letter in the blank.1. An amphibians mucous glandsa.b.c.d.filter nitrogenous wastes from the blood.produce enzymes that help break down food.secrete poisonous substances that repel predators.supply a lubricant that keeps the skin moist in air.2. The weight of an amphibians body is transferred to the limbs by thea. cervical vertebra.b. pectoral and pelvic girdles.c. radio-ulna.d. tibiofibula.3. The part of a frogs heart that pumps blood to the lungs and the rest of the body is thea. ventricle.b. left atrium.c. right atrium.d. sinus venosus.4. The direction that air flows when a frog breathes is controlled by thea. conus arteriosus.b. floor of the mouth.c. nostrils.d. lungs.5. In amphibians, bile is produced by thea. cloaca.b. liver.c. pancreas.d. duodenum.Modern Biology Study Guide217NameClassDateSHORT ANSWER Answer the questions in the space provided.1. Explain how the vertebrae of a frogs spine help the frog to live on land.2. Why does oxygenated blood reach muscles and organs more rapidly in an amphibian than itdoes in a fish?3. Identify the function of each of the following parts of the amphibian nervous system: cerebrum,cerebellum, optic lobes, medulla oblongata.4. Critical Thinking The ventral muscles of the belly are more developed in amphibians than theyare in fishes. Explain why.STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONS Identify the structures labeled af in the diagram of afrogs skeleton shown below.girdleaebfgirdlec218Section 40-2 ReviewCopyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.dNameClassDateSEC T I O N 4 0 - 3 R E VIEWR EPRODUCTION IN A MPHIBIANSVOCABULARY REVIEW Define the following terms.1. amplexus2. thyroxineMULTIPLE CHOICE Write the correct letter in the blank.1. In a female frog, immature eggs are contained in a pair of lobeda. ovaries.b. oviducts.c. testes.d. kidneys.Copyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.2. A frog croaks bya.b.c.d.rapidly rubbing its hind legs together.brushing its forelegs against its vocal sacs.moving air back and forth between its mouth and lungs.forcing air out of its nostrils under positive pressure.3. One factor that increases the chances of successful fertilization in frogs is thata.b.c.d.eggs can be fertilized by sperm of any frog species.the female produces a single egg.fertilization occurs internally.fertilization occurs while the male grasps firmly onto the female.4. A newly hatched tadpole lives offa.b.c.d.nutrients in the ovaries of its mother.yolk stored in its body.plants that grow underwater.flying insects that land on the waters surface.5. Metamorphosis in amphibiansa.b.c.d.involves a slow change from adult to larva.is triggered by the disappearance of the lungs.is stimulated by a hormone.occurs in all species that produce eggs.Modern Biology Study Guide219NameClassDateSHORT ANSWER Answer the questions in the space provided.1. List two reasons why male frogs call during the breeding season.2. List three changes that occur in the body of a tadpole during metamorphosis.3. Describe two varieties of amphibian development that do not involve metamorphosis.4. Why do some species of frogs sit on their eggs?5. Critical Thinking The jellylike material that surrounds the eggs of many frogs and toads isoften very sticky. Suggest an adaptive advantage that this stickiness may provide.a220bSection 40-3 ReviewcdefCopyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONS The drawings below represent the stages in the life cycleof a frog. Place the stages in the correct order by writing the numbers 16 in the spacesbeneath the drawings, beginning with the stage that shows fertilization.NameClassDateSEC T I O N 41 - 1 R E VIEWO RIGIN AND E VOLUTION OF R EPTILESVOCABULARY REVIEW Define the following terms.1. amnion2. allantois3. chorion4. albumenCopyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.5. keratinMULTIPLE CHOICE Write the correct letter in the blank.1. One group of extinct reptiles that could fly were thea. dinosaurs.b. pterosaurs.c. plesiosaurs.d. ichthyosaurs.2. The asteroid-impact hypothesis proposes thata.b.c.d.all dinosaur fossils more than 65 million years old were destroyed by an asteroid.all reptiles were destroyed by an asteroid 65 million years ago.the ancestors of dinosaurs were brought to Earth on an asteroid.the sudden extinction of dinosaurs was caused by an asteroid that hit Earth.3. Birds are thought to be most closely related toa. dinosaurs.b. lizards.c. crocodiles.d. turtles.4. The amniotic egg is found only ina. reptiles.b. reptiles and birds.c. reptiles, mammals, and birds.d. amphibians, reptiles, mammals, and birds.5. Gas exchange in reptiles takes place in thea. gills.b. lungs.c. skin.d. lungs and skin.Modern Biology Study Guide221NameClassDateSHORT ANSWER Answer the questions in the space provided.1. List two pieces of evidence that support the asteroid-impact hypothesis.2. What functions are performed by the shell of a reptilian egg?3. Why is the skin of a reptile better adapted to a terrestrial environment than is the skin of anamphibian?4. Critical Thinking At one time, all of Earths land masses were joined in a supercontinent calledPangaea. About 180 million years ago, Pangaea began to break up into separate continents, whichslowly drifted apart. Fossil evidence indicates that dinosaurs became much more diverse after thistime. Explain how the breakup of Pangaea may have contributed to the increase in dinosaur diversity.birdscrocodilesdinosaursEarly reptiles222Section 41-1 ReviewlizardssnakestuatarasturtlesCopyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONS The phylogenetic diagram below provides a hypothesisfor how modern reptiles are related to each other and to dinosaurs and birds. In theblank spaces, write the names of the animals that belong on each branch of the diagram.Choose the names from the following list:NameClassDateSEC T I O N 41 - 2 R E VIEWC HARACTERISTICS OF R EPTILESVOCABULARY REVIEW Define the following terms.1. alveoli2. Jacobsons organ3. ectotherm4. viviparity5. placentaMULTIPLE CHOICE Write the correct letter in the blank.Copyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.1. Unlike the heart of a lizard, the heart of a crocodile hasa. no atria.b. no conus arteriosus.c. a single ventricle that is partially divided.d. two separate ventricles.2. A snake uses its columella toa. inject venom.b. detect odors.c. hear.d. detect heat.3. Ectotherms require less energy than endotherms becausea. their muscles are very efficient.b. their metabolism is very slow.c. they have very large fat reserves.d. their cellular activities do not require ATP.4. The body temperature of a lizard isa.b.c.d.usually maintained within a narrow range.usually equal to the environmental temperature.always lower than the environmental temperature.always higher than the environmental temperature.5. A female snake that retains her fertilized eggs within her body exhibits a pattern ofreproduction calleda. oviparity.b. ovoviviparity.c. viviparity.d. vovoparity.Modern Biology Study Guide223NameClassDateSHORT ANSWER Answer the questions in the space provided.1. List three conditions under which a reptile might redirect blood away from its lungs.2. Explain how a snake detects ground vibrations.3. Explain how a pit viper detects warm objects.4. List three things a lizard might do to regulate its body temperature.5. List three ways a female crocodile provides parental care.6. Critical Thinking Why is internal fertilization necessary in reptiles?ecafgdb224Section 41-2 ReviewCopyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONS Identify the structures labeled ad in the diagram of aturtles heart shown below. In the rectangles labeled eg, draw an arrow to indicate thedirection in which blood normally flows through that part of the heart.NameClassDateSEC T I O N 41 - 3 R E VIEWM ODERN R EPTILESVOCABULARY REVIEW Define the following terms.1. carapace2. autotomy3. constrictor4. elapidMULTIPLE CHOICE Write the correct letter in the blank.Copyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.1. One difference between turtles and other reptiles is that turtlesa.b.c.d.have their pelvic and pectoral girdles within their ribs.fertilize their eggs externally.do not produce amniotic eggs.respire with gills rather than lungs.2. The living reptiles most closely related to dinosaurs area. turtles.b. lizards.c. crocodiles.d. tuataras.3. Crocodilians usually capture prey bya.b.c.d.chasing after prey on land.digging prey out of the mud at the bottom of a lake.lying in wait until the prey approaches.using bait to lure prey into a pit.4. Lizards live on every continent excepta. Africa.b. Asia.c. Australia.d. Antarctica.c. rattlesnake.d. coral snake.5. An example of a constrictor is aa. cobra.b. king snake.Modern Biology Study Guide225NameClassDateSHORT ANSWER Answer the questions in the space provided.1. Explain how the shell and limbs of water-dwelling turtles are adapted to an aquatic environment.2. How can a snake swallow an object that is larger in diameter than the snakes head?3. How does a viper immoblize its prey?4. Why is tuatara an appropriate name for reptiles in the order Rhynchocephalia?5. Critical Thinking Explain why snakes have a difficult time moving forward if they are placed ona very smooth surface.StructureFunctionFangs in back of mouthabValve at back of throatcdForked tongueefDomed carapaceghPads on fingers and toesijElastic ligaments in jawand skull226OrderklSection 41-3 ReviewCopyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONS The table below lists several structures found in reptiles.Complete the table by identifying a reptilian order in which each structure is found andbriefly describing the function of each structure.NameClassDateSEC T I O N 4 2 - 1 R E VIEWO RIGIN AND E VOLUTION OF B IRDSVOCABULARY REVIEW Define the following terms.1. furcula2. beakMULTIPLE CHOICE Write the correct letter in the blank.1. Feathers are composed mainly ofa. albumen.b. chitin.c. keratin.d. cellulose.2. Which of the following statements about a birds skeleton is untrue?Copyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.a.b.c.d.The skeleton is very flexible because none of the bones are fused.Many of the bones are thin-walled and hollow.Air sacs from the respiratory system penetrate some of the bones.The bones are lighter than those of nonflying animals.3. Bird reproduction is characterized bya.b.c.d.ovoviviparity.oviparity.viviparity.both oviparity and viviparity.4. Birds are thought to have evolved froma.b.c.d.small, tree-dwelling mammals.small, fast-running dinosaurs.ancient, flying reptiles.modern, two-legged reptiles.5. One characteristic that Archaeopteryx shared with modern birds is the presence ofa. teeth.b. claws on its forelimbs.c. a long, bony tail.d. a fused collarbone.6. One characteristic that Sinornis shared with modern birds is the presence ofa.b.c.d.wings that could be folded against the body.ectothermic metabolism.a long, bony tail.solid, thick-walled bones.Modern Biology Study Guide227NameClassDateSHORT ANSWER Answer the questions in the space provided.1. List two functions for which feathers are important.2. What makes a birds respiratory system more efficient than the respiratory systems of otherterrestrial vertebrates?3. List three similarities between birds and some dinosaurs.4. Describe two hypotheses for the evolution of flight in birds.5. Critical Thinking Compared with other vertebrates, birds are poorly represented in the fossilSTRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONS The phylogenetic diagram at right shows how birds couldbe related to some other groups of vertebrates. In the blank spaces, write the name ofthe animals that belong on each branch. Choose the name from the following list:extinctCaAmniotes228Section 42-1 ReviewArchaex eoptin tect ryudex ipttin erct yxxBirdsDinosaursMammalsReptilesCopyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.record. Propose a possible explanation for this observation.NameClassDateSEC T I O N 4 2 - 2 R E VIEWC HARACTERISTICS OF B IRDSVOCABULARY REVIEW Distinguish between the terms in each of the following pairsof terms.1. shaft, vane2. barb, barbule3. sternum, pygostyle4. proventriculus, gizzardCopyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.5. precocial, altricialMULTIPLE CHOICE Write the correct letter in the blank.1. Birds use their beaks to rub their feathers with oil secreted by thea. follicles.b. preen gland.c. crop.d. vasa deferentia.2. The humerus, radius, and ulna are part of a birdsa. furcula.b. leg.c. wing.d. pelvic girdle.3. In a bird, the breakdown of food begins in thea. proventriculus.b. esophagus.c. small intestine.d. cloaca.4. When a bird breathes, air moves from the posterior air sacs to thea. anterior air sacs.b. lungs.c. trachea.d. outside of the bird.c. pigeon.d. duck.5. One bird that bears precocial young is thea. hawk.b. parrot.6. Modifications for flight in the skeleton of a bird includea. hollow bones.b. the pygostyle.c. a fused pelvic girdle.d. All of the aboveModern Biology Study Guide229NameClassDateSHORT ANSWER Answer the questions in the space provided.1. What functions does a birds tail perform during flight?2. How do birds eliminate nitrogenous waste?3. Explain the advantage of having eyes located near the front of the head.4. Name three navigation cues that may be used by migrating birds.5. Critical Thinking What might happen to a bird with a defective preen gland?abfcdge230Section 42-2 ReviewCopyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONS Identify the structures labeled ag in the diagram of abird shown below.NameClassDateSEC T I O N 4 2 - 3 R E VIEWC LASSIFICATIONVOCABULARY REVIEW Define the following terms.1. syrinx2. crop milkMULTIPLE CHOICE Write the correct letter in the blank.1. The cardinal has a beak that is specialized fora.b.c.d.tearing flesh.feeding on nectar.sifting through mud.cracking seeds.2. Hummingbirds are found only inCopyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.a. the Western Hemisphere.b. South America.c. Asia.d. Africa.3. Toucans and woodpeckers belong to the ordera. Anseriformes.b. Strigiformes.c. Piciformes.d. Apodiformes.4. Due to habitat destruction and excessive collecting for the pet trade, extinction is threatening many species in the ordera. Struthioniformes.c. Falconiformes.b. Psittaciformes.d. Columbiformes.5. The bird order that contains the greatest number of species isa. Ciconiiformes.c. Sphenisciformes.b. Galliformes.d. Passeriformes.6. Which of the following characteristics can be observed in the order Struthioniformes?a.b.c.d.a large wingspread for flying.long, strong legs for running.sharp talons for seizing prey.crop milk for feeding their young.Modern Biology Study Guide231NameClassDateSHORT ANSWER Answer the questions in the space provided.1. Contrast the feet of a kestrel with those of a goose.2. What are raptors, and where are they found?3. Describe the unusual construction of a passerines feet, and explain the usefulness of this feature.4. Critical Thinking When a homing pigeon is released some distance from its loft with a smallmagnet tied to its back, it has no difficulty finding its way back to the loft on a sunny day butbecomes disoriented and lost on an overcast day. What do these observations suggest abouthow homing pigeons navigate?STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONS In the spaces below, write the name that corresponds tothe order of the bird shown. Choose the names from the following list:PasseriformesPiciformesPsittaciformesStrigiformesStruthioniformesGreat blue heronRed-tailed hawk232Section 42-3 ReviewBlue jayGreat horned owlMallardCopyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.AnseriformesApodiformesCiconiiformesColumbiformesGalliformesNameClassDateSEC T I O N 4 3 - 1 R E VIEWO RIGIN AND E VOLUTION OF M AMMALSVOCABULARY REVIEW Define the following terms.1. mammary gland2. monotreme3. marsupialMULTIPLE CHOICE Write the correct letter in the blank.1. The heart of a mammalCopyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.a.b.c.d.contains two chambers, like the heart of a bird.contains four chambers, like the heart of an amphibian.has two completely separate ventricles.allows deoxygenated blood to mix with oxygenated blood.2. The lower jaw of a mammala.b.c.d.is composed of a single bone.contains teeth that are uniform in size.contains teeth that are uniform in shape.does not usually leave a trace in the fossil record.3. Some therapsids are believed to have had all of the following features excepta. limbs positioned under the body.b. moist, wet skin.c. endothermy.d. hair.4. Two groups of vertebrates that appeared at about the same time during the Triassicperiod werea. synapsids and fishes.b. therapsids and amphibians.c. mammals and reptiles.d. mammals and dinosaurs.5. Early mammals are thought to have avoided competition with dinosaurs by feeding ona. insects at night.b. plants at night.c. plants during the day.d. small vertebrates during the day.Modern Biology Study Guide233NameClassDateSHORT ANSWER Answer the questions in the space provided.1. Describe a function of hair.2. List three characteristics of Dimetrodon.3. Why are modern terrestrial mammals considered more like Lycaenops than Dimetrodon?4. What kind of animal constituted most of the large terrestrial carnivores and herbivores duringthe Cretaceous period, and what kind of animal fills these roles today?What biological event is responsible for this change over time?5. Critical Thinking Although hair is not preserved in fossils, scientists are fairly certain that thefirst mammals had hair. How can scientists be so certain about this?Eye socket234Section 43-1 ReviewEye socketCopyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONS The drawings below show the fossilized skulls of twoextinct vertebrates. One of the skulls is from an animal in the group that gave rise tomodern reptiles. The other skull is from an animal in the group that gave rise tomammals. Identify the group that each skull belongs to, and give two reasons thatsupport your identification.NameClassDateSEC T I O N 4 3 - 2 R E VIEWC HARACTERISTICS OF M AMMALSVOCABULARY REVIEW Define the following terms.1. diaphragm2. baleen3. echolocation4. rumenMULTIPLE CHOICE Write the correct letter in the blank.1. One place where you would expect to find mammals but not reptiles isCopyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.a. a desert.b. the Arctic.c. a rain forest.d. the ocean.2. One mammalian feature that is an adaptation for endothermy isa. a four-chambered heart.b. the presence of specialized teeth.c. a single lower jawbone.d. oviparity.3. Which of the following is NOT true about the cecum?a.b.c.d.It branches from the small intestine.It acts as a fermentation chamber.It is found in mammals that chew cud.It contains microorganisms that complete digestion.4. The lungs of a mammala.b.c.d.expel air when the diaphragm contracts.contain a few large but very efficient alveoli.supply blood to placental mammals even before they are born.have a much larger surface area than the lungs of a reptile.5. At hatching, a monotreme isa.b.c.d.very small and only partially developed.small but fully developed.nearly adult-sized but only partially developed.nearly adult-sized and fully developed.Modern Biology Study Guide235NameClassDateSHORT ANSWER Answer the questions in the space provided.1. Explain how the respiratory system of a mammal helps sustain a rapid metabolism.2. How are microorganisms beneficial to herbivorous mammals?3. Name the largest part of a mammalian brain, and list three of its functions.4. How does a placenta form?5. Critical Thinking The ears, feet, and tail of North American mammals are often smaller in northernspecies than they are in southern species. Explain the adaptive advantage of these size differences.hgifjabcdel236Section 43-2 ReviewkCopyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONS Identify the structures labeled ae in the diagram of amammalian heart shown below. In the rectangles labeled fl, draw an arrow to indicatewhether blood is flowing toward the heart or away from the heart.NameClassDateSEC T I O N 4 3 - 3 R E VIEWD IVERSITY OF M AMMALSVOCABULARY REVIEW Define the following terms.1. pinniped2. ungulateMULTIPLE CHOICE Write the correct letter in the blank.1. The only egg-laying mammals are found in the ordera. Monotremata.b. Marsupialia.c. Sirenia.d. Rodentia.2. The fossil record indicates that marsupials once dominated South America but were gradually displaced bya. monotremes.b. placental mammals.c. dinosaurs.d. opossums.Copyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.3. The teeth of insectivores are adapted fora.b.c.d.chiseling through roots and twigs.grinding plant material.consuming a variety of foods.grasping and piercing prey.4. Mammals in the order Chiroptera are commonly calleda. sloths.b. manatees.c. bats.d. whales.5. Mammals with streamlined bodies adapted for efficient swimming are found in the ordersa.b.c.d.Edentata, Lagomorpha, and Sirenia.Carnivora, Cetacea, and Sirenia.Cetacea, Proboscidea, and Artiodactyla.Artiodactyla, Perissodactyla, and Rodentia.6. Which of the following mammals is a tapir most closely related to?a. horseb. pigc. walrusd. porcupineModern Biology Study Guide237NameClassDateSHORT ANSWER Answer the questions in the space provided.1. A large mammal is standing in a meadow chewing its cud. Identify the order to which thismammal belongs.Is this mammal more likely to have three toes or four?2. Name the mammalian order to which humans belong.3. Critical Thinking Shrews are the smallest mammals, some weighing as little as 2 g (0.07 oz).They also eat constantly and must hunt for food both day and night. Explain why shrews havesuch a voracious appetite.STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONS In the space above each drawing below, write the namethat corresponds to the order of the mammal shown in that drawing. Choose the namesfrom the following list:ArtiodactylaCarnivoraCetaceaChiropteraInsectivoraLagomorphaMarsupialiaMonotremataPerissodactylaPrimatesProboscideaRodentiaSireniaXenarthraCopyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.238Section 43-3 ReviewNameClassDateSEC T I O N 4 3 - 4 R E VIEWP RIMATES AND H UMAN O RIGINSVOCABULARY REVIEW Define the following terms.1. prehensile appendage2. opposable thumb3. bipedalism4. hominidMULTIPLE CHOICE Write the correct letter in the blank.1. Which of the following is NOT a primate characteristic?Copyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.a. large brain relative to body sizeb. binocular visionc. teeth specialized for a carnivorous dietd. opposable thumbs2. Primates that exhibit bipedalism includea. humans.b. New World monkeys.c. the great apes.d. All of the above3. The oldest known australopithecine isa. Lucy.b. Australopithecus anamensis.c. Australopithecus africanus.d. Australopithecus robustus.4. Similarities between Homo habilis and modern humans includea. height.b. brain capacity.c. facial structure.d. ability to use tools.5. According to the multiregional hypothesisa.b.c.d.local populations of H. erectus gave rise to local populations of H. sapiens.H. sapiens evolved from H. erectus in Africa.H. sapiens evolved from H. erectus in Asia.H. sapiens evolved from at least two species of hominids.Modern Biology Study Guide239NameClassDateSHORT ANSWER Answer the questions in the space provided.1. List three characteristics of primates.2. Describe two anthropoid adaptations.3. How is the human skeleton adapted to bipedalism?4. Contrast the multiregional hypothesis with the recent-African-origin hypothesis.5. Critical Thinking Why is it considered inaccurate to refer to a missing link with respect to humanevolution?Physical TraitsCranial capacityHuman500 cm3abSpinec S-shapedPelvisgJawebcToes240ChimpanzeeSection 43-4 ReviewfalignedflatdlargerCopyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONS The table below compares several physical traits betweenhumans and chimpanzees. Complete the table by filling in the missing information.NameClassDateSEC T I O N 4 4 - 1 R E VIEWD EVELOPMENT OF B EHAVIORVOCABULARY REVIEW Define the following terms.1. innate behavior2. fixed action pattern3. habituation4. operant conditioning5. imprintingCopyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.MULTIPLE CHOICE Write the correct letter in the blank.1. A biologist who studies behavior isa. called a psychologist.b. called an ethnographer.c. called an ethologist.d. concerned only with the genetics of behavior.2. Removal of infected young from a bee hive is an example of behavior that isa.b.c.d.unresponsive to environmental conditions, or fixed.triggered only by environmental stimuli.mostly learned.both genetic and triggered by environmental conditions.3. A fixed action patterna.b.c.d.continues from start to finish without modification.is adaptive.may be triggered by an environmental stimulus.All of the above4. Learning to associate a reward with a predictive stimulus, such as a hamburger with thesight of a neon sign, is an example ofa. classical conditioning.b. operant conditioning.c. imprinting.d. reasoning.Modern Biology Study Guide241NameClassDate5. Which of the following is an example of imprinting?a. a salmons ability to recognize chemical cues in the water when returning to thestream where it was born to spawnb. a chimpanzee stacking boxes to reach a bananac. an octopus using its arms to unscrew a jar lid and eat the fish inside the jard. a dog salivating in response to a bellSHORT ANSWER Answer the questions in the space provided.1. List four questions that ethologists ask about an animals behavior.2. Describe an example of how natural selection shapes behavior.3. Give two examples of innate behaviors.4. How is habituation adaptive?5. Critical Thinking What kinds of behaviors might be involved in using a computer?Behaviora Fixed action patternLearned or InnateExampleabdda Operant conditioningefa Classical conditioningghijjAn octopus opening ajar for fishkljGoslings followingtheir motherc242Section 44-1 ReviewNot hearing planesoverheadCopyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONS The table below compares several kinds of behavior.Complete the table by filling in the missing information.NameClassDateSEC T I O N 4 4 - 2 R E VIEWT YPES OF A NIMAL B EHAVIORVOCABULARY REVIEW Define the following terms.1. dominance hierarchy2. aposematic coloration3. pheromone4. circadian rhythmMULTIPLE CHOICE Write the correct letter in the blank.1. The optimality hypothesis helps to explainCopyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.a. courtship behavior.b. dominance hierarchies.c. parental behavior.d. feeding behavior.2. An animal may establish and defend a territory by usinga. chemical signals. b. vocal signals.c. visual signals.d. All of the above3. A mating system in which a male mates with multiple females is calleda. male polygamy.b. female polygamy.c. monogamy.d. sexual selection.4. Social behavior is defined as an interaction that involvesa.b.c.d.several species.sacrificing ones own security to help another.two or more animals of the same species.None of the above5. Hibernation is associated witha.b.c.d.circadian rhythms.annual biological cycles.migration.days becoming longer in the springtime.Modern Biology Study Guide243NameClassDateSHORT ANSWER Answer the questions in the space provided.1. What is the usual outcome of aggressive behavior?2. Describe a situation in which monogamy would be favored.3. Contrast the costs and benefits of parental care.4. List the criteria that must be met for communication to be considered language.5. Critical Thinking Crossbills are birds that use their beaks to eat the seeds of pine cones. Oneday, a flock of crossbills feeds in a single pine tree for several hours. On another day, the sameflock moves from tree to tree as it feeds. Explain these behaviors.STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONS The table below lists several examples of behaviors.Complete the table by filling in the missing behavior.ExampleabOwls hunting at night and resting during the daycMonarch butterflies traveling to Mexico for the winterdMale and female mourning doves bowing and cooing toeach othereHead-butting in bighorn sheepfA cat urinating on bushes in its neighborhoodg244A ground squirrel giving an alarm callPecking orders in chickensSection 44-2 ReviewCopyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.BehaviorNameClassDateSEC T I O N 4 5 - 1 R E VIEWT HE H UMAN B ODY P LANVOCABULARY REVIEW Describe the functions of the tissues listed below.1. nervous tissue2. muscular tissue3. skeletal muscle4. epithelial tissue5. connective tissueCopyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.MULTIPLE CHOICE Write the correct letter in the blank.1. Nervous tissue contains specialized cells calleda. transmitters.b. messenger cells.c. neurons.d. cardiac cells.2. Tissue that binds, supports, and protects structures is calleda. connective tissue.b. muscle tissue.c. skeletal tissue.d. epithelial tissue.3. Organ systems consist ofa. tissues.b. cells.c. organs.d. All of the above4. The body cavity that contains the heart, esophagus, and organs of the respiratory systemis thea. cranial cavity.b. spinal cavity.c. abdominal cavity.d. thoracic cavity.5. Which organ system includes the kidneys, ureters, bladder, urethra, lungs, and skin?a. integumentary systemb. digestive systemc. excretory systemd. endocrine systemModern Biology Study Guide245NameClassDateSHORT ANSWER Answer the questions in the space provided.1. List three types of muscle tissue.2. Describe how body tissues, organs, and organ systems are related.3. Describe the composition of connective tissue.4. Describe two functions of nervous tissue.5. Critical Thinking Can an organ be part of more than one organ system? Explain your answer.STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONS Use the figure below to answer the following questions.2. Which of the labeled bodycavities contain the centralnervous system?abc3. What is the function of thebody cavities?de246Section 45-1 ReviewCopyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.1. Label each part of the figure in thespaces provided.NameClassDateSEC T I O N 4 5 - 2 R E VIEWS KELETAL S YSTEMVOCABULARY REVIEW Explain the relationship between the terms in each of thefollowing pairs of terms.1. axial skeleton, appendicular skeleton2. periosteum, compact bone3. bone marrow, spongy bone4. ossification, epiphyseal plateCopyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.5. joint, ligamentMULTIPLE CHOICE Write the correct letter in the blank.1. The process in which bone cells gradually replace cartilage is calleda. ossification.b. osteoarthritis.c. restoration.d. None of the above2. The axial skeleton includes bones of thea. arms.b. legs.c. ribs.d. All of the above3. Semimovable joints are founda. in the knees.b. between vertebrae.c. in the thumbs.d. in the elbows.4. Tough bands of connective tissue that hold bones in place are calleda. ligaments.b. tendons.c. gliding joints.d. muscles.5. Osteoarthritis is characterized bya. stretching of ligaments.b. autoimmunity.c. fracturing of bones.d. thinning of cartilage.Modern Biology Study Guide247NameClassDateSHORT ANSWER Answer the questions in the space provided.1. Describe three functions of bones.2. List three types of joints, and give an example of each type.3. Describe the importance of bone marrow.4. Critical Thinking Why is dietary calcium important to bone growth and maintenance?STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONS Use the figureof the human skeleton at right to answer thefollowing questions.ab1. Label each part of the figure in the spacesprovided.c2. What are the primary functions of theedghijklm3. How do bones elongate?nopqrs248Section 45-2 ReviewCopyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.fskeleton?NameClassDateSEC T I O N 4 5 - 3 R E VIEWM USCULAR S YSTEMVOCABULARY REVIEW Distinguish between the terms in each of the following pairsof terms.1. voluntary muscle, involuntary muscle2. origin, insertion3. flexor, extensor4. actin, myosinCopyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.5. muscle fatigue, oxygen debtMULTIPLE CHOICE Write the correct letter in the blank.1. Which of the following types of muscle tissues is found in the walls of the stomach,intestines, and blood vessels?a. cardiac muscleb. smooth musclec. skeletal muscled. voluntary muscle2. Which of the following types of muscle tissues is responsible for moving most parts ofthe body?a. cardiac muscleb. smooth musclec. skeletal muscled. involuntary muscle3. A sarcomerea. is the functional unit of muscle contraction.b. consists of myofibrils.c. uses ATP.d. All of the above4. Muscles that cause a joint to bend are calleda. flexors.b. origins.c. extensors.d. insertions.5. Which of the following happens when a skeletal muscle contracts?a. Sarcomeres shorten.b. Myosin heads bend outward.c. Myosin heads attach to actin filaments.d. All of the aboveModern Biology Study Guide249NameClassDateSHORT ANSWER Answer the questions in the space provided.1. How does a runner acquire an oxygen debt?2. How does a muscle contract?3. Distinguish between the three types of muscle tissue.4. Critical Thinking Why are flexors and extensors considered antagonistic muscles?STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONS Use the figure of the human arm below to answer thefollowing questions.1. Label each part of the figure in the spaces provided.fbcgdh2. Which muscle is a flexor and which muscle is an extensor?3. Where is the insertion of a located? Where is the origin of a located?250Section 45-3 ReviewCopyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.eaNameClassDateSEC T I O N 4 5 - 4 R E VIEWI NTEGUMENTARY S YSTEMVOCABULARY REVIEW Define the following terms.1. exocrine gland2. melanin3. sebum4. keratin5. sweat glandCopyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.MULTIPLE CHOICE Write the correct letter in the blank.1. The dermisa. covers the epidermis.b. produces melanin.c. contains nervous tissue and blood vessels.d. consists mostly of dead cells.2. Which of the following is secreted by oil glands in the skin?a. melaninb. sebumc. keratind. sweat3. Which of the following is not a function of the layer of fat cells beneath the dermis?a. produces oilb. provides an energy reservec. absorbs shockd. insulates the body4. Hair and nails are composed primarily ofa. sebum.b. keratin.c. glands.d. All of the above5. Sweat glandsa. secrete sebum into the bloodstream.b. stimulate hair follicles.c. help maintain a steady body temperature.d. insulate the body.Modern Biology Study Guide251NameClassDateSHORT ANSWER Answer the questions in the space provided.1. Describe the functions of the skin.2. How does exposure to ultraviolet light influence melanin production in the skin?3. Describe the functions of the epidermis.4. How are hair and nails similar in structure?5. Critical Thinking What causes freckles and pigmented moles?STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONS Use the figure below to answer the following questions.1. Label each part of the figure in the spaces provided.egbhcdi2. Which structures contain keratin?3. Explain how the dermis enables the body to interact with the external environment.252Section 45-4 ReviewCopyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.faNameClassDateSEC T I O N 4 6 - 1 R E VIEWT HE C IRCULATORY S YSTEMVOCABULARY REVIEW Distinguish between the terms in each of the following pairsof terms.1. ventricle, atrium2. sinoatrial node, atrioventricular node3. artery, vein4. pulmonary circulation, systemic circulationMULTIPLE CHOICE Write the correct letter in the blank.1. Which of the following is most important to the heartbeat?Copyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.a. aortic valveb. sinoatrial nodec. lymph noded. tricuspid valve2. During its circulation from the left atrium to the left ventricle, what percentage of theblood enters the pulmonary circulation?a. 25%b. 50%c. 100%d. None of the above3. Exchange of nutrients and waste between blood and body tissues occurs acrossa. arterioles.b. capillaries.c. arteries.d. veins.4. Which one of the following characteristics is unique to the pulmonary circulation?a.b.c.d.capillaries that exchange gases with the surrounding tissuearteries that carry blood away from the heartan artery that originates at the right ventriclean artery that originates at the right atrium5. The lymphatic system is important for the normal function of the body because ita.b.c.d.carries newly formed blood to the cardiovascular system.returns excess intercellular fluid to the cardiovascular system.provides an alternate route for blood during strenuous exercise.carries oxygen to the lymph nodes.Modern Biology Study Guide253NameClassDateSHORT ANSWER Answer the questions in the space provided.1. Trace the flow of blood through the heart.2. Describe the function of the lymphatic system.3. Critical Thinking If the aortic valve could not close completely, would the diastolic pressure orsystolic pressure be affected the most? Explain your answer.STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONS Use the figure of the human heart below to answer thefollowing questions.1. Label each part of the figure in the spaces provided.abhcidjekf2. How would a defect of the mitral valve affect circulation?254Section 46-1 ReviewCopyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.gNameClassDateSEC T I O N 4 6 - 2 R E VIEWB LOODVOCABULARY REVIEW Explain the relationship between the terms in each of thefollowing pairs of terms.1. leukocyte, phagocyte2. antigen, antibody3. erythrocyte, hemoglobin4. platelet, fibrinMULTIPLE CHOICE Write the correct letter in the blank.1. When oxygen is carried by the blood, it is bonded toCopyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.a. platelets.b. antibodies.c. plasma.d. hemoglobin.2. Phagocytesa. carry hemoglobin.b. synthesize erythrocytes.c. engulf microorganisms.d. produce antibodies.3. Plateletsa. are formed in lymph nodes.b. are involved with blood clotting.c. produce hemoglobin.d. are whole cells.4. Mature red blood cellsa. live for several years.b. are the largest cells in the blood.c. promote clotting.d. do not have a nucleus.5. If someone is receiving a blood transfusion, which of the following is most importantto know?a.b.c.d.the number of erythrocytes in the donated bloodif the father of the blood donor is Rhthe donors blood typeif the blood recipient has eaten within the last six hoursModern Biology Study Guide255NameClassDateSHORT ANSWER Answer the questions in the space provided.1. How is oxygen transported in the blood?2. List two structural differences and two functional differences between erythrocytes and leukocytes.3. Explain why a person with type AB blood can donate blood only to a person with the sameblood type.4. Describe the role of platelets in blood clotting.5. Critical Thinking How might lack of dietary iron affect the oxygen-carrying capacity of the blood?STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONS Use the table below to answer the following questions.Antigen on red blood cellsCan give blood toAAA, ABBBB, ABABA and BABOnoneA, B, AB, O1. Explain why type O blood can be donated in a blood transfusion regardless of the recipientsblood type.2. Describe the antibody-antigen interactions that would occur if an Rh person with type B bloodreceived blood from an Rh person with type AB blood.256Section 46-2 ReviewCopyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.Blood typesNameClassDateSEC T I O N 4 6 - 3 R E VIEWT HE R ESPIRATORY S YSTEMVOCABULARY REVIEW Explain the relationship between the terms in each of thefollowing pairs of terms.1. epiglottis, trachea2. expiration, larynx3. bronchi, bronchioles4. alveoli, inspirationMULTIPLE CHOICE Write the correct letter in the blank.Copyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.1. Cilia that line the walls of air passagewaysa. move the inspired air to the alveoli.b. move the expired air to the nasal cavity.c. moisten the expired air.d. clean the inspired air.2. The exchange of gases that occurs at an alveolus depends ona. elevated blood pressure.b. mucus carrying dissolved oxygen.c. concentration gradients.d. bronchioles closing during expiration.3. Carbon dioxide is transported in the blooda. bound to hemoglobin.b. plasma.c. as bicarbonate ions.d. All of the above4. Inspiration occurs whena. the diaphragm pushes upward.b. thoracic volume increases.c. blood pressure increases.d. thoracic pressure increases.5. The rate of breathing is controlled by cells withina.b.c.d.a specialized node located in the bronchus.the diaphragm.the brain.stretch receptors located between the ribs.Modern Biology Study Guide257NameClassDateSHORT ANSWER Answer the questions in the space provided.1. Is the nasal cavity a part of the respiratory system? Explain your answer.2. How is most carbon dioxide transported in the blood?3. Describe how the skeleton is involved with expiration.4. Critical Thinking Oxygen deficiency is called hypoxia. Suggest two possible causes ofinadequate delivery of oxygen to body tissues.STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONS Use the figure below to answer the following questions.1. What drives the diffusion of oxygen into the bloodand carbon dioxide from a blood cell to an alveolus?2. In the lungs, is carbon dioxide more concentrated inthe alveoli or in the blood? Explain your answer.CO2BLOODALVEOLUSCapillary wall3. Does the exchange of carbon dioxide depend on the concentration of oxygen in the alveoli andthe blood? Explain your answer.258Section 46-3 ReviewCopyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.O2NameClassDateSEC T I O N 4 7 - 1 R E VIEWN ONSPECIFIC D EFENSESVOCABULARY REVIEW Define the following terms.1. Kochs postulates2. interferon3. histamine4. natural killer cellMULTIPLE CHOICE Write the correct letter in the blank.1. Mucus serves as a nonspecific defense to pathogens byCopyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.a. being secreted by the skin.b. capturing pathogens.c. digesting pathogens.d. secreting cytokines.2. Which of the following statements is false?a.b.c.d.Fever stimulates the bodys defense mechanisms.Fever suppresses the growth of certain bacteria.Fever activates cellular enzymes.Fever promotes the action of white blood cells.3. Macrophagesa. are white blood cells.b. cross blood-vessel walls.c. engulf and destroy large pathogens.d. All of the above4. Natural killer cells area. specialized red blood cells.b. infected cells.c. phagocytes.d. None of the above5. An inflammatory response is initiated bya. release of histamines.b. pathogens.c. fever.d. drying of mucous membranes.Modern Biology Study Guide259NameClassDateSHORT ANSWER Answer the questions in the space provided.1. How are neutrophils involved in the bodys defense against pathogens?2. How does interferon inhibit viruses?3. How does the first line of defense protect the body against pathogens?4. Critical Thinking Why might taking aspirin to reduce fever slow rather than hasten yourrecovery from a bacterial infection?STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONS Use the table below to answer the following questions.1. The table lists the steps that occur in the inflammatory response. Put the steps in the correctorder by writing in the numbers 15 in the table under the column labeled Order.Events of inflammatory responseDamaged cells secrete histamine.White blood cells attack and destroy the pathogens.Pathogens enter the body by penetrating the skin.White blood cells move to the infected area.Flow of blood to the infected area increases.2. Why is an increase in the permeability of capillaries essential to the inflammatory response?3. How would applying ice to a wounded area to reduce blood flow to the area affect the inflammatoryresponse?260Section 47-1 ReviewCopyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.OrderNameClassDateSEC T I O N 4 7 - 2 R E VIEWS PECIFIC D EFENSES: T HE I MMUNE S YSTEMVOCABULARY REVIEW Define the following terms.1. plasma cell2. antigen3. memory cell4. antibody5. allergyCopyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.MULTIPLE CHOICE Write the correct letter in the blank.1. Which of the following are not lymphocytes?a. memory cellsb. helper T cellsc. macrophagesd. B cells2. Bone marrow is considered part of the immune system because ita. filters pathogens from blood.b. drains into the lymphatic system.c. produces white blood cells.d. produces plasma cells.3. B cellsa.b.c.d.are involved with the humoral immune response.kill infected cells.mature within the thymus.are derived from plasma cells.4. Interleukins are secreted bya. cytotoxic T cells. b. helper T cells.c. plasma cells.d. All of the above5. Cell-mediated immune responses requirea. production of antibodies.b. helper T cells.c. B cells.d. a secondary immune response.Modern Biology Study Guide261NameClassDateSHORT ANSWER Answer the questions in the space provided.1. What signals does a T cell require in order to divide?2. How do vaccinations produce immunity?3. How do antibodies provide defense from viruses?4. Critical Thinking Would you expect defective T cells or defective B cells to be the primarycause of autoimmune diseases? Explain your answer.STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONS Use the figure of the immune response below to answerthe following questions.1. Label each part of the figure in the spaces provided.abchefg2. What event triggers the chain of events shown in the figure?3. How would an enzyme that destroys cytokines affect both the cell-mediated and humoralimmune responses?262Section 47-2 ReviewCopyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.dNameClassDateSEC T I O N 4 7 - 3 R E VIEWHIV A ND AIDSVOCABULARY REVIEW Explain the relationship between the terms in each of thefollowing pairs of terms.1. helper T cells, AIDS2. AIDS, HIV3. opportunistic infection, AIDSMULTIPLE CHOICE Write the correct letter in the blank.1. A diagnosis of AIDS is made when a person hasa. an HIV infection.b. few B cells.c. few T cells.d. All of the aboveCopyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.2. Which of the following is a route of HIV transmission?a.b.c.d.breathing air in a room with a person with AIDStouching a person infected with HIVsharing of hypodermic needlesinsect bites3. The most common means of HIV transmission isa.b.c.d.sexual intercourse with a person infected with HIV.blood transfusion.shaking hands with a person with AIDS.performing experiments with HIV.4. Vaccines against HIV are difficult to design because HIVa. is a retrovirus.b. is difficult to isolate.c. changes rapidly.d. is not detectable.5. HIV begins to reproducea. when AIDS occurs.b. shortly after infection.c. months after infection.d. All of the aboveModern Biology Study Guide263NameClassDateSHORT ANSWER Answer the questions in the space provided.1. Is HIV the primary cause of death in people with AIDS? Explain your answer.2. Can a person be infected with HIV but not exhibit AIDS? Explain your answer.3. List two ways that HIV can be transmitted.4. Critical Thinking Could people become exposed to HIV during an organ transplant or skin graftoperation? Explain your answer.STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONS Use the graph below to answer the following questions.The graph shows a decrease in the number of helper T cells in a person with HIV over time.500012345Time since HIV infection (in years)671. In this person, how many years after infection did the onset of AIDS occur?2. The person tested positive for HIV six months after infection but tested negative for HIV six yearslater. Explain how this might happen.264Section 47-3 ReviewCopyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.Helper T cells(per mL of blood)1000NameClassDateSEC T I O N 4 8 - 1 R E VIEWN UTRIENTSVOCABULARY REVIEW Answer the questions in the space provided.1. What are the six basic nutrients?2. What is an unsaturated fat?3. What is the function of vitamins?4. How does dehydration affect the body?Copyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.MULTIPLE CHOICE Write the correct letter in the blank.1. Which of the following is not an organic nutrient?a. vitaminsb. lipidsc. carbohydratesd. minerals2. Carbohydrates are important sources ofa. monosaccharides.b. nonessential amino acids.c. legumes.d. glycerol.3. Essential amino acids are obtained froma. animal products.b. plant products.c. legumes.d. All of the above4. Saturated fatsa. are found in most plant oils.b. have double bonds.c. are found in animal fats.d. do not have a glycerol molecule.5. Which of the following statements is true?a.b.c.d.Potassium is a component of ascorbic acid.Potassium is required for the formation of red blood cells.Bananas are good sources of potassium.It is not necessary to consume foods containing potassium.Modern Biology Study Guide265NameClassDateSHORT ANSWER Answer the questions in the space provided.1. Explain the difference between essential amino acids and nonessential amino acids.2. Describe the importance of simple sugars for normal body functioning.3. List two reasons that water is an important nutrient.4. Critical Thinking What characteristic is common to all of the nutrients?STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONS Use the food pyramid below to answer the followingquestions.Group dGroup bGroup a1. Based on the organization of the pyramid, which food group does the body need and use themost? What is the primary nutrient in this group?2. Which food group contains all of the essential amino acids? Is this the only group that containsessential amino acids? Explain your answer.266Section 48-1 ReviewCopyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.Group cNameClassDateSEC T I O N 4 8 - 2 R E VIEWD IGESTIVE S YSTEMVOCABULARY REVIEW Explain the relationship between the terms in each of thefollowing pairs of terms.1. pharynx, epiglottis2. ulcer, gastric fluid3. peristalsis, colon4. pyloric sphincter, chymeCopyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.5. villus, gastrointestinal tractMULTIPLE CHOICE Write the correct letter in the blank.1. The gastrointestinal tract includes thea. liver.b. large intestine.c. pancreas.d. All of the above2. Bile isa. released into the small intestine.b. produced by the liver.c. stored in the gallbladder.d. All of the above3. Chemical digestion involvesa. the molars.b. saliva.c. the hard palate.d. the incisors.4. Which of the following is a component of both the respiratory system and the digestivesystem?a. esophagusb. salivary glandsc. pharynxd. peristalsis5. Ulcers are linked to breakdown of thea. pyloric sphincter.b. gallbladder function.c. stomach lining.d. common bile duct.Modern Biology Study Guide267NameClassDateSHORT ANSWER Answer the questions in the space provided.1. What is the function of mucus in the stomach?2. What is the primary role of pepsin in digestion?3. How does the pancreas aid digestion?4. Critical Thinking Which part of the gastrointestinal tract should have the highest concentrationof blood capillaries? Explain your answer.STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONS Use the figure of the gastrointestinal tract below toanswer the following questions.1. Label each part of the figure in the spaces provided.eacfdg2. Which organ is not part of the gastrointestinal tract? How does this organ aid digestion?3. In which organ does absorption take place? What structural features make this organ particularlywell-suited for absorption of nutrients into the blood?268Section 48-2 ReviewCopyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.bNameClassDateSEC T I O N 4 8 - 3 R E VIEWU RINARY S YSTEMVOCABULARY REVIEW Define the following terms.1. nephron2. urethra3. renal medulla4. excretion5. ureaCopyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.MULTIPLE CHOICE Write the correct letter in the blank.1. Most reabsorption within a nephron occurs in thea. Bowmans capsule.b. duodenum.c. collecting duct.d. proximal convoluted tubule.2. Which of the following is not part of the nephron?a. glomerulusb. loop of Henlec. ureterd. Bowmans capsule3. Which of the following substances would not normally be collected in the Bowmans capsule?a. small proteinsb. glucosec. erythrocytesd. vitamins4. The renal pelvisa. empties into the renal vein.b. is an extension of the ureter.c. is a part of the nephron.d. All of the above5. During the process of reabsorption, components of the filtrate area.b.c.d.actively transported out of the nephron.transferred to the capillaries surrounding the nephron.separated from waste products.All of the aboveModern Biology Study Guide269NameClassDateSHORT ANSWER Answer the questions in the space provided.1. Describe the importance of filtration in urine production.2. How do the kidneys contribute to homeostasis?3. Why are nephrons considered the structural and functional units of the kidney?4. Critical Thinking How is ammonia related to kidney functioning?STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONS Use the figure of a nephron and the information belowto answer the following questions.About 99 of every 100 mL of filtrateare reabsorbed into the blood, andabout 1,500 mL (1.6 qt) of urine areexcreted per day.cdefb1. Label each part of the figure in the spaces provided.2. In which structure is the filtrate collected?3. Based on the amount of urine excreted daily, about how many milliliters of filtrate would beproduced daily by a pair of normally functioning kidneys?270Section 48-3 ReviewCopyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.aNameClassDateSEC T I O N 4 9 - 1 R E VIEWN EURONS AND N ERVE I MPULSESVOCABULARY REVIEW Define the following terms.1. dendrite2. axon terminal3. action potential4. neurotransmitterCopyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.5. synapseMULTIPLE CHOICE Write the correct letter in the blank.1. Myelin sheaths surrounda. dendrites.b. the spinal cord.c. axons.d. synapses.2. The initiation of an action potentiala.b.c.d.causes the membrane potential to become more negative.requires sodium ions move into the neuron.originates in Schwann cells.happens at axon terminals.3. A typical neuron has more than onea. nucleus.b. axon.c. dendrite.d. All of the abovec. diffusion.d. All of the above4. Action potentials requirea. sodium ions.b. gated channels.5. In a neuron, neurotransmitters are stored ina. the cell body.b. the cytoplasm of the nucleus.c. vesicles within dendrites.d. vesicles within axon terminals.Modern Biology Study Guide271NameClassDateSHORT ANSWER Answer the questions in the space provided.1. Describe how a neurotransmitter can affect the activity of a postsynaptic neuron.2. Describe the relative concentrations of sodium and potassium ions inside and outside a neuronat resting potential.3. Explain why action potentials move through axons in only one direction: away from the cell body,toward the axon terminal.4. Critical Thinking In myelinated axons, ions can cross the cell membrane only at the nodes ofRanvier. How does myelination increase the speed of an action potential?STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONS Use the figures below to answer the following questions.The figures below represent the cell membrane of an axon at different states of activity.++++++++Cell membraneK++++++++Na+Na+++++K++++K++++++Insideof cell+b+Outside of cell++++++Na1. Explain why sodium ions do not cross the cell membrane in figure a.2. Describe what is happening in figure b.3. What are two factors that cause the movement of sodium and potassium ions as shown in figure b?272Section 49-1 ReviewCopyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.aNameClassDateSEC T I O N 4 9 - 2 R E VIEWS TRUCTURE OF THE N ERVOUS S YSTEMVOCABULARY REVIEW Explain the relationship between the terms in each of thefollowing groups of terms.1. brain stem, medulla oblongata2. somatic nervous system, autonomic nervous system3. central nervous system, peripheral nervous system4. thalamus, hypothalamusCopyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.MULTIPLE CHOICE Write the correct letter in the blank.1. Each cerebral hemisphere is divided intoa.b.c.d.four lobes.right and left halves.the cerebral cortex and the corpus callosum.All of the above2. Which of the following is not a component of the brain stem?a. midbrainb. thalamusc. medulla oblongatad. pons3. A spinal reflex requiresa.b.c.d.the spinal cord to be separated from the brain.involvement of the diencephalon.neurons in the body but not the brain.only afferent neurons.4. The cell bodies of neurons are located within thea. ventricles.b. nerves.c. corpus callosum.d. gray matter.5. The sympathetic division of the autonomic nervous systema. is part of the central nervous system.b. inhibits body systems.c. stimulates body systems.d. All of the aboveModern Biology Study Guide273NameClassDateSHORT ANSWER Answer the questions in the space provided.1. Describe the function of the limbic system.2. What kind of information is carried in the ventral roots of spinal nerves?3. How does the body respond to stress or danger?4. Which part of the peripheral nervous system is most important for homeostasis? Explainyour answer.5. Critical Thinking Do the central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system functionindependently of one another? Explain your answer.ABDC1. Which of the identified structures contains cell bodies of neurons?2. How would cutting at point B affect the functioning of the central nervous system?3. How would cutting at point D affect the functioning of the central nervous system?274Section 49-2 ReviewCopyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONS Use the figure below of a cross section of the spinal cordwith a spinal nerve to answer the following questions.NameClassDateSEC T I O N 4 9 - 3 R E VIEWS ENSORY S YSTEMSVOCABULARY REVIEW Define the following terms.1. papillae2. rod3. retina4. coneMULTIPLE CHOICE Write the correct letter in the blank.Copyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.1. Which of the following statements is false?a.b.c.d.Rods and cones are specialized neurons.Rods and cones lie deep within each retina.Cones respond to dim light, whereas rods are stimulated by bright light.Rods and cones are photoreceptors.2. The perception of tastea.b.c.d.depends on sensory receptors in the nasal passages.is based on chemicals dissolved in food.does not involve the thalamus.is a function of the digestive system.3. The olfactory epitheliuma. is located in the pharynx.b. contains chemoreceptors.c. is responsible for taste sensations.d. contains papillae.4. Bones of the middle eara.b.c.d.vibrate the tympanic membrane.transfer sound vibrations to the inner ear.contain hair cells.All of the above5. Which of the following is associated with the semicircular canals?a. balanceb. tastec. hearingd. visionModern Biology Study Guide275NameClassDateSHORT ANSWER Answer the questions in the space provided.1. How does the cochlea detect and transmit sound signals?2. What is the first event that is required for the detection and perception of sound?3. Describe the path that visual information takes from the eyes to the brain.4. Discuss the role of the thalamus in hearing, vision, taste, and smell.5. Critical Thinking More of the neurons in the cerebral cortex are involved with body parts thathave complex, or important, functionssuch as the fingers, which make fine, detailed movementsand interact with the environmentthan with body parts that have less-complex functions. Whatadvantage is gained by this variable representation of body parts in the nervous system?Sensory SystemReceptor TypeVisionBalance2.Hearing3.Smell4.Touch5.Temperature6.Taste2761.7.Section 49-3 ReviewCopyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONS In the table below, write the type of sensory receptormechanoreceptor, photoreceptor, thermoreceptor, pain receptor, or chemoreceptorthat is associated with each sensory system. There may be more than one answer foreach system.NameClassDateSEC T I O N 4 9 - 4 R E VIEWD RUGS AND THE N ERVOUS S YSTEMVOCABULARY REVIEW Explain the relationship between the terms in each of thefollowing groups of terms.1. psychoactive drug, stimulant2. tolerance, addiction3. addiction, withdrawal4. nicotine, emphysemaCopyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.MULTIPLE CHOICE Write the correct letter in the blank.1. Emphysema isa.b.c.d.an inflammation of the bronchi and bronchioles.an infectious lung disease similar to pneumonia.a degenerative lung disease in which alveoli lose their elasticity.caused by using smokeless tobacco.2. Which of the following is an example of a drug?a. aspirinb. iodinec. penicillind. All of the above3. Blood alcohol concentration, BAC, can be fatal ata. 0.50b. 0.30c. 0.10d. 0.084. Reuptake receptorsa.b.c.d.transfer neurotransmitters from one neuron to the next.reabsorb neurotransmitters for later use.are more efficient in the presence of drugs such as cocaine.None of the above5. Codeine, heroin, and opium are examples ofa. depressants.b. stimulants.c. narcotics.d. hallucinogens.Modern Biology Study Guide277NameClassDateSHORT ANSWER Answer the questions in the space provided.1. Describe how tolerance to a drug develops.2. List the symptoms of drug withdrawal.3. Summarize how cocaine functions at the synaptic level.4. Critical Thinking Is the relationship between body weight and blood alcohol concentration director inverse? Why do you think body weight would affect blood alcohol concentration?throat irritationdecreased body temperaturetarsliver damagefetal alcohol syndromeGroup A278Section 49-4 Reviewdehydrationemphysemaaddictionheart attackchronic bronchitisGroup BCopyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONS Organize the following terms and phrases into twogroups: Group A for those associated with smoking tobacco, and Group B for thoseassociated with drinking alcohol. Write your answers in the table below.NameClassDateSEC T I O N 50 - 1 R E VIEWH ORMONESVOCABULARY REVIEW Define the following terms.1. target cell2. second messenger3. prostaglandin4. hormoneMULTIPLE CHOICE Write the correct letter in the blank.Copyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.1. Amino acidbased hormones area. protein hormones only.b. derived from cholesterol.c. considered as second messengers.d. None of the above2. Because steroid hormones are fat-soluble, they cana.b.c.d.synthesize new enzymes.activate DNA synthesis.diffuse through the cell membrane of target cells.act as a first messenger or a second messenger.3. Cyclic AMPa.b.c.d.is produced in response to amino acidbased hormones.appears in cycles.is produced in response to steroid hormones.attaches to DNA to control mRNA transcription.4. Glands do not secretea. hormones.b. mucus.c. prostaglandins.d. saliva.5. A steroid-hormone-receptor complexa. binds to cyclic AMP.b. acts through cell-surface receptors.c. binds to DNA in the nucleus.d. All of the aboveModern Biology Study Guide279NameClassDateSHORT ANSWER Answer the questions in the space provided.1. How does a first messenger affect a target cell?2. How are hormones transported throughout the body?3. Are sweat glands considered to be endocrine glands? Explain your answer.4. Critical Thinking Why might the cells of two different organs respond differently to cyclic AMPactivation?STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONS Use the information given and thefigure at right to answer the following questions.Protein hormoneDCBAAntibodieshormone?2. In general, does the binding of an antibody prevent theCell ResponseAnti-AnormalAnti-BnormalAnti-CnoneAnti-D1. Which of the antibodies prevented the action of thenormalhormones action? Explain your answer.3. What do these observations suggest about the hormones action on its target cells?280Section 50-1 ReviewCopyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.The diagram at right shows an amino acidbased hormone (a protein) that hasbeen divided into four segmentsA, B, C, and Dwith an enzyme that cuts upproteins. In the experiment, each segment was physically isolated from theothers, and a specific antibody was raised against each segment. The antibodiesare identified according to the segment to which each of them binds. Culturedtarget cells of the hormone were then exposed to a mixture of the completeprotein hormone and one of the antibodies. The responses of the cells arepresented in the data table at right.NameClassDateSEC T I O N 50 - 2 R E VIEWE NDOCRINE G LANDSVOCABULARY REVIEW Explain the relationship between the terms in each of thefollowing pairs of terms.1. hypothalamus, pituitary gland2. epinephrine, norepinephrine3. follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone4. insulin, diabetes mellitusCopyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.5. estrogen, testosteroneMULTIPLE CHOICE Write the correct letter in the blank.1. Which of the following endocrine glands is not controlled by the pituitary gland?a. testesb. thyroid glandc. adrenal cortexd. adrenal medulla2. Thyroxine is important to the control ofa. cellular metabolic rates.b. sex-hormone production.c. diabetes mellitus.d. calcium uptake.3. Which of the following is a sex hormone?a. norepinephrineb. cholesterolc. progesteroned. cortisol4. Lethargy and low body temperature are symptoms of a defect in thea. adrenal medulla.b. islets of Langerhans.c. pancreas.d. thyroid gland.Modern Biology Study Guide281NameClassDateSHORT ANSWER Answer the questions in the space provided.1. List two hormones that regulate the concentration of calcium in the blood and describe theireffects.2. Name the two posterior-pituitary hormones, and describe their actions and sites of production.3. Critical Thinking In a person with goiter, would the blood level of TSH be below normal, normal,or above normal? Explain your answer.STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONS Use the figure of a feedback mechanism below to answerthe following questions. In the figure, the number of hormone molecules represents therelative blood concentrations of hormone A and hormone B.Cell MCell MCell DCell DCell DNormalSituation 1Hormone AHormone BReceptorSecretion intobloodstreamCell membraneSituation 21. Which cell is defective in Situation 1? What happens to the hormone concentrations as aresult of this defect?2. Which cell is defective in Situation 2? What happens to the hormone concentrations as aresult of this defect?282Section 50-2 ReviewCopyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.Cell MNameClassDateSEC T I O N 51 - 1 R E VIEWM ALE R EPRODUCTIVE S YSTEMVOCABULARY REVIEW Define the following terms.1. semen2. testes3. ejaculation4. seminiferous tubulesCopyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.5. epididymisMULTIPLE CHOICE Write the correct letter in the blank.1. A human sperma.b.c.d.does not have a nucleus.has the haploid number of chromosomes located in the midpiece.has a small amount of cytoplasm.All of the above2. The vas deferens connects the epididymis to thea. seminal vesicles.b. bulbourethral glands.c. urethra.d. seminiferous tubules.3. The prostate gland is important to thea. proper functioning of the scrotum.b. completion of meiosis.c. ejaculation of normal semen.d. maturation of sperm.4. After sperm move through the vas deferens, they enter thea. seminal vesicles.b. urinary bladder.c. urethra.d. All of the above5. A sperm tail consists ofa. a nuclear envelope.b. enzymes used to penetrate an egg.c. mitochondria.d. a flagellum.Modern Biology Study Guide283NameClassDateSHORT ANSWER Answer the questions in the space provided.1. Describe the path that sperm take in leaving the body.2. Describe the composition of semen.3. Describe two differences between seminiferous tubules and the vas deferens.4. How is the structure of a sperm suited for fertilization?5. Critical Thinking Is there an advantage for cells that secrete androgens (particularly testosterone) to be located within the testes instead of in other areas of the body? Explain your answer.1. Label each part of the figure in the spaces provided.abc2. For each labeled structure, indicate whether sperm would be immature or mature.284Section 51-1 ReviewCopyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONS Use the figure below to answer the following questions.NameClassDateSEC T I O N 51 - 2 R E VIEWF EMALE R EPRODUCTIVE S YSTEMVOCABULARY REVIEW Explain the relationship between the terms in each of thefollowing pairs of terms.1. ovulation, ovary2. menopause, menstruation3. uterus, cervix4. menstrual cycle, follicular phaseCopyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.5. corpus luteum, luteal phaseMULTIPLE CHOICE Write the correct letter in the blank.1. How many mature eggs does each complete meiotic division yield?a. oneb. twoc. threed. four2. Fallopian tubes are connected toa. the corpus luteum.b. the urethra.c. the vagina.d. the uterus.3. Which stage of the menstrual cycle is characterized by thickening of the uterine lining?a. follicular phaseb. luteal phasec. menstruationd. ovulation4. Which of the following hormones initiates ovulation?a. progesteroneb. follicle-stimulating hormonec. luteinizing hormoned. oxytocin5. Which of the following hormones acts directly on the uterine lining during the menstrualcycle?a. estrogenb. luteinizing hormonec. follicle-stimulating hormoned. testosteroneModern Biology Study Guide285NameClassDateSHORT ANSWER Answer the questions in the space provided.1. Does the male or female gamete contribute more chromosomes to the fertilized egg? Explainyour answer.2. Describe two structural differences between a mature sperm and a mature egg.3. Critical Thinking What does the onset of menopause indicate about the number of immatureeggs remaining in the ovaries?STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONS Use the figures of the menstrual cycle below to answerthe following question.abProgesteronecUterine liningdeEstrogenUterine liningBriefly describe what is depicted in each figure.286Section 51-2 ReviewCopyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.FSHNameClassDateSEC T I O N 51 - 3 R E VIEWG ESTATIONVOCABULARY REVIEW Define the following terms.1. human chorionic gonadotropin2. implantation3. chorionic villi4. umbilical cordCopyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.5. amniotic sacMULTIPLE CHOICE Write the correct letter in the blank.1. Fertilization occurs in thea. vagina.b. uterus.c. fallopian tubes.d. ovaries.2. The morula isa.b.c.d.the outer cell layer of a rupturing follicle.an unfertilized egg.formed after the fusion of sperm and egg nuclei.attached to the uterine lining after implantation.3. Which of the following organ systems begins to form during the first trimester?a. nervous systemb. circulatory systemc. digestive systemd. All of the above4. Afterbirth includesa. amniotic fluid.b. the placenta.c. unfertilized eggs.d. ruptured ovarian follicles.5. A zygote is a(n)a. implanted fertilized egg.b. ovulated egg.c. fertilized egg.d. blastocyst.Modern Biology Study Guide287NameClassDateSHORT ANSWER Answer the questions in the space provided.1. Explain why ovulation does not occur during pregnancy.2. Describe how the placenta, chorionic villi, and allantois are functionally and structurally related.3. Explain the importance of estrogen during pregnancy.4. What events must be completed before implantation is successful?5. Critical Thinking If you were asked to design a pregnancy test that was based on hormones,which hormone would you select to indicate a pregnancy? Explain your answer.1. Label each part of the figure in the spaces provided.adbc2. Use the letters of the labeled structures to indicate where the following would normally be foundduring pregnancy:blastocystzygote288Section 51-3 Reviewcorpus luteummorulaCopyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONS Use the figure of part of the female reproductive systembelow to answer the following questions.Section 1-1VOCABULARY REVIEW1. Development is the process involving cell divisionand cell differentiation by which an organismbecomes a mature adult.2. Reproduction is the process by which an organismproduces new organisms like itself.3. An organ is a structure that carries out a specializedjob inside an organ system.4. A tissue is a group of cells in an organ that havesimilar abilities and that allow the organ to function.MULTIPLE CHOICE1. c2. b3. d4. b5. aCopyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.SHORT ANSWER1. A cell is the smallest unit that can perform all oflifes processes.2. Sample answer: An owl maintains its body temperature by burning fuel to produce body heat and byfluffing up its feathers to trap an insulating layer ofair next to its body.3. Sample answer: By studying biology, you can makeinformed decisions on issues that impact you andsociety, such as environmental issues, health, andtechnology.4. Bacteria reproduce asexually by splitting in two.Frogs reproduce sexually by producing sperm andeggs. One sperm and one egg combine to form asingle cell that divides many times to produce anew frog.5. Rocks are not composed of cells, do not haveinternal systems for maintaining homeostasis, anddo not contain hereditary information in the formof DNA.STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONSThe buffaloes and grass are all composed of cells(cells). Different types of cells compose the differenttissues in the buffaloes (organization). The grass usesenergy from the sun to manufacture food, and thebuffaloes consume the grass for their food (energyuse). The buffaloes have hair to help maintain theirinternal environment (homeostasis). The calf willeventually grow into a full-grown buffalo (growth).Buffalo increase their herds through reproduction.Section 1-2VOCABULARY REVIEW1. A domain is one of three major subdivisions oforganisms that can be divided into one or morekingdoms.2. Diversity of life describes the variety of differentkinds of living things. Unity of life describes thefeatures that living things have in common.3. Adaptations are traits that improve an individualsability to survive and reproduce. Evolution is theprocess in which a population changes over timedue to increased reproduction of organisms withcertain adaptations.4. An ecosystem is a community of living things andtheir physical environment. Ecology is the branchof biology that studies how organisms interactwith each other and with their environments.MULTIPLE CHOICE1. d2. b3. d4. c5. dSHORT ANSWER1. Animals produce carbon dioxide and water, whichis needed by plants. Accept all reasonable answers.2. If an adaptation is not inherited, future generationsof organisms will not have the favorable trait andevolution cannot occur.3. Natural selection is the process by which organismsthat have certain favorable traits are better able tosurvive and reproduce successfully than organismsthat lack these traits.4. Two organisms that share the same kingdom mustalso share the same domain because kingdoms aresubdivisions of domains.5. This trait will not spread through the population.Since the frog produces no eggs, it will have nooffspring to inherit the trait.STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONSThe deer eat the grass and get energy and nutrientsfrom the grass. The panther kills and eats the deer, getting energy and nutrients from the deer and the grass.Section 1-3VOCABULARY REVIEW1. A prediction is what is expected to happen if ahypothesis were true.2. A control group is a normal standard againstwhich to compare an experimental group.3. A dependent variable is a factor that is measuredin a controlled experiment.4. An independent variable is a factor that distinguishes the control and experimental groupsin a controlled experiment.5. A theory is a set of related hypotheses that havebeen confirmed and that explain a great amountof data.MULTIPLE CHOICE1. c2. b3. c4. a5. dSHORT ANSWER1. Quantitative data are data that can be measured innumbers. Examples include the dimensions of anobject, the number of objects in a group, and theduration of an event.2. The validity of the research is checked by expertsin the field.3. A prediction is a statement made in advance thatdeclares the results that will be obtained fromtesting a hypothesis in an experiment, if thehypothesis is true.4. They might use statistics to determine relationships between variables, compare the data withthose obtained in other studies, and determinepossible sources of experimental error.5. The control group should have consisted of ratsthat were injected with the same type of salt solution but without the drug. The dependent variablewas blood pressure, and the independent variablewas the drug.STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONSObservations:Inferences:The owl is sittingOwls can fly.in a tree.The owl has a mouseOwls have binocularin its beak.vision.The owl hasOwls hunt at night.sharp talons.Modern Biology Study Guide Answer Key1Section 1-4VOCABULARY REVIEW1. Light electron does not belong; the other three aretypes of microscopes.2. Base unit does not belong; the other three areparts of a light microscope.3. Mass density does not belong; the other three arecharacteristics of microscopes.4. Minute does not belong; the other three are SI baseunits.5. Meter does not belong; the other three are SIderived units.MULTIPLE CHOICE1. d2. b3. c4. a5. cSHORT ANSWER1. light source, specimen, objective lens, ocular lens2. LM, about 2,000; TEM, 200,000; SEM, 100,0003. m, km, cm, mm, m. 1 km = 1,000 m; 1 cm = 0.01 m;1 mm = 0.001 m; 1 m = 0.000001 m4. They should use a TEM, since it has the magnification necessary to view viruses and, unlike an SEM,can reveal structures that are inside cells.STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONSa, ocular lens (eyepiece); b, nosepiece; c, objectivelenses; d, stage; e, light sourceSection 2-1MULTIPLE CHOICE1. b2. a3. d4. c5. aSHORT ANSWER1. Mass is the quantity of matter an object has, whileweight is a measure of the pull of gravity on mass.2. BO2, 1 boron and 2 oxygen atoms; C6H12O6,6 carbon, 12 hydrogen, and 6 oxygen atoms; KCl,1 potassium and 1 chlorine atom; NH3, 1 nitrogenand 3 hydrogen atoms3. The oxygen atoms share two pairs of electrons,since each atom needs two more electrons to fillthe orbitals of its outermost energy level.4. Argon will not tend to form bonds with other elements. With an atomic number of 18, argon musthave 18 electrons: 2 in the first energy level, 8 inthe second, and 8 in the third. Since the orbitalsof its outermost energy level is filled, argon ischemically stable.STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONS1. A covalent bond is formed between hydrogen andchlorine atoms.2. A hydrogen atom and a chlorine atom share oneelectron. This process gives the hydrogen atom afull orbital of 2 electrons. The chlorine atom will2Modern Biology Study Guide Answer KeySection 2-2VOCABULARY REVIEW1. In a chemical reaction, a reactant is the startingsubstance and a product is the ending substance.Reactants are shown on the left side of an equation and products are shown on the right side.2. A catalyst reduces the amount of activation energyneeded to start a reaction. An enzyme serves as acatalyst in the reactions of living things.3. In an oxidation reaction, a reactant loses one ormore electrons; in a reduction reaction, a reactantgains one or more electrons.MULTIPLE CHOICE1. b2. c3. d4. a5. bSHORT ANSWER1. Reactants: C12H22O11, H2O, Products: C6H12O6, C6H12O62. By reducing the activation energy that is neededfor a reaction, a catalyst allows the reaction toproceed spontaneously or with the addition of asmall amount of energy.3. It indicates that the reaction can proceed in eitherthe forward or the reverse direction.4. Cl is reduced; Na is oxidized.5. The reaction proceeds slowly because the activation energy is high. An enzyme or other catalyst isneeded to lower the activation energy and speedup the reaction.STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONS1. energy needed without a catalyst2. energy needed with a catalyst3. There is a net release of energy. Energy of theproducts is less than energy of the reactants.Section 2-3VOCABULARY REVIEW1. A solvent is a substance in which a solute isdissolved.2. An aqueous solution is a solution in which wateris the solvent.3. A hydroxide ion is a negatively charged ion consisting of one oxygen atom and one hydrogenatom, OH.4. A base is a solution that contains more hydroxideions than hydronium ions.5. A buffer is a chemical substance that neutralizessmall amounts of either an acid or a base added toa solution.MULTIPLE CHOICE1. c2. b3. a4. c5. dSHORT ANSWER1. Adhesion allows water to stick to a dry surface.2. Solutions can be mixtures of liquids, solids, or gases.3. The solution contains 10 g of sugar, and the solvent is water.4. Acidic: more H3O ions than OH ions. Alkaline:more OH ions than H3O ions. Neutral: equalnumber of H3O and OH ions.5. The solution with a pH of 9 has 106, or 1,000,000,times more hydroxide ions.Copyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.VOCABULARY REVIEW1. An atom is the simplest particle of an element thatretains all of the properties of that element.2. A neutron is a nuclear particle that has no electrical charge.3. A compound is a substance that is made up ofatoms of two or more elements in fixed proportions.4. A covalent bond is an attachment between twoatoms that share one or more pairs of electrons.5. An ion is an atom or molecule with an electricalcharge.have full orbitals corresponding to its three energylevels of 2, 8, and 8 electrons.6. By neutralizing small amounts of acid or base thatmay be added to a solution, buffers keep pHvalues at normal and safe levels. The control ofpH is essential for the function of enzymes.7. Since a tenfold increase in H3O ion concentrationreflects a decrease of one pH unit, a 100-foldincrease in concentration reflects a decrease oftwo pH units. Therefore, the new pH would be 5.5.STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONSDrawings should show two water molecules belowand one above the central water molecule. The molecules below should have their H atoms facing awayfrom the central molecule, and the molecule aboveshould have one of its H atoms pointing toward thecentral molecule. Dashed lines should be drawnbetween each H atom in the central molecule and theO atom in each of the lower water molecules, andbetween the O atom in the central molecule and thenearer H atom in the upper water molecule.Copyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.Section 3-1VOCABULARY REVIEW1. An organic compound is a compound containingcarbon atoms covalently bonded to other carbonatoms and to other elements. Examples: anycarbon-containing compound, such as benzene,ethanol, glycerol, glucose, fructose, sucrose, ATP,and ADP.2. A functional group is a cluster of atoms in acompound that influences the properties ofthat compound. Examples: hydroxyl group,phosphate group.3. An alcohol is an organic compound with ahydroxyl group attached to one of its carbonatoms. Examples: ethanol, methanol, glycerol.4. A monomer is a simple molecule that can bond toothers of its kind to form more complex molecules. Examples: glucose, fructose.5. A polymer is a complex molecule that consists ofrepeated, linked units. Example: DNA, proteins.MULTIPLE CHOICE1. a2. c3. b4. a5. dSHORT ANSWER1. The hydroxyl group on alcohols is polar, and thismakes alcohols polar compounds. Alcohols cantherefore form hydrogen bonds.2. carbon atom, monomer, polymer, macromolecule3. The glucose molecule releases a hydroxide ion,OH , and the fructose molecule releases ahydrogen ion, H . These two ions combine toproduce water, H2O.4. The hydrolysis products are ADP and inorganicphosphate. Energy is released.5. With seven electrons in its outermost energy level,carbon could not form double or triple bonds withother atoms, so far fewer organic compoundscould be formed.STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONS1. Forward reaction: reactants, glucose and fructose;products, sucrose and H2O. 2. condensationreaction 3. Reverse reaction: reactants,sucrose and H2O; products, glucose and fructose.4. hydrolysisSection 3-2VOCABULARY REVIEW1. A monosaccharide is a simple sugar containingcarbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of 1:2:1;a polysaccharide is a complex molecule composedof three or more monosaccharides.2. An amino acid is a compound containing carbon,hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen. A protein is alarge polymer of amino acids.3. A nucleotide is a compound containing a phosphate group, a five-carbon sugar, and a ringshaped nitrogen base; a nucleic acid is a verylarge polymer of nucleotides.MULTIPLE CHOICE1. c2. a3. d4. b5. dSHORT ANSWER1. The storage form is glycogen, and the quick-energyform is glucose. Glycogen consists of hundredsof glucose molecules linked in a highlybranched chain.2. Starch, 1; proteins, 20.3. Phospholipid composes most of the cell membrane. The hydrophobic tails of the phospholipidsprovide a barrier between the inside and outsideof the cell.4. Steroids are lipids made of four fused carbonrings. Examples: testosterone and cholesterol.5. Wax serves as a waterproof layer, limitingwater loss and preventing insects fromdrying out.STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONSa, substrate; b, enzyme; c, productsSection 4-1VOCABULARY REVIEW1. A cell is the smallest unit that can carry on all ofthe processes of life.2. The cell theory states that all living organisms aremade of one or more cells, that cells are the basicunits of structure and function, and that cellscome only from the reproduction of existing cells.MULTIPLE CHOICE1. c5. d2. a6. d3. c7. a4. bSHORT ANSWER1. (1) All living things are composed of one or morecells. (2) Cells are the basic units of structure andfunction in an organism. (3) Cells come only fromthe reproduction of existing cells.2. Information about cells could not be understoodand organized into a central theory until microscope technology had improved and accurateobservations were made.3. The cork cells that Hooke observed were theremains of dead plant cells. The material from theinside of the cells had been lost or destroyed.4. You would know that it was made of cells and thecells reproduce to make more cells.Modern Biology Study Guide Answer Key3STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONS1. Approximately 200 years elapsed between thediscovery of cells in 1665 and the observationof mitochondria in muscle cells in 1857.2. The third part of the cell theory was added in 1855.This was 190 years after cells were discovered.4. Cilia and flagella are composed of nine pairs ofmicrotubules arranged around a central pair.5. The detergent would cause the cells to disintegratebecause it would break up the plasma membraneas well as organelle membranes, all of which arelargely composed of lipid.Section 4-2STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONSa. mitochondrion; b. nucleus; c. nucleolus; d. Golgiapparatus; e. rough endoplasmic reticulum; f. ribosomeVOCABULARY REVIEW1. An organelle is a cell component that performsspecific functions for the cell.2. The nucleus is an organelle that contains codedinformation in the form of DNA for regulatingfunctions and reproduction and directs mostof the activities of the cell.3. A eukaryote is an organism whose cells containa membrane-bound nucleus and other organelles.4. A prokaryote is an organism that lacks a nucleusand membrane-bound organelles.MULTIPLE CHOICE1. a2. b3. a4. dSHORT ANSWER1. Its flat platelike shape covers and protects thebodys surface.2. Just as organs carry out the organisms life functions, organelles maintain the life of the cell.3. Eukaryotic cells have a membrane-bound nucleusand membrane-bound organelles.4. The surface area increases by a factor of 100. Thevolume increases by a factor of 1,000.Section 4-3VOCABULARY REVIEW1. The nucleoplasm is the jellylike liquid that fillsthe nucleus. The nuclear envelope is a doublemembrane that surrounds the nucleus.2. The cytoskeleton is the network of tubes and filaments that give a cell its shape and serves astracks for the movement of organelles in the cell.Microtubules are one of three structural elementsthat make up the cytoskeleton.3. Both are hairlike organelles that extend from thesurface of a eukaryotic cell, but cilia are shorterand are present in larger numbers on a cell.MULTIPLE CHOICE1. d2. a3. c4. b5. cSHORT ANSWER1. Some proteins form channels or pores throughwhich certain substances can pass. Other proteinsbind to a substance on one side of the membraneand carry it to the other side.2. Ribosomes are made of proteins and RNA. Theyare involved in protein synthesis.3. The cytoskeleton is a network of long proteinstrands located in the cytosol. Three majorcomponents are microfilaments, microtubules,and intermediate filaments.4Modern Biology Study Guide Answer KeyVOCABULARY REVIEW1. A cell wall is a rigid layer that lies outside theplasma membrane of a plant cell.2. A plastid is an organelle that is surrounded by adouble membrane and contains DNA.3. Thylakoids are flattened membranous sacs thatcontain chlorophyll.4. Chlorophyll is a green pigment that absorbs lightand captures energy for a plant cell.5. A central vacuole is a large, fluid-filled organellethat stores water, enzymes, and wastes in plant cells.MULTIPLE CHOICE1. b2. b3. a4. c5. cSHORT ANSWER1. Primary cell walls are assembled on the surfaceof the plasma membrane while the cell is growing.They can grow as the cell grows. Secondary cellwalls are produced after the cell has stoppedgrowing. Secondary cell walls cannot expand.2. Plant cell walls are made of cellulose embeddedin proteins and carbohydrates. Cell walls helpsupport and protect the plant.3. When water is plentiful, the central vacuoleexpands. The other organelles are pushed againstthe plasma membrane in a thin layer.4. The nucleoid is not surrounded by a membraneand is therefore not a nucleus. Bacteria do nothave an internal membrane system or membranebound organelles.STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONSa, Golgi apparatus; b, cell wall; c, vacuole; d, nucleus;e, nucleolus; f, mitochondrion; g, ribosome;h, chloroplat; i, endoplasmic reticulumSection 5-1VOCABULARY REVIEW1. A difference in the concentration of molecules intwo areas, called a concentration gradient, canresult in diffusion, the movement of moleculesfrom the area of higher concentration to the areaof lower concentration.2. Osmosis is the diffusion of water molecules acrossa cell membrane. When osmosis results in watermolecules entering a plant cell, the moleculesexert a pressure against the cell wall, calledturgor pressure.3. A hypertonic solution has a higher solute concentration than the cytosol of a cell. In a hypertonicsolution a plant cell will lose water and shrink awayfrom the cell wall, a process called plasmolysis.MULTIPLE CHOICE1. d2. b3. a4. c5. bCopyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONS1. a, prokaryotic cell; b, eukaryotic cell. 2. Features:eukaryotic cell has a nucleus and othermembrane-bound organelles, but the prokaryoticcell does not; prokaryotic cell is smaller. 3. X,nucleus; Y, cell membraneSection 4-4SHORT ANSWER1. At equilibrium, the movement of molecules continues, but because there is no concentrationgradient, there is no net movement in anyparticular direction.2. Carrier proteins bind to a molecule of the substance on one side of the membrane, changeshape, transport the molecule across the membrane, and release the molecule on the other side.3. The stimuli are stretching of the cell membrane,electrical signals, and chemicals in the cytosol orexternal environment.4. Both involve the binding of a specific substance toa particular kind of protein and a change in shapeof the protein as the process (transport or chemical reaction) proceeds. After the process is completed, the protein is unchanged.STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONSa, hypotonic; b, hypertonic; c, isotonic; d, hypertonic;e, isotonic; f, hypotonicSection 5-2VOCABULARY REVIEW1. Active transport is the movement of materialsacross a membrane from an area of lower concentration to an area of higher concentration.2. Endocytosis is the process by which cells ingestexternal fluid, macromolecules, and large particles.3. A vesicle is a membrane-bound organelle thatpinches off from the cell membrane duringendocytosis or fuses with the cell membraneduring exocytosis.4. Phagocytosis is a type of endocytosis in whichcells ingest large particles or whole cells.Copyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.MULTIPLE CHOICE1. b2. a3. c4. b5. dSHORT ANSWER1. The mechanism uses energy to move (pump)Na and K up their concentration gradients.2. The phagocyte forms a pouch in its cell membraneand engulfs bacteria in the pouch. It then pinchesoff the pouch to form a vesicle. Lysosomes fusewith the vesicle, and lysosomal enzymes destroythe bacteria it contains.3. Proteins are made on ribosomes and packaged intovesicles by the Golgi apparatus. The vesicles moveto the cell membrane and fuse with it, releasing theproteins from the cell through exocytosis.4. The interior of the lipid bilayer is nonpolar andtherefore would repel ions, which are attracted topolar environments.STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONS1. The correct order is d, c, f, b, a, e. 2. Na ions arereleased on the external side of the cell membrane.3. K ions are released on the cytosolic side of thecell membrane.Section 6-1VOCABULARY REVIEW1. Grana are stacks of thylakoids inside a chloroplast;the stroma is the solution that surrounds thethylakoids.2. Carotenoids are accessory pigments that assistchlorophyll a in capturing light energy duringphotosynthesis.3. Chemiosmosis is the process by which ATP ismade during photosynthesis. The production ofATP is catalyzed by the enzyme ATP synthase.MULTIPLE CHOICE1. a2. c3. d4. b5. dSHORT ANSWER1. Photosynthesis involves many chemical reactionslinked such that the product of one reaction isconsumed in the next reaction.2. Chloroplasts have an inner membrane system consisting of thylakoids. The pumping of protons intothe thylakoids builds up a proton concentrationgradient across the thylakoid membrane.3. The energy-carrying products are ATP and NADPH.4. They help chlorophyll a capture light energy byabsorbing energy in wavelengths that chlorophylla cannot absorb. This enables the photosyntheticcell to capture more of the energy in light.5. Photosystem II most likely evolved first, because itreplaces electrons lost from chlorophyll a withelectrons from water. Since photosystem I acceptselectrons from photosystem II, it probably evolvedafter photosystem II.STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONSa, electrons; b, NADPH; c, ATP; d, HSection 6-2VOCABULARY REVIEW1. The Calvin cycle is a biochemical pathway thatproduces a three-carbon sugar from carbondioxide during photosynthesis.2. Carbon fixation is the incorporation of carbondioxide into organic compounds.3. A stoma is a small pore on the surface of a plantthrough which water, O2, CO2, and other gasesenter or leave the plant.4. The C4 pathway is a carbon fixation pathway inwhich CO2 is incorporated into four-carboncompounds.5. The CAM pathway is a carbon fixation pathwayin which CO2 is incorporated into organic compounds at night and released to enter the Calvincycle during the day.MULTIPLE CHOICE1. a2. c3. d4. b5. dSHORT ANSWER1. In each turn of the cycle, three molecules of ATPand two molecules of NADPH are used.light energy2. CO2 + H2O (CH2O) + O23. CAM plants open their stomata at night, whereas C3and C4 plants open their stomata during the day.4. Increasing the temperature initially accelerates thevarious chemical reactions involved in photosynthesis. At higher temperatures, many of theenzymes that catalyze these reactions becomeineffective, and the stomata begin to close.5. The stomata would open. That would allow moreCO2 to enter the leaf from the surrounding air,stimulating photosynthesis.STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONSClockwise from the top: 3 CO2, 6 3-PGA, 6 ATP,6 ADP, 6 NADPH, 6 NADP , 6 G3P, 3 ATP, 3 ADP,3 RuBPModern Biology Study Guide Answer Key5Section 7-1Section 8-1VOCABULARY REVIEW1. Cellular respiration is the process in which cellsmake ATP by breaking down organic compounds.2. Glycolysis is a biochemical pathway in which onemolecule of glucose is oxidized to two moleculesof pyruvic acid.3. Lactic acid fermentation is an anaerobic pathwayin which pyruvic acid is converted into lactic acid.4. Alcoholic fermentation is an anaerobic pathway inwhich pyruvic acid is converted into ethyl alcoholand CO2.VOCABULARY REVIEW1. Histones help maintain the shape of a chromosomeand aid in the tight packing of DNA; nonhistone proteins control the activity of specific regions of DNA.2. A chromatid is one-half of a chromosome;a centromere is the area of a chromatid that holdsthe two chromatids in a chromosome together.3. A sex chromosome is a chromosome that determines the sex of an organism; an autosome is anyother chromosome.4. A diploid cell has both chromosomes in eachhomologous pair; a haploid cell has only onechromosome in each homologous pair.MULTIPLE CHOICE1. a2. c3. d4. b5. cSHORT ANSWER1. The fermentation pathways can operate in theabsence of oxygen.2. The energy-containing products are NADH, ATP,and pyruvic acid.3. These pathways regenerate NAD , which the cellscan use to keep glycolysis going to make moreATP in the absence of oxygen.4. Without niacin or the ability to make it, theperson would be deficient in NAD . Since NADis used in Step 3 of glycolysis, glycolysis wouldbe inhibited.STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONSa, glucose; b, glycolysis; c, pyruvic acid;d, lactic acid fermentation; e, alcoholicfermentation; f, lactic acid; g, ethyl alcohol5. cSHORT ANSWER1. Most of the energy is acquired by NADH; three molecules are produced during each turn of the cycle.2. The reactions of the electron transport chainoccur in the inner mitochondrial membrane.3. C6H12O6 + 6O2 6CO2 + 6H2O + energy4. The mitochondrial membranes segregate theenzymes and reactants of the Krebs cycle, facilitating the reactions they participate in. The folding of the inner mitochondrial membrane providesa large surface area for the molecules of the electron transport chain. The area between the innerand outer mitochondrial membranes provides aconfined space in which protons can accumulate,driving chemiosmosis.STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONSa, protons; b, protons; c, protons; d, NAD+; e, FADH2;f, O2; g, ADP + phosphate65. aSHORT ANSWER1. Histones help coil and package the DNA into avery small volume.2. Homologous chromosomes are the same size andshape and carry genes for the same traits.3. The picture is called a karyotype. If it shows twoX chromosomes, the person is a female; if it showsone X and one Y chromosome, the person is a male.4. Relatively simple organisms with more chromosomes might have smaller chromosomes containing less DNA. Also, some of the DNA in anorganisms chromosomes may not carry information that is actually used by the organism.Modern Biology Study Guide Answer KeySection 8-2VOCABULARY REVIEW1. Telophase does not belong; it is a phase of mitosis,and the other three are phases of interphase.2. Interphase does not belong; it is a phase of the cellcycle, and the other three are phases of mitosis.3. Binary fission does not belong; it pertains toprokaryotes, and the other three pertain toeukaryotes.4. Spindle fiber does not belong; it pertains tonuclear division, and the other three pertain tocytoplasmic division.5. Vesicles does not belong; vesicles are organelles,some of which participate in cytoplasmic division,and the other three are involved in nuclear division.MULTIPLE CHOICE1. c2. b3. d4. a5. cSHORT ANSWER1. G1 phase: the cell grows. S phase: DNA is copied. G2phase: the cell prepares for cell division. Mitosis: thenucleus divides. Cytokinesis: the cytoplasm divides.2. Prophase: the chromatin coils and forms chromosomes, the nucleolus and nuclear envelope disappear, and the mitotic spindle forms. Metaphase:kinetochore fibers move the chromosomes to thecell equator. Anaphase: the chromatids in eachchromosome separate and move toward oppositepoles of the cell. Telophase: the mitotic spindledisappears, the chromatids unwind to form chromatin, the nuclear envelope reforms, and anucleolus appears.Copyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.VOCABULARY REVIEW1. Aerobic respiration is the set of pathways in cellularrespiration that require oxygen to break downpyruvic acid.2. The mitochondrial matrix is the space inside theinner membrane of a mitochondrion.3. The Krebs cycle is a biochemical pathway thatbreaks down acetyl coenzyme A, producing CO2,hydrogen atoms, and ATP.4. FAD, or flavine adenine dinucleotide, is a moleculethat accepts electrons during redox reactions.4. d4. cSTRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONSa, chromosome; b, centromere; c, chromatids;d, homologous chromosomes, or homologuesSection 7-2MULTIPLE CHOICE1. b2. c3. aMULTIPLE CHOICE1. d2. b3. a3. Vesicles formed by the Golgi apparatus fuse atthe midline of the cell to form the cell plate, acell wall that elongates to separate the cell intotwo cells.4. Without a G1 growth phase, the cells would notgrow to their mature size after cytokinesis.Therefore, the offspring cells would becomesmaller with each cell cycle.STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONSa, telophase; b, metaphase; c, prophase; d, anaphaseSection 8-3VOCABULARY REVIEW1. Oogenesis is the production of mature egg cells,or ova.2. A tetrad is a pair of homologous chromosomes linedup next to each other during prophase I of meiosis.3. Independent assortment is the random separationof homologous chromosomes during anaphase I.4. Polar bodies are haploid offspring cells producedby meiosis during oogenesis.Copyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.MULTIPLE CHOICE1. d2. c3. a4. b5. cSHORT ANSWER1. Genetic recombination occurs during crossingover and independent assortment.2. Prophase I: DNA coils into chromosomes, the nucleolus and nuclear envelope disappear, the mitoticspindle forms, and synapsis and crossing-over occur.Metaphase I: the tetrads line up randomly along themidline of the cell, and spindle fibers attach to thecentromere of each homologue. Anaphase I: thehomologues move toward opposite poles of the cell.Telophase I: the chromosomes reach the oppositeends of the cell, and cytokinesis begins.3. In meiosis I, the offspring cells are haploid buteach cell contains two copies of the chromosomebecause the original cell copied its DNA beforemeiosis I. The offspring cells of meiosis II are alsohaploid, but each cell contains only one copy ofthe chromosome because, unlike meiosis I, thecells do not copy their DNA before meiosis II.4. The advantage of asexual reproduction is that offspring are genetically identical to their parent, so ifthe parent is well adapted to its environment, theoffspring will also be well adapted. The disadvantage of asexual reproduction is that without geneticrecombination, the offspring lack the variability thatwould allow some to survive if the environmentbecame less favorable to their survival.STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONSa, anaphase II; b, metaphase I; c, anaphase I;d, metaphase IISection 9-1VOCABULARY REVIEW1. The F1 generation consists of the offspring of across between two parents; the F2 generation consists of the offspring of a cross between two individuals in the same F1 generation.2. A dominant factor is one that masks the effect ofanother factor for the same characteristic; a recessive factor is one whose effect is masked by another factor for the same characteristic.3. Self-pollination occurs between flowers on the sameplant. Cross-pollination occurs between flowers ondifferent plants.MULTIPLE CHOICE1. c2. a3. d4. bSHORT ANSWER1. An allele is each of two alternative forms of agene.2. In meiosis, the two alleles of each gene are segregated when the two chromosomes in each pair ofhomologues are separated into different gametes.Alleles of genes located on different chromosomesor far apart on the same chromosome assort independently when homologues are randomly separated during meiosis.3. Orange flower color is dominant. All of the F1plants will have orange flowers.4. Mendel would have observed that the traitscontrolled by dominant factors for these characteristics almost always appeared together. Thus, hemight not have concluded that the factors for different characteristics are assorted independently.STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONSPossible combinations are RB, Rb, rB, and rb.Section 9-2VOCABULARY REVIEW1. In complete dominance, heterozygous and dominant homozygous individuals have the same phenotype. For example, in pea plants, the P allele iscompletely dominant over the p allele, so both PPand Pp plants have purple flowers.2. In incomplete dominance, neither allele is completely dominant over the other and both influence the phenotype. For example, in four oclocks,neither the R nor r allele is completely dominant,so Rr plants have pink flowers.3. In codominance, neither allele is dominant orrecessive; both are expressed in heterozygotes.For example, in MN blood blood types, both M andN molecules are produced by an LMLN individual.MULTIPLE CHOICE1. b2. a3. c4. d5. cSHORT ANSWER1. In a homozygous individual, both alleles of a pairare the same; in a heterozygous individual, thetwo alleles of a pair are different.2. 0.25 80 individuals = 20 individuals3. AA and Aa will result. 100% will have the dominantphenotype.4. In a testcross, the dominant phenotype wouldappear in all of the offspring if the cow werehomozygous dominant but in only about 50% ofthe offspring if the cow were heterozygous. Withonly one individual per F1 generation, distinguishing between these two possibilities wouldtake a long time, until a calf with the recessivephenotype was born.STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONSArrangements of the offspring alleles will varyaccording to the order of the parental alleles in thePunnett square. 1. 9/16 2. 1/4 3. 1/16 4. 1/16Modern Biology Study Guide Answer Key7Section 10-1Section 10-3VOCABULARY REVIEW1. A virulent strain of a bacterium is one that causesdisease.2. Transformation is the transfer of genetic materialfrom one cell to another cell or from one organismto another organism.3. A bacteriophage is a virus that infects bacteria.VOCABULARY REVIEW1. A replication fork is a Y-shaped region that resultswhen the two strands of DNA separate duringreplication.2. A helicase is an enzyme that separates the strandsof DNA during replication.3. Semi-conservative replication produces a newDNA molecule with one original strand and onenew strand.MULTIPLE CHOICE1. a2. c3. d4. a5. bSHORT ANSWER1. to show that live R cells are not virulent2. to show that live S cells are virulent and can kill amouse3. to show that heat-killed S cells do not cause disease4. to show that something in the heat-killed S culturewas acting on the live R cells to kill the mouse;experiment 3 showed that it was not the killed Scells themselves that killed the mouse.5. The slippery capsule prevents the cells of thedefense system from capturing and destroyingthe bacterial cells.STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONS1. Experiment 22. Experiment 1Section 10-2MULTIPLE CHOICE1. c2. d3. a4. b5. bSHORT ANSWER1. The three parts are a deoxyribose sugar, a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base. The phosphategroup and the base are connected to different partsof the sugar.2. Since guanine and cytosine are complementary,another 15% of the nucleotides must containcytosine. The remaining 70% of the nucleotides(100%30%) must contain adenine and thymine inequal proportions (35% each), since they are complementary to each other.3. Complementary base pairing is important becausethe hydrogen bonds between the bases hold thetwo strands of DNA together and because it servesas a way for DNA to replicate.4. The X-ray diffraction photographs showed that theshape of the DNA molecule was a double helix.STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONSa, deoxyribose; b, guanine; c, adenine;d, phosphate group8Modern Biology Study Guide Answer Key4. d5. cSHORT ANSWER1. Replication occurs simultaneously at many originsalong the DNA.2. Producing exact copies ensures that when a celldivides, the offspring cells will receive the samegenetic information as the parent cell.3. Cancer can result when errors occur in the replication of DNA in genes that control how a celldivides. A mass of cancerous cells called a tumorcan result.4. The hydrogen bonds break easily, making it easierfor the two strands in the molecule to separateduring replication. The strong covalent bondsensure that the sequence of nucleotides remainsfixed in each strand.STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONSPart a: helicase enzymes separate DNA strands;Part b: DNA polymerase enzymes add complementarynucleotides to each original strand of DNA and covalent bonds form between adjacent nucleotides;Part c: DNA polymerases finish replicating DNA andfall off, two DNA molecules identical to original DNAmolecule have formed.Section 10-4VOCABULARY REVIEW1. A codon is a sequence of three mRNA nucleotidesthat codes for a specific amino acid or a start orstop signal.2. Translation is the process of assembling polypeptides from information encoded in mRNA.3. An anticodon is a sequence of three tRNAnucleotides that pairs with a specific codon.MULTIPLE CHOICE1. a2. d3. b4. b5. bSHORT ANSWER1. The anticodons are UAC, GUA, CGU, and UCA.(The last three nucleotides in the mRNA sequenceare a stop codon, which has no anticodon.) Thepolypeptide will initially contain four amino acids.2. The tRNA that pairs with the start codon onmRNA carries methionine.3. RNA contains ribose; DNA contains deoxyribose.RNA usually contains uracil in place of thymine.RNA is single stranded; DNA is double stranded.4. All of the codons from the deletion point to theend of the transcript would be shifted by onenucleotide, so the sequence of amino acids specified from that point on would be different.Translation would terminate prematurely if theshift resulted in a new stop codon before the endof the transcript.Copyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.VOCABULARY REVIEW1. A purine is a nitrogenous base with two rings ofcarbon and nitrogen atoms. Examples may includeadenine or guanine.2. A pyrimidine is a nitrogenous base with one ringof carbon and nitrogen atoms. Examples mayinclude cytosine or thymine.3. A complementary base-pair is a pair of nitrogenousbases connected to each other by hydrogenbonds. Examples may include adenine-thymineand cytosine-guanine.4. A nitrogenous base is a base in DNA containingnitrogen and carbon.MULTIPLE CHOICE1. b2. a3. bSTRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONSa, polypeptide or protein; b, peptide bond;c, amino acid; d, tRNA; e, anticodon; f, codon; g, mRNAor transcript; h, ribosome3. A sarcoma is a cancer of bone or muscle tissue; alymphoma is a cancer of the tissues that formblood cells.4. An oncogene causes uncontrolled cell proliferation; a tumor-suppressor gene prevents it.Section 11-1MULTIPLE CHOICE1. a2. d3. aVOCABULARY REVIEW1. A regulator gene is a prokaryotic gene that codes forthe production of a repressor protein, which inhibitsthe transcription of one or more structural genes.2. An operator is a DNA segment that controls theaccess of RNA polymerase to the promoter. Anoperon is the DNA segment that contains an operator, promoter, and structural genes.3. An intron is a section of a structural gene that istranscribed but not translated. An exon is asection of a structural gene that is transcribedand translated.4. A transcription factor is a protein that facilitatesgene transcription by binding to RNA polymeraseand to an enhancer.Copyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.MULTIPLE CHOICE1. c2. d3. a4. b5. dSHORT ANSWER1. An operon is a series of genes that code forspecific products and the regulatory elements thatcontrol those genes. Operons have been foundmostly in prokaryotes.2. Lactose binds to the repressor protein, whichcauses the repressor protein to be released fromthe operator site. This permits the RNA polymerase to transcribe the structural genes.3. In the absence of lactose, the repressor proteinbinds to the operator site; this inhibits the RNApolymerase from transcribing the structural genes.4. Without a nuclear envelope, there is no structureto segregate newly synthesized RNA from ribosomes. Therefore, ribosomes can begin to translate the RNA as soon as it is formed, before it hashad a chance to be modified.STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONS1. a, regulator gene; b, lactose, or inducer;c, repressor protein; d, promoter; e, operator.2. If the regulator gene were deleted then therepressor protein could no longer be produced.Without a repressor protein at the operator site,RNA polymerase would transcribe structuralgenes continuously.3. Transcription is activated because the lactosemolecule has bound to the repressor protein. Thiscauses the repressor protein to release from theoperator site, which then permits RNA polymeraseto transcribe the structural genes.Section 11-2VOCABULARY REVIEW1. A homeotic gene is a regulatory gene that determineswhere anatomical structures will form. A homeoboxis a specific nucleotide sequence within a homeotic gene that regulates patterns of development.2. A proto-oncogene is a gene that regulates cellgrowth, cell division, and the ability of cells toadhere to one another. An oncogene, formed whena proto-oncogene mutates, causes uncontrolledcell division.4. b5. dSHORT ANSWER1. Homeotic genes code for regulatory proteins thatare thought to control the rate of cell division invarious body areas by switching genes on or off.These variations in cell division produce specificpatterns of structural development.2. Factors include the persons age, number of exposures to carcinogens, amount of carcinogen ineach exposure, and possibly a genetic predisposition to certain types of cancer.3. Viruses can introduce oncogenes into a host cell,activate the host cells own oncogenes, or causemutations in the host cells proto-oncogenes ortumor-suppressor genes.4. Two key characteristics of cancer cells includeuncontrolled growth and metastasis.5. Cancer is a disease in which cells grow and undergomitosis at an abnormally high rate. If the genesthat control the cell cycle and the mechanism ofthat control were better understood, the causes ofcancer would also be better understood. Perhapscancer could be slowed or cured if the cell cycleof cancerous cells could be modified.STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONSleft box, regulate cell growth; middle box, cancer;right box, prevention of uncontrolled cell divisionSection 12-1VOCABULARY REVIEW1. A sex chromosome contains genes that determinean individuals sex. An autosome is a chromosomethat is not directly involved in determining sex.2. A germ-cell mutation occurs in one of an organismsgametes; a somatic-cell mutation occurs in one ofthe other cells in an organisms body.3. Translocation occurs when a chromosome piecebreaks off and attaches to a nonhomologouschromosome; nondisjunction occurs when homologues fail to separate during meiosis, so that onegamete receives both homologues.4. A deletion is a loss of a piece of chromosome dueto breakage. An inversion occurs when a brokenpiece of chromosome is reattached backwards.5. In a substitution, one nucleotide in a codon isreplaced with a different one; in a frameshiftmutation, the loss or addition of a nucleotidecauses the remaining codons to be incorrectlygrouped.MULTIPLE CHOICE1. b2. a3. c4. d5. aSHORT ANSWER1. The male parent determines the offsprings sex.Offspring that receive an X chromosome from themale parent will be female; those that receive aY chromosome will be male.Modern Biology Study Guide Answer Key92. Morgan crossed a white-eyed male with a femalehomozygous for red eyes, and then crossed members of the F1 generation resulting from the firstcross. He found that all of the white-eyed flies inthe F2 generation were male.3. Crossing-over during meiosis causes homologouschromosomes to exchange alleles, resulting in newcombinations of alleles in the offspring.4. A frameshift mutation would have a more seriouseffect if it occurred near the beginning of a gene,since it would change nearly all of the codons inthe gene. The resulting protein likely would benonfunctional.STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONSwhite eyes (map unit number 1), vermilion eyes (31),miniature wings (34)Section 12-2VOCABULARY REVIEW1. skin color, eye color, height, or hair color2. ABO blood groups3. Huntingtons disease4. pattern baldness5. wavy hairMULTIPLE CHOICE1. d2. c3. d4. c5. bSHORT ANSWER1. Radioactive probes bind to specific fragments ina DNA sample such as a donor gene. A probe canidentify which bacteria contain recombinant DNA.2. When only a very small amount of DNA is available, PCR can be used to produce enough copiesof the DNA to make a DNA fingerprint.3. Since each restriction enzyme recognizes aspecific DNA sequence, only those DNA piecesthat have been produced by the same restrictionenzyme will have complementary sticky ends.4. Answers could include: identifying human remains,determining a persons paternity, tracing humanorigins, provide evidence in criminal cases, improvefood crops, determine susceptibility to geneticdiseases, and provide treatments or cures forgenetic disorders.STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONSa, human gene; b, restriction enzyme; c, sticky ends;d, plasmid; e, recombinant DNA; f, recombinantbacteriumSection 13-24. a5. bSTRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONSX-linked recessive trait: one filled square, one opensquare, one half-filled circle, and one open circle.Autosomal recessive trait: one half-filled square,one open square, one half-filled circle, and oneopen circle.Section 13-1VOCABULARY REVIEW1. A DNA fingerprint is a pattern of bands on aphotographic film, where the bands representspecific fragments from an individuals DNA.2. Gel electrophoresis is a technique in which nucleicacids or proteins are separated according to sizeand charge as they migrate through a gel.3. A probe is a radioactive segment of single-strandedDNA that is complementary to DNA fragments thathave been selected for comparison.4. A primer is a single-stranded sequence of DNArequired for the initiation of replication in PCR.Modern Biology Study Guide Answer KeyVOCABULARY REVIEW1. Proteomics is the study of all of an organismsproteins, including their identities, structures,interactions, and abundances.2. Bioinformatics is the use of computers to investigate biological questions.3. The 8 million SNPs in the human genome areunique spots where individuals differ by a singlenucleotide.4. The Human Genome Project is a research effort tosequence the entire human genome and locate allof the functionally important sequences.MULTIPLE CHOICE1. d2. a3. d4. d5. bSHORT ANSWER1. They wanted to learn the location of all the important genes in the genome in order to learn how thegenome is organized, how gene expression andcell growth are controlled, and about humanevolution.2. Answers should include three of the following:Only about 2 percent of the human genomeencodes proteins. Exons are not distributed equallyon chromosomes. The human genome containsonly about 30,000 to 40,000 genes. Exons are splicedto allow a gene to encode different proteins. Halfthe human genome arises from the shuffling oftransposons. There are about 8 million SNPs.3. It is the proteins, not the DNA, that carry out thework of cells. Scientists must understand proteinsand how they work if they are to understand howgenes work.STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONS1. The more complex organisms generally have largergenomes than less complex organisms, but thereare many exceptions.2. If the genome is larger than expected for the number of genes, there might be large amounts of noncoding DNA present. If the genome is smaller thanCopyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.SHORT ANSWER1. Pattern baldness is controlled by the allele B.Testosterone interacts with the heterozygousgenotype (BB) to produce baldness. Since maleshave higher levels of testosterone, BB males aremore likely to lose their hair than BB females.2. A small sample is removed from the amniotic fluidsurrounding the fetus or from the chorionic villibetween the uterus and the placenta. Fetal cells inthe sample are used to construct a karyotype,which may reveal chromosomal abnormalities.3. A sex-influenced trait is influenced by the presence of sex hormones and its genes are not located on sex chromosomes, while a sex-linkedtrait is linked to a sex chromosome.4. Children: type A, I Ai; type B, I Bi; type AB, I AI B; typeO, ii. One parent is type A, I Ai; the other parent istype B, I bi.10MULTIPLE CHOICE1. d2. c3. bexpected for the number of genes, the size of theorganisms proteins may be small, requiring fewernucleotides.Section 13-3VOCABULARY REVIEW1. A DNA vaccine is a vaccine that is made from theDNA of a pathogen but does not have diseasecausing capability.2. A telomere is a repeated DNA sequence at the endof a chromosome that shortens with each celldivision.3. Bioethics is the study of ethical issues related toDNA technology.4. In gene therapy, a genetic disorder is treated byintroducing a normally functioning gene into apatients cells.Copyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.MULTIPLE CHOICE1. c2. a3. d4. b5. a6. aSHORT ANSWER1. A DNA vaccine contains DNA from a pathogen butcannot cause disease. When the vaccine is injected into a patient, the DNA directs the synthesis ofa protein. Antibodies are produced by the bodyagainst the protein. If the patient contracts thedisease in the future, the antibodies in his or herbody will be able to provide protection.2. Dolly suffered from premature aging and disease,possibly because the nucleus that produced herhad chromosomes with shortened telomeres.3. Although a normal gene is introduced into apatients surface cells in the lung, these cells arenot the ones that need to produce the highestlevels of the missing transport protein. The viruscarrying the normal gene cannot reach the deeplung cells where the normal gene is most needed.4. Sample answer: Engineered traits such as herbicideresistance could transfer to weeds and createsuperweeds.5. Acceptable answers could include making plantsthat carry out photosynthesis at a higher rate,produce greater yields with less water or inwarmer or colder climates, and produce cropsthat have a greater nutritional value, taste better,or look more appealing.STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONSa and b: acceptable answers include medicines andorgans that do not trigger rejection when transplantedinto humans. Answers c, d, and e may include pestresistant crops, herbicide-resistant crops, diseaseresistant crops, and rice with higher nutritionalvalue.Section 14-1VOCABULARY REVIEW1. Biogenesis is the principle that all living thingscome from other living things.2. Spontaneous generation is the supposed origin ofliving things from nonliving things.3. Vital force was the force that according to supporters of spontaneous generation, caused life toappear spontaneously.MULTIPLE CHOICE1. b2. c3. a4. b5. cSHORT ANSWER1. Observations with the microscope revealed theexistence of microorganisms that are simple instructure, numerous, and widespread. Investigatorsof that time concluded that microorganisms arisespontaneously from a vital force in the air.2. Spallanzani reasoned that boiling the broth wouldkill all of the microorganisms in the broth, on theinside of the glass, and in the air inside the flask.3. Instead of sealing the flask in the experimentalgroup after boiling, Pasteur used a flask with acurved neck, which allowed air inside and outsidethe flask to mix but prevented microorganismsfrom entering the body of the flask.4. Pasteurs experiment permitted air from the outside to mix with air from the inside, which wouldhave allowed any vital force to enter and causethe broth to become cloudy if there were such avital force.5. Believers in spontaneous generation could haveargued that the meat Redi used was somehowunable to develop into maggots, regardless ofwhether flies were present or absent. The controlgroup showed that this was not the case.STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONSControl group: c, e, a. Experimental group, c, b, d.Section 14-2VOCABULARY REVIEW1. A radioactive isotope is an isotope whose nucleustends to release particles, radiant energy, or both;radioactive dating is a technique for determiningthe age of a material by measuring the amount of aparticular radioactive isotope the material contains.2. The release of particles, radiant energy, or both bya radioactive isotope is called radioactive decay;half-life is the time it takes for one-half of any sizesample of a particular isotope to decay.3. A microsphere is a spherical collection of manyprotein molecules organized as a membrane; acoacervate is a collection of droplets that are composed of different types of molecules, includingamino acids and sugars. Both structures are celllike and form spontaneously in the laboratoryfrom simple organic molecules.MULTIPLE CHOICE1. d2. c3. b4. a5. aSHORT ANSWER1. Isotopes with short half-lives are most useful fordating relatively young rocks, while those with longhalf-lives are most useful for dating older rocks.2. Some scientists think that the atmosphere of earlyEarth contained large amounts of CO2, a gas thatinterferes with the production of organic compounds in laboratory simulations of proposedearly-Earth conditions.3. Their discovery showed that some aspects of cellular life can arise without direction from genes.4. No, this method estimates the age of the oldestunmelted surface rocks on Earth. Since the surfaceof Earth probably melted many times as the planetwas formed, the Earth should be older thanthese rocks.STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONSAn isotope content of 1/16 will occur afterfour half-lives; 4 75,000 years = 300,000 years.Modern Biology Study Guide Answer Key11Section 14-3VOCABULARY REVIEW1. A ribozyme is an RNA molecule that can act asan enzyme.2. Chemosynthesis is the synthesis of organiccompounds using energy contained in inorganicmolecules.3. Cyanobacteria are a group of photosyntheticunicellular prokaryotes.4. Endosymbiosis is the mutually beneficial relationship that is hypothesized to have existed betweenlarge prokaryotes and the smaller prokaryotesthat invaded them and eventually gave rise tomitochondria and chloroplasts.MULTIPLE CHOICE1. a2. d3. c4. bSection 15-1VOCABULARY REVIEW1. Evolution is the development of new types oforganisms from preexisting types of organismsover time.2. Natural selection is a process in which organismsbest suited to their environment reproduce moresuccessfully than other organisms.5. cSHORT ANSWER1. Since acquired traits are not genetically determined, they cannot be passed on to offspring.Therefore, they cannot cause a population tochange over generations.2. Darwin extended Malthus ideas to populations ofall organisms and reasoned that the environmentlimits the populations of all organisms by causingdeaths or limiting births.12Modern Biology Study Guide Answer KeySection 15-2VOCABULARY REVIEW1. A homologous structure is an anatomical structurethat occurs in different species and originated byheredity from a structure in a common ancestor;analogous structures have closely related functions but are not derived from the same ancestralstructure.2. A fossil is the evidence or remains of a preexistingorganism; the principle of superposition statesthat if a sequence of sedimentary rock strata havebeen undisturbed, the oldest strata will be at thebottom of the sequence and younger strata will beon top. The relative age of the strata is usuallydetermined by comparing the fossils contained inthe strata.3. The relative age of a fossil or rock is simply anindication of whether the fossil or rock is youngeror older than another fossil or rock; the absoluteage of a rock is the rocks age in years.MULTIPLE CHOICE1. b2. c3. b4. a5. aSHORT ANSWER1. A biologist would concentrate on homologous features, since they originated in a shared ancestor.2. The animal evolved from an ancestor in whichthat structure was functional.3. In biogeography studies, similar animals that seemto be closely related are adapted to different environments in nearby areas. Also, in areas that arewidely separated animals that seem to be unrelated are observed to have similar adaptations tosimilar environments in the separate areas.4. Fossils show that a group of organisms, such asmarine mammals, have changed over time toadapt to different environments.5. The environment will not select for or againstorganisms that have a particular structure unlessthat structure affects the organisms fitness.STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONSa, youngest fossil; b, mammal fossils; c, first dinosaurs;d, first land plants; e, trilobites; f, oldest fossilSection 15-3VOCABULARY REVIEW1. the evolution of Caribbean anole lizards2. Examples may include different breeds of dogs,cats, cattle, or food crops.Copyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONSa, photosynthetic eukaryotes; b, aerobic eukaryotes;c, photosynthetic prokaryotes; d, chemosyntheticprokaryotes; e, heterotrophic prokaryotes4. dSTRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONSThe bird in B appears to have greater fitness, since ithas produced more offspring.5. dSHORT ANSWER1. Each RNA molecule might have competed withslightly different RNA molecules for nucleotides.An RNA molecule that was more successful ingetting nucleotides would have an advantage, andit would pass that advantage on to the new RNAmolecules it created by replicating.2. Ultraviolet radiation from the sun damages DNA,but the development of the ozone layer in theupper atmosphere prevented much of this radiation from reaching the surface of Earth, allowinglife to exist on land.3. Both organelles replicate independently of thecell, have circular DNA like that in prokaryotes,and contain genes that are different from those ofthe rest of the cell.4. The pre-eukaryotic cells would have receivedprotection from the damaging effects of oxygen,obtained the energy-containing products of aerobic respiration, and been able to harness theenergy in sunlight. The small prokaryotes mayhave experienced a more stable environmentinside the larger cell.MULTIPLE CHOICE1. d2. c3. a3. Evolution is the change of populations of organisms over time; natural selection is the mechanismby which evolution occurs.4. Lamarck would have said that the ancestors ofmodern-day giraffes had short necks but stretchedtheir necks as they tried to reach leaves in trees; so,their descendants were born with longer necks.Darwin would have said that in a population ofancestral giraffes, some had slightly longer necksthan others; the long-necked giraffes were betterable to feed on tree leaves and as a result producedmore offspring. Over time, the proportion of longnecked giraffes in the population increased.3. some flowers and insects; animals and microbes4. the evolution of Caribbean anole lizards with similar adaptations on separate islands5. Two examples are the evolution of the Galpagosfinches and the evolution of domestic dogs.6. evolution of resistance to pesticides by insect populations, of plants to herbicides, and evolution ofresistance to antibiotics by disease-causingbacteriaMULTIPLE CHOICE1. b2. c3. a4. d5. aCopyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.SHORT ANSWER1. Adaptive radiation occurs when a new populationin a new environment, such as an island, undergoesdivergent evolution until the descendant populations fill many parts of the environment.2. Answer will vary, but could include the lizardsmoving to an area where the trees are still healthy,or they could adapt to live in another part of theenvironment, such as living in small shrubs or onthe ground. The lizards could also go extinct ifthey could not move to another area or adapt tothe new environment.3. Answers will vary, but could include domesticdogs, domestic cats, cattle, sheep, and pigs foranimals and corn, wheat, fruit trees, such asapples or oranges, and flowers, such as roses ororchids.4. The long-lived species would be more likely tobecome extinct after a sudden environmentalchange. The short-lived species, with large numbersof offspring, would be more likely to adapt to thechanging environment. The short-lived species canadapt more easily because of the larger pool ofgenetic variations available in the larger population.STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONSdivergent evolution; approximately 16 million yearsago; the galagoSection 16-1VOCABULARY REVIEW1. Population genetics is the study of evolution froma genetic point of view.2. A gene pool is the total genetic information available in a population.3. Allele frequency is the frequency of a certain alleleamong all alleles of the same gene in a population.4. Phenotype frequency is the frequency of individuals with a particular phenotype in a population.5. Hardy-Weinberg genetic equilibrium is a conditionin which the allele frequencies in a populationremain the same from generation to generation.MULTIPLE CHOICE1. b2. c3. b3. (1) No net mutations occur; (2) individuals neitherenter nor leave the population; (3) the populationis large; (4) individuals mate randomly; and (5)selection does not occur.4. no, because those genes are not available for thenext generationSTRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONSPhenotype frequencies: red = 0.625 0.625 = 0.391;white = 0.375 0.375 = 0.141; pink = 1 0.391 0.141 =0.468. Allele frequencies: R = 0.391 + (0.468 2) =0.625; r = 0.141 + (0.468 2) = 0.375.Section 16-2VOCABULARY REVIEW1. Immigration is the movement of individuals into apopulation. Emigration is the movement of individuals out of a population.2. Gene flow is the movement of genes from one population to another. Genetic drift is a change in allelefrequencies in a population due to random events.3. Random mating is mating that occurs withoutregard to genetic makeup. Assortative mating ismating based on similarity of characteristics.4. In stabilizing selection, individuals with the average form of a trait have the highest fitness. Indirectional selection, individuals with one extremeform of a trait have the highest fitness.MULTIPLE CHOICE1. c2. d3. a4. c5. bSHORT ANSWER1. mutations, gene flow, genetic drift, nonrandommating, and natural selection2. By producing totally new alleles for a trait, mutations can change allele frequencies.3. Matings with some degree of kinship may occur,increasing the chance of offspring with disorderscaused by recessive genes.4. The bright coloration may increase a maleschances of being selected for mating by a female.5. Genetic homozygosity leaves no variation for natural selection to act on. Therefore, a new diseasecould wipe out the entire population.6. directional selection; the cow would not eliminate allwhite flowers because the allele for white flowers isalso carried by plants with pink flowers, which arenot eaten. Crosses between plants with pink flowerswould continue to produce some plants with whiteflowers.STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONSa, disruptive; b, directional; c, stabilizingSection 16-34. d5. aSHORT ANSWER1. Individuals represented by the two ends are thosewith extreme variations of a specific trait.2. Variations arise through mutation, recombinationduring meiosis, and the random pairing of gametesduring fertilization.VOCABULARY REVIEW1. Morphology is the internal and external structureand appearance of an organism.2. Geographic isolation is the physical separation ofmembers of a population.3. Punctuated equilibrium is a pattern of speciesformation in which periods of sudden speciationare preceded and followed by long periods withlittle speciation.MULTIPLE CHOICE1. d2. a3. b4. c5. bModern Biology Study Guide Answer Key13SHORT ANSWER1. A satisfactory definition is not provided forspecies of extinct organisms or for organisms thatdo not reproduce sexually.2. Individuals do not waste gametes by producingoffspring that cannot reproduce.3. Some species of moths on the Hawaiian Islandsappear to have evolved during the past thousandyears, whereas speciation in other organisms maytake millions of years. The fossil record showsthat periods of a few thousand years duringwhich many species appeared were separatedby much longer periods during which there waslittle speciation.4. If the peninsulas become islands, the species thatlive there could become geographically isolatedand eventually evolve into different species.STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONSThey may have other barriers to mating, such asgeographic isolation, postzygotic isolation, andprezygotic isolation (they may not recognize oneanothers mating call).Section 17-1MULTIPLE CHOICE1. c2. b3. a4. d5. cSHORT ANSWER1. Sample answers: Both systems divided all livingthings into two main groups, animals and plants,but Aristotles system had three sublevels each foranimals and plants, whereas Linnaeuss systemhad six sublevels. Aristotle also divided animalson the basis of habitat and plants on the basis ofstem differences, whereas Linnaeus divided allorganisms mainly on the basis of morphology.Aristotle used common names for organisms,whereas Linnaeus used binomial nomenclature.2. Scientists use binomial nomenclature, a system inwhich each organism is identified with two names,the genus and the species identifier.3. Modern taxonomists consider the evolutionaryhistory of an organism when classifying theorganism; Linnaeus considered mainly theorganisms morphology.4. Answers will vary. Aristotles division of theanimal kingdom into land, water, and air dwellersdoes not describe accurate morphological orevolutionary relationships among animals.14Modern Biology Study Guide Answer KeySTRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONSa, species; b, genus; c, family; d, order; e, class;f, phylum or division; g, domainSection 17-2VOCABULARY REVIEW1. Systematics is the branch of biology that organizesliving things in the context of their naturalrelationships.2. A phylogenetic diagram is a diagram that uses abranching pattern to indicate how closely relateda subset of taxa are thought to be.3. Cladistics is a system of phylogenetic analysis inwhich shared and derived characters of organismsare used to group taxa.MULTIPLE CHOICE1. d2. b3. c4. a5. bSHORT ANSWER1. Types of evidence include the morphology of fossil and living species, patterns of embryologicaldevelopment, and comparisons of chromosomesand macromolecules, such as DNA and RNA.2. An out-group in cladistic analysis is a group oforganisms that is only distantly related to theother organisms being analyzed. The out-groupprovides a starting point for the comparisonswith the other organisms.3. A derived character is found only among membersof a particular group. Therefore, cladistic taxonomists assume that the character evolved withinthat group and that all of the organisms in thegroup have a common ancestor.4. Sample answer: The fossil organism thought to bethe common ancestor could have been on anotherbranch of the phylogenetic diagram, sharing anearlier ancestor with both modern species. Thechanges in the proteins amino acid sequence mayhave been nonrandom, affected by natural selection,or produced at a greater-than-normal rate.STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONS1. 3 and 4; 2. D; 3. GSection 17-3VOCABULARY REVIEW1. prokaryotic, unicellular, both2. prokaryotic, unicellular, both3. eukaryotic, both, both4. eukaryotic, both, heterotrophy5. eukaryotic, multicellular, autotrophy (rarelyheterotrophy)6. eukaryotic, multicellular, heterotrophyMULTIPLE CHOICE1. b2. c3. a4. c5. d6. bSHORT ANSWER1. Archaebacteria can flourish in harsh environments, such as sulfurous hot springs and verysalty lakes, where eubacteria cannot. Also theircell membranes and biochemical and geneticproperties are different from those of eubacteria.Copyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.VOCABULARY REVIEW1. Taxonomy is the science of describing, naming,and classifying organisms. A taxon is any particulargroup within a taxonomic system.2. A kingdom is the largest category in Linnaeusssystem of classifying life. A species is the smallestcategory in the system, containing only a singleorganism type.3. A phylum is the largest subset within the animalkingdom of Linnaeus. A division is the largestsubset within the plant kingdom.4. A species name is the two-part scientific name ofan organism. The species identifier is the secondpart of an organisms scientific name.5. A species is the smallest taxonomic group, containing only a single kind of organism. Subspecies areanimals that belong to the same species but live indifferent areas.For example, bats and birds are air dwellers,and whales and fish are water dwellers, but bats aremore closely related to whales than to birds, andwhales are more closely related to bats than to fish.2. Fungi include some unicellular forms, but plantsdo not; most plants are autotrophic, but all fungiare heterotrophic. Fungi have cell walls made ofchitin, while plant cell walls are made of cellulose.3. Multicellular heterotrophic organisms are includedin kingdoms Protista, Fungi, Plantae, and Animalia.4. Differences in rRNA sequences suggest that allorganisms can be divided into three broad groups.5. Other characteristics, such as the presence orabsence of a nucleus and the type of nutrition, aremore useful for understanding phylogenetic relationships. This system would place some organisms in the same group even though they are verydifferent with regard to these characteristics.STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONSa, Bacteria; b, Archaea; c, Eukarya; df, Protista,Plantae, FungiSection 18-1Copyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.VOCABULARY REVIEW1. Ecology is the study of the interactions betweenorganisms and the living and nonliving components of their environment.2. Interdependence in an ecosystem occurs becauseall organisms interact with other organisms andthe abiotic portions of the environment, and theirsurvival depends on these interactions.3. The biosphere is the thin volume of Earth and itsatmosphere that supports life.4. An ecosystem is a component of the biospherethat includes all of the organisms and the nonliving environment found in a particular place.5. A community includes all interacting organismsliving in an area.6. A population is a group within a community thatincludes all the members of a species that live inone place at one time.MULTIPLE CHOICE1. b2. c3. d4. aSHORT ANSWER1. When more acorns are produced by oak trees thepopulations of mice and deer that eat acornsincreases. This causes an increase in the population of ticks that feed on these animals. The tickscarry the bacterium that causes Lyme disease,therefore human cases of the disease may alsoincrease.2. The applications of ecological models are limitedbecause the models are normally very simple anddo not accurately reflect the complex nature ofreal ecosytems.3. A population consists of all members of a singlespecies that live in an area, whereas a communityconsists of all organisms of any species that live inan area.4. Since plants consume CO2 during photosynthesis,extensive deforestation could result in a rise inatmospheric CO2 levels, contributing to a changein the environment.STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONSfrom left to right top row: 3, community; 5, organism;1, biosphere; bottom row: 4, population; and2, ecosystemSection 18-2VOCABULARY REVIEW1. A habitat is the place where an organism lives. Aresource is one of the materials or the energy anorganism needs to survive.2. A biotic factor is a living component of the environment that influences an organism. An abiotic factoris a nonliving physical or chemical characteristic ofthe environment that influences an organism.3. A conformer is an organism whose internal conditions change as the environment changes. A regulator is an organism that uses energy to keep itsinternal conditions within an optimal range as theenvironment changes.4. Dormancy is a long-term strategy to escapeunfavorable environmental conditions by anorganism that involves a period of reducedactivity. Migration is also a strategy for escapingunfavorable conditions, but it involves organismsmoving to a more favorable habitat.5. A generalist is a species with a broad niche. Aspet is a species with a narrow niche.MULTIPLE CHOICE1. d2. a3. c4. b5. aSHORT ANSWER1. Abiotic factors include temperature, humidity, pH,salinity, O2 concentration, amount of sunlight,availability of nitrogen, and precipitation.Temperature may influence humidity and precipitation. Precipitation may influence pH, nitrogenavailability, and salinity.2. dormancy during the period of unfavorable conditions and migration to a more favorable habitat3. The opossum feeds on almost anything, while thekoala feeds only on the leaves of a few species ofeucalyptus trees.4. The habitat is where an organism lives, but itsniche is how that organism interacts in its habitatand with other organisms within the habitat.5. Pesticides could be developed that make thoselimits narrower, environmental conditions couldbe altered (e.g., through refrigeration or desiccation) so that they lie outside those limits, orhuman activities could be modified to occur whenor where conditions lie outside those limits.STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONSa, regulator (any mammal or bird); b, conformer(any other organism)Section 18-3VOCABULARY REVIEW1. A producer is an autotroph; a consumer isa heterotroph.2. Gross primary productivity is the rate at whichproducers in an ecosystem capture energy. Netprimary productivity is the rate at which thisenergy is used to produce organic material.3. A food chain is a single pathway of feeding relationships among organisms in an ecosystem thatresults in energy transfer. A food web is a feedingrelationship consisting of interlinked food chains.MULTIPLE CHOICE1. c2. b3. a4. d5. bModern Biology Study Guide Answer Key15SHORT ANSWER1. desert, open ocean, lake, tropical rain forest2. Decomposers return nutrients in dead tissues andwastes to the soil or water; producers can obtainthese nutrients directly.3. Some of the organisms in a trophic level escapebeing eaten; some energy is stored in molecules thatconsumers cannot break down; some of the energyat lower levels is used for cellular respiration and isnot transferred; some energy is lost as heat.4. Because only about 10 percent of the energy atone level is transferred to the next, after a fewtransfers there is too little energy to support additional levels.5. Without decomposers, the nutrients stored in thebodies and wastes of other organisms would notbe available for further cycling through theecosystem. Eventually, the soil or water would bedepleted of critical nutrients and energy flowthrough the ecosystem would stop.STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONSa, yes; b, no; c, yes; d, yes; e, yes; f, yesSection 18-4VOCABULARY REVIEW1. All three are biogeochemical cycles that involvethe movement of water, carbon, and nitrogen,respectively, between the living and nonlivingparts of an ecosystem.2. All three are parts of the nitrogen cycle; nitrogenfixation converts nitrogen gas into ammonia, nitrification converts ammonia into nitrites andnitrates, and denitrification converts nitrates backinto nitrogen gas.4. c5. bSHORT ANSWER1. Precipitation removes water from the atmosphere,and transpiration and evaporation return water tothe atmosphere.2. Autotrophs take CO2 from the environment and incorporate it into organic compounds during photosynthesis; both autotrophs and heterotrophsrelease CO2 from organic compounds during cellularrespiration; and decomposers also release CO2.3. Nitrogen-fixing bacteria are found in the soil and inthe roots of some kinds of plants. These bacteriaconvert nitrogen gas into a form which plants canabsorb and use to make proteins.4. The crop plants absorb much of the nitrogen fromthe soil and incorporate it into organic compounds. When the plants are harvested andremoved from the field, the nitrogen leaves withthem. Some of the nitrogen returns to the atmosphere through denitrification.STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONSa, precipitation; b, transpiration; c, photosynthesis;d, cellular respiration; e, nitrogen fixation;f, denitrification16Modern Biology Study Guide Answer KeyVOCABULARY REVIEW1. Population density is a measure of how crowded apopulation is, expressed as the number of individuals per unit of area or volume. Dispersion is thespatial distribution of individuals within a population, expressed as clumped, uniform, or randompatterns.2. The death rate is the number of deaths that occurin a population during a given period of time, butthe life expectancy is how long, on average, anindividual is expected to live.MULTIPLE CHOICE1. a2. d3. c4. b5. aSHORT ANSWER1. Individuals are clustered in a clumped distribution, separated by a fairly consistent distance in auniform distribution, and located independent ofthe locations of others in a random distribution.2. A clumped distribution can occur when animalsgather into herds or flocks or when resources,such as food or nesting sites, are clumped.3. A uniform distribution can occur when a bird orother animal claims an area and excludes otherindividuals in the population from that area.4. For the first five years of life, the survivorshipcurve would look like a Type II or Type III curve;thereafter it would look like a Type I curve.STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONS1. Z 2. X 3. Y 4. X = human or elephant, Y = bird,Z = oyster, salmon, or insectSection 19-2VOCABULARY REVIEW1. Growth rate is the amount by which a populationssize changes in a given time; it is equal to the birthrate minus the death rate.2. Exponential growth is a phenomenon in which apopulation grows more rapidly as it becomeslarger; a limiting factor in the environment ultimately restrains population growth.MULTIPLE CHOICE1. b2. a3. c4. d5. aSHORT ANSWER1. Birth rate = 4 million/265 million = 0.015;death rate = 2.4 million/265 million = 0.009;growth rate = 0.015 0.009 = 0.006.2. Elton found that both hare and lynx populationsunderwent regular cycles, with peaks in the lynxpopulation usually following those in the harepopulation by a year or two. Other evidenceshowed that hare populations underwent thesame cycles on islands without lynxes.3. Inbreeding can reduce the number of offspringproduced, increase susceptibility to disease,decrease genetic variability, and reduce apopulations ability to adapt to changingenvironmental conditions.4. Population after 1 year = 01.02 100,000,000 =102,000,000; after 2 years = 01.02 102,000,000 =104,040,000; after 3 years = 01.02 104,040,000 =106,120,800; after 4 years = 01.02 106,120,800 =108,243,216; after 5 years = 01.02 108,243,216 =110,408,080.Copyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.MULTIPLE CHOICE1. b2. a3. dSection 19-15. In the laboratory, the two species may be competing for the same limited resource(s). In a natural environment, the two species may avoidcompetition by using different resources.STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONS1. birth rate is high and death rate is low2. birth rate equals death rate3. carrying capacity4. logistic modelSTRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONS1. endoparasite; 2. physical defense; 3. mimicry;4. secondary compound; 5. ectoparasite; 6. pollinatorSection 19-3VOCABULARY REVIEW1. The hunter-gatherer lifestyle is one in whichhumans obtain food by hunting animals and gathering roots, berries, nuts, shellfish, and fruits.2. The agricultural revolution occurred about 10,000to 12,000 years ago, when humans first domesticated animals and cultivated plants for food.3. A developed country is a modern, industrializedcountry.4. A developing country is one with a relatively lowlevel of industrial activity and financial wealth.MULTIPLE CHOICE1. c2. d3. c4. a5. cCopyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.SHORT ANSWER1. Agriculture greatly stabilized and increased theavailable food supply.2. The death rate declined due to better sanitationand hygiene, control of disease, increasedavailability of food, and improved economicconditions.3. Most developing countries are poor and have highpopulation growth rates.4. Improvements in health and hygiene in the worldspoorer countries caused mortality rates to drop.This caused the world population growth rate toincrease.5. This might happen in a country that is experiencing a high rate of immigration or emigration.Section 20-2VOCABULARY REVIEW1. Species richness is the number of species in acommunity.2. Primary succession is the development of acommunity in an area that has not supportedlife previously.3. The species-area effect is a relationship in whichlarger areas usually contain more species thansmaller areas do.MULTIPLE CHOICE1. a2. b3. a4. b5. bSHORT ANSWER1. Primary succession often proceeds very slowlybecause the area has not supported life previouslyand thus the minerals necessary for plant growthare unavailable.2. In general, the closer a community is to the equator, the greater its species richness will be.3. Because agricultural fields usually contain onespecies of crop plant, they have low communitystability, and they are therefore more vulnerableto outbreaks of insect pests or disease.4. Soil is needed for succession to take place. Windsand precipitation will remove most of the soil thatforms on the slopes and carry it to the valley.STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONS1. AC2 AB3. DE4. BCSTRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONSD,1; C, 2; B, 3; A, 4Section 20-1Section 21-1VOCABULARY REVIEW1. A predator is an organism that captures, kills, andconsumes another individual, the prey.2. A herbivore is an animal that eats plants. Someplants defend against herbivores by producingsecondary compounds that are poisonous, irritating, or bad-tasting.3. A parasite is an organism that feeds on anotherorganism, known as the host.VOCABULARY REVIEW1. A biome is a very large terrestrial ecosystem thatcontains a number of smaller but related ecosystems within it.2. The tundra is a cold and largely treeless biomethat forms a continuous belt across northernNorth America, Europe, and Asia.3. The taiga is a biome dominated by cone-bearingevergreen trees that stretches across northernEurope, Asia, and North America.4. A savanna is a tropical or temperate grasslandwith scattered trees and shrubs found in Africa,South America, and Australia.5. A canopy is a continuous layer formed by treetopsin a tropical rain forest.MULTIPLE CHOICE1. a2. a3. d4. b5. aSHORT ANSWER1. They protect plants from herbivores by makingthe plants poisonous, irritating, or bad-tasting.2. The fundamental niche is the range of conditionsthat the species can potentially use. The realizedniche is the part of the niche that the speciesactually used.3. Ectoparasites live on their host but not inside thehost; endoparasites live inside the hosts body.4. When two species of finches are found living onthe same island, they have different-sized beaks,allowing them to reduce competition by eatingdifferent food resources.MULTIPLE CHOICE1. d2. a3. b4. c5. bSHORT ANSWER1. The winters are long and bitterly cold; permafrostprevents tree roots from penetrating far into thesoil; there is very little precipitation; the growingseason is very short.2. The actively growing part of the plant is at orbelow the ground, not at the tip of the stem.Modern Biology Study Guide Answer Key173. Some trees of the savanna conserve water duringthe dry season by shedding their leaves; theabove-ground parts of grasses often die during thedry season and regenerate after a period of rain.4. Plants may open their stomata only at night, havesharp protective spines, and have a waxy coatingon their leaves to reduce evaporation.5. The taiga has a shorter growing season, less precipitation, and poorer soil than do temperatedeciduous forests. These characteristics make thetaiga less suitable for growing many crops.6. As they grow, vines cling to other objects. Thisadaptation enables vines to reach higher levels inthe rain forest, where there is more light.STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONSa, tropical forest; b, tundra; c, temperate grassland;d, desertSection 21-2VOCABULARY REVIEW1. The photic zone is the part of the ocean thatreceives sunlight. The aphotic zone is the deeperpart of the ocean where sunlight cannot penetrate.2. The neritic zone extends from the end of the intertidal zone over the continental shelf. The oceaniczone is the part of the ocean that extends beyondthe continental shelf.3. The pelagic zone is the open ocean. The benthiczone is the ocean bottom.4. A eutrophic lake is rich in organic matter andvegetation. An oligotrophic lake contains littleorganic matter.MULTIPLE CHOICE1. c2. a3. b4. c5. dSTRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONSa, oceanic zone; b, pelagic zone; c, benthic zone;d, photic zone; e, aphotic zone; f, neritic zone;g, intertidal zoneSection 22-1VOCABULARY REVIEW1. the variety of organisms in a given area2. Species evenness is a measure of biodiversity thatconsiders how many individuals belong to eachspecies in a community.18Modern Biology Study Guide Answer KeyMULTIPLE CHOICE1. b2. d3. a4. c5. bSHORT ANSWER1. The geosphere is Earths rocky interior from thesolid crustal surface to the center of the planet. Thehydrosphere is the portion of Earth that is water,and the atmosphere is the gaseous envelope thatsurrounds Earth. The biosphere is the part ofEarth where life exists.2. A population with a low genetic diversity could bemore likely to be wiped out by a disease becausethe population has less genetic variation andtherefore less chance of surviving the naturalselection caused by the disease.3. The greenhouse effect is a phenomenon in whichatmospheric gases such as CO2 trap reradiatedheat from the Earth, much as the glass panes ofa greenhouse retain heat within the greenhouse.4. This type of storage preserves seeds so that theplants can be grown and tested in the future fortheir potential value, even if the natural habitatsof the plants are destroyed.STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONS1. C2. B3. A4. B5. C6. BSection 22-2VOCABULARY REVIEW1. Smog is air pollution which consists of watervapor mixed with chemicals.2. Extinction is the death of all members of a species.3. Keystone species are species that are critical tothe functioning of an ecosystem.4. A CFC is a chemical once widely used as a coolantand aerosol propellant that catalyzes the breakdown of ozone in the upper atmosphere.MULTIPLE CHOICE1. b2. b3. d4. b5. cSHORT ANSWER1. Acid precipitation is the result of air pollutantsthat combine with water vapor in the atmosphereto form acids, causing precipitation that is moreacidic than normal.2. increased CO2 in the atmosphere and globalwarming; increased use of resources to producehomes, schools, roads, and hospitals; decrease offresh water availability; and an increase in wastes3. Sustainability is the ability to meet human needsin a way that will allow a human population tosurvive indefinitely.4. A controlled experiment in which all other variables are held constant would be needed. A reduction in global CO2 levels followed by a decrease inglobal temperatures would support the idea ofcause-and-effect relationship.STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONSa, use of chlorofluorocarbons; b, increased amountsof ultraviolet radiation reach the Earths surface;c, increased incidence of skin cancer in humans;d, increased levels of atmospheric CO2; e and f,changes in rainfall patterns, changes in soil moisture,changes in sea level, shifting of agricultural regions,disruption of natural ecosystemsCopyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.SHORT ANSWER1. Crabs burrow into the sand or mud; clams, mussels, and oysters retreat into their shells; seaanemones and sea stars cling to surfaces with amuscular disk or tube feet, respectively.2. Plankton is consumed by many larger organisms,forming the base of many marine food chains.3. The oceanic zone covers a vast area; thus, eventhough productivity per square meter is low, totalproductivity is high.4. Producers near deep-sea vents obtain energy fromhydrogen sulfide through chemosynthesis.5. The nutrients would stimulate the growth ofphotosynthetic organisms, which would increasethe concentration of organic matter in the lake,making the lakes water murky. If the situation persisted, the organic matter would accumulate andthe lake would eventually fill in and disappear.3. Genetic diversity is the amount of genetic variation among the individuals in a population.Section 22-3VOCABULARY REVIEW1. Conservation biology is a discipline that seeks toidentify and maintain natural areas that retain ahigh biodiversity.2. Restoration biology is a discipline that seeksto reverse major environmental damage andreplace missing ecosystem components.MULTIPLE CHOICE1. b2. c3. a4. b5. cCopyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.SHORT ANSWER1. A biodiversity hotspot is an area that contains anespecially high density of unique but threatenedor endangered species.2. The winter and summer destinations of mostmigratory birds are not in the same country.3. Ecotourism is tourism involving people who wantto see intact ecosystems and their unique organisms. Income generated from ecotourism increasesthe value of natural ecosystems, thus providing anincentive for preserving biodiversity.4. Actions include the drainage of land and the planting of melalenca trees.5. Answer will vary, but could include that restoringthe Everglades will protect endangered species,such as the Florida panther, and restore the waterflow needed by many organisms. The restorationwill also protect groundwater resources needed bypeople, reduce invasive plant species, and restorethe breeding grounds and the nurseries of manyspecies.STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONSa, wildlife refuges; b, migratory birds; c, the whoopingcrane; d, answers may vary and include careful studyof the species to be reintroduced, regulation of hunting, and establishment of refuges; e, the Everglades;f, answers may vary and include eliminating somedrainage canals, restoring the Kissimmee River to itsoriginal channel, cutting back stands of melaleucatrees, and purchasing lands for park protectionSection 23-1VOCABULARY REVIEW1. A halophile lives in very high salt concentrations,and a thermoacidophile lives in extremely acidic,hot environments.2. A bacillus is rod-shaped, a coccus is spherical,and a spirillum is spiral.3. A streptococcus is a coccus that occurs in chains;a staphylococcus is a coccus that occurs in grapelike clusters.4. A Gram-positive bacterium retains the Gram stainand appears purple; a Gram-negative bacteriumdoes not retain the Gram stain and takes up asecond pink stain.MULTIPLE CHOICE1. c2. b3. d4. c5. dSHORT ANSWER1. Bacteria with large amounts of peptidoglycan inthe cell wall are able to retain the Gram stain,while those with less peptidoglycan do not.2. They convert atmospheric nitrogen to ammonia,which plants can use.3. Cyanobacteria produce much of Earths oxygen;some species fix atmospheric nitrogen.4. Some bacteria cause disease; others make vitamin Kand help in digestion.5. Aerobic organisms require the presence of oxygen,which was first generated by cyanobacteria as awaste product of photosynthesis.6. These explorations revealed the existence ofarchaea. Because some archaeal genes resemblebacterial genes while other archaeal genes resembleeukaryotic genes, some biologists think thatarchaea may resemble ancestral eukaryotes.STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONS1. bacillus 2. coccus 3. spirillum 4. streptococcusSection 23-2VOCABULARY REVIEW1. A capsule is an outer covering of polysaccharidesmade by many bacteria; an endospore is a dormant structure consisting of a thick outer coveringthat surrounds a bacterial cells DNA.2. A pilus is a short, hairlike protein structure thatextends from the cell surface of some bacteria;conjugation is a process during which DNA istransferred from one cell to another through apilus.3. An obligate anaerobe cannot survive in the presence of oxygen; a facultative anaerobe can livewith or without oxygen.4. Transformation is a process by which bacteriaobtain DNA from its external environment; transduction is the transfer of DNA from one bacteriumto another by a virus.MULTIPLE CHOICE1. c2. b3. a4. c5. aSHORT ANSWER1. Photosynthesis takes place in internal foldings ofthe cell membrane called thylakoids.2. A glycocalyx is a fuzzy coating of sticky sugarsthat makes up the capsule of some bacteria. Itenables bacteria to attach to the surface of hostcells and tissues.3. oxygen, temperature, pH4. Transduction involves DNA transfer by viruses.5. New cells are not produced, and the number ofcells does not increase.STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONS1. assists the cell in attaching to other surfaces andin genetic recombination2. protects the cell and assists it in attaching toother surfaces3. protects the cell and gives it shape4. regulates the movement of materials into and outof the cell and contains important enzymes5. carries genetic information6. carries genes obtained through geneticrecombination7. moves the cellSection 23-3VOCABULARY REVIEW1. Pathology is the scientific study of disease.2. An exotoxin is a poison that is secreted into theenvironment by Gram-positive bacteria.Modern Biology Study Guide Answer Key193. An endotoxin is a poison that is associatedwith the outer membrane of Gram-negativebacteria.4. Zoonosis is a disease that can pass from animalsto humans.5. Bioremediation is the process of harnessingbacteria to recycle compounds.MULTIPLE CHOICE1. d2. c3. b4. c5. dSHORT ANSWER1. sneezes, coughs, direct contact, and sexualcontact2. Diseases affecting nerves include botulism andtetanus; diseases affecting the intestine includesalmonella food poisoning and cholera; anddiseases affecting the skin include anthrax, Lymedisease, and staph infections.3. inhibition of cell-wall synthesis and protein synthesis4. Foods include buttermilk, sour cream, yogurt,ricotta and cheddar cheese, sauerkraut, and pickles.5. Since broad-spectrum antibiotics affect a wide variety of organisms, they are likely to be more effectivethan specific antibiotics when the identity of thepathogen is unknown. If overused, however, theymay cause several types of bacteria to developresistance.STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONSA. The bacteria are insensitive to A because bacterialgrowth around disk A is uninhibited.B. The bacteria are moderately sensitive to B becausesome growth inhibition is occurring around disk B.C. The bacteria are insensitive to C because bacterialgrowth around disk C is uninhibited.D. The bacteria are very sensitive to D because of therelatively larger area of growth inhibition arounddisk D.VOCABULARY REVIEW1. A virus is a nonliving particle composed of anucleic acid and a protein or lipoprotein coat.2. A capsid is the protein coat that surrounds thenucleic acid in a virus.3. A retrovirus is a virus that contains RNA and theenzyme reverse transcriptase.4. In the lytic cycle, a virus invades a host cell, produces new viruses, and kills the host cell, whichreleases the new viruses.5. In the lysogenic cycle, a virus remains within ahost cell for an extended period of time.MULTIPLE CHOICE1. d2. c3. d4. a5. cSHORT ANSWER1. Stanley was able to crystallize the tobacco mosaicvirus, which suggested that viruses were chemicals rather than tiny cells.2. radiation and certain chemicals3. An RNA virus releases its RNA into the host cell,and that RNA is transcribed into DNA by reversetranscriptase; the DNA is then integrated into thehost cells genome.4. The influenza virus mutates quickly, producingnew strains. The flu vaccine targets a differentstrain each year.20Modern Biology Study Guide Answer KeySTRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONSc, the virus attaches to the host cells surface; a, theviral DNA is injected into the host cell; e, the viralDNA replicates and directs the synthesis of viralproteins; d, new virus particles are assembled; b, thehost cell ruptures, releasing the new virus particles.Section 24-2VOCABULARY REVIEW1. An inactivated virus is used to make a vaccinebecause it is not able to replicate in a host.2. An attenuated virus is a weakened form of a virusthat is used to make a vaccine because it cannotcause disease.3. An oncogene is a gene that causes cancer byblocking the normal controls on cell reproduction.4. A proto-oncogene is a gene that usually controlscell growth and can be converted to an oncogene,causing cancer.5. an antiviral agent that interferes with the synthesis of capsids during viral replicationMULTIPLE CHOICE1. a2. d3. b4. c5. aSHORT ANSWER1. rabies, smallpox, HIV, hantavirus, and Ebola virus2. Some chickenpox viral particles persist in nervecells; later in life, the particles travel along nervefibers to the skin, where they cause shingles.3. antiviral drugs, and control of animal vectors thatspread viral diseases4. Certain viruses can cause normal genes to mutateinto oncogenes.5. If individuals from a community venture into a previously undeveloped forest, they may encounter ananimal that harbors a previously unknown virus. Ifthese individuals become infected, they can carrythis infection to their community.6. Such a drug would block transcription of hostgenes as well as viral genes.STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONSa, glycoprotein; b, RNA genome; c, reverse transcriptase; d, envelope; e, capsidSection 25-1VOCABULARY REVIEW1. A protist is a single-celled or simple multicellulareukaryotic organism.2. Binary fission is a method of asexual reproductionin which a single cell divides into two identicalcells.3. Multiple fission is a form of cell division that produces more than two offspring.4. Conjugation is a method of sexual reproduction inwhich two individuals join and exchange geneticmaterial.MULTIPLE CHOICE1. d2. b3. c4. c5. cCopyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.Section 24-15. Bacteriophages are very effective at injecting foreign DNA into bacteria. Genetic engineers can usebacteriophages to introduce DNA of interest tohumans into bacteria.SHORT ANSWER1. Protists obtain energy by photosynthesis (autotrophy) or by eating other organisms (heterotrophy).In autotrophy, protists make their own food molecules by absorbing the energy from sunlight withthe help of specialized pigments. In heterotrophy,protists get energy by engulfing and eating smallorganisms or by secreting enzymes into the environment and then absorbing the small moleculesthat are formed.2. Protists are classified by reproduction, method ofobtaining energy, or type of movement.3. In endosymbiosis, an organism lives inside a largerorganism. Over time, the smaller organismbecomes an organelle.4. Since protists are eukaryotes, their chromosomesare contained inside a nucleus, which must breakdown and then reform for conjugation to occur.Bacteria lack a nucleus, so division and exchangeof genetic material is simpler.STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONSa. sexual reproductionb. asexual reproductionCopyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.Section 25-2VOCABULARY REVIEW1. Cilia are short hairlike cytoplasmic projectionsthat beat in waves. Flagella are long, whiplikestructures made of microtubules.2. Both are openings on the surface of a paramecium. Food enters the gullet through themouth pore, and undigested food moleculesare expelled through the anal pore.3. Both contain DNA. The macronucleus is large, contains multiple copies of DNA, and is responsiblefor metabolic functions, and the micronucleus issmall and participates in the exchange of geneticmaterial during conjugation.MULTIPLE CHOICE1. b2. b3. c4. c5. cSHORT ANSWER1. The hard tests that cover the bodies of theseorganisms sink to the bottom of the ocean, wherethey accumulate as layers of sediment.2. Cilia lining the oral groove sweep food down thegroove to the mouth pore, which opens into thegullet. Food passes from the gullet into foodvacuoles, where digestion occurs. Undigestedmolecules are expelled via the anal pore.3. A pseudopodium extends forward as cytoplasmstreams into it, and the organism moves forward.A food particle is surrounded by pseudopodiaand engulfed.4. The protozoans use the circulatory system of theirhuman and mosquito hosts to transport themthrough their hosts bodies, and they depend onthe mosquitoes to transport them from onehuman host to another.STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONSa, anal pore; b, gullet; c, cilia; d, oral groove; e, foodvacuole; f, pellicle; g, contractile vacuoleSection 25-3VOCABULARY REVIEW1. A fruiting body is a stationary, reproductive,sporebearing structure of funguslike protists.2. A gametangium is a single-celled chamber inwhich the gametes of algae are produced.3. A euglenoid is a flagellated, unicellular alga thathas both plantlike and animal-like features.4. An accessory pigment is a pigment that captureslight energy and transfers it to chlorophyll a.MULTIPLE CHOICE1. b2. d3. c4. d5. cSHORT ANSWER1. Algae lack tissue differentiation and have no trueroots, stems, and leaves. The gametangia of algaeare single-celled; the gametangia of plants aremulticelled.2. Photoplankton form the base of nearly all marineand freshwater food chains.3. Algae can exist as unicellular, colonial, filamentous,and multicellular organisms.4. Dinoflagellates have two flagella of unequal lengththat are oriented perpendicular to each other.Dinoflagellates also have cell walls made of celluloseplates that look like armor.5. plantlike: presence of chlorophyll, ability to photosynthesize; animal-like: lack cell walls, are highlymotile6. Brown and red algae are multicellular, like plants.They contain structures that resemble the structures of plants, although the structures lack tissuedifferentiation.STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONSa. Myxomycotab. Chytridiomycotac. Dictyostelidad. OomycotaSection 25-4VOCABULARY REVIEW1. A sporozoite is the Plasmodium stage that entersthe human bloodstream and infects the liver. Amerozoite is the stage that emerges from the liverand infects red blood cells.2. Giardiasis is the intestinal illness caused byGiardia. Trichomoniasis is the sexually transmitted illness caused by Trichomonas.3. Alginate is a commercially important polysaccharide derived from the cell walls of brown algae.Agar is an important polysaccharide that comesfrom red algae.MULTIPLE CHOICE1. c2. d3. a4. a5. cSHORT ANSWER1. Protists live in a close relationship with corals, giving the corals their color and supplying much oftheir carbon. Lichens are symbiotic relationshipsbetween algae and fungi. Lichens create new soilfrom rock. Protists live in termite guts and digestcellulose.2. Carrageenan is added to control the texture offood products.Modern Biology Study Guide Answer Key213. Chemotaxis in slime molds is the ability to crawltoward AMP. Human leukocytes also exhibitchemotaxis. By studying slime molds, scientistshope to better understand how leukocytes protectagainst disease.4. The toxins from dinoflagellates concentrate asthey move up the food chain. Clams and oysterseat the algae, and humans eat the shellfish.STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONSa. sporozoites; b. sporozoites; c. liver; d. merozoites;e. red blood cells; f. gametocytesSection 26-1VOCABULARY REVIEW1. A hypha is a fungal filament.2. A mycelium is a mat of hyphae visible to theunaided eye.3. A coenocyte is a species that has hyphae lackingsepta.4. A sporangiophore is a specialized hypha thatlooks like an upright stalk and bears a sporeforming sac.5. A conidium is a fungal spore that is formed without the protection of an enclosing sac.6. Budding is an asexual process in which part of ayeast cell pinches itself off to produce a smalloffspring cell.MULTIPLE CHOICE1. c2. b3. a4. d5. aSTRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONSa, septum; b, nuclei; c, cell wall; d, septate hyphae;e, coenocytic hyphaeSection 26-2VOCABULARY REVIEW1. A rhizoid is a zygomycete hypha that penetrates thesurface on which the fungus is growing; a stolon is azygomycete hypha that grows across the surface ofthe area where the zygomycete is growing.2. A basidium is a reproductive structure producedby a basidiomycete; a basidiocarp is the aboveground spore-bearing portion of a basidiomycete.3. An ascogonium is a female gametangium; anantheridium is a male gametangium.22Modern Biology Study Guide Answer KeyMULTIPLE CHOICE1. a2. d3. c4. b5. cSHORT ANSWER1. In basidiomycetes, those structures consist of a stalkand a flattened cap with rows of gills on the underside; in ascomycetes, they usually resemble a cup.2. Fungi imperfecti lack a sexual stage.3. A mycorrhiza is a symbiotic association between afungus and plant roots; a lichen is a symbioticassociation between a fungus and usually acyanobacterium or a green alga.4. Lichens produce acids that decompose rocks,contributing to the production of soil.5. Mushrooms are produced by basidiomycetes andare formed as a result of sexual reproduction.Deuteromycetes do not have a sexual stage; therefore mushrooms cannot be deuteromycetes.6. A growing plant would benefit more from a mycorrhiza. Although a lichen contributes to the production of soil, it may take years to produce enoughsoil for a plant to begin to develop; a mycorrhizalfungus, on the other hand, can begin to contributeto a plants well-being immediately.7. The sexual reproductive structures are more specialized and distinctive than the nonreproductiveor asexual reproductive structures.STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONSa, sporangium; b, sporangiospores; c, rhizoid;d, gametangia; e, zygosporangium; f, meiosisSection 26-3VOCABULARY REVIEW1. Aflatoxins are poisons produced by some fungi.2. Aflatoxins cause liver cancer.3. They may be found in peanuts, tree nuts, cottonseed, and grains, such as corn.4. A wheat rust is a basidiomycete that attackswheat grains.MULTIPLE CHOICE1. d 2. b 3. a4. d5. c6. b7. cSHORT ANSWER1. pregnancy, illness, and the use of some antibiotics2. penicillin, cephalosporin, cortisone, and thehepatitis B vaccine3. cheese, beer, wine, miso, soy sauce, tempeh, tofu,yeast, bread, and mushrooms4. Plasmids are used to insert foreign genes intoSaccharomyces. The yeast then uses those genesto produce foreign proteins.5. Such substances might encourage animals to consume the reproductive structures. In doing so, theanimals would help disperse the fungal spores tonew locations.STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONSac may vary and include bread, cheese, soy products, beer, and wine; df may vary and include antibiotics, cortisone, vaccines, and ethanol; gi,infection, poisoning, and allergiesCopyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.SHORT ANSWER1. The cell walls of fungi contain chitin, while the cellwalls of plants contain cellulose.2. The fungus Histoplasma capsulatum normallygrows as a mycelium in soil, but when it invades ahuman, it grows unicellularly as a yeast.3. A septate hypha dries and shatters, releasing individual cells that act as spores.4. Plus and minus refer to different mating types ofhyphae that may fuse with each other duringsexual reproduction.5. Like animals, fungi store energy in the form ofglycogen.6. Because most fungi are saprophytic, they use theresources from dead organisms and make themavailable to other organisms in an ecosystem.7. Most fungi consist of cells that are relativelyunspecialized. Like unicellular protists, the cells ofa fungus resemble each other and obtain theirown nutrients directly from the environment.4. An ascocarp is a cuplike reproductive structureproduced by an ascomycete; an ascus is a sporebearing sac that develops in an ascocarp.5. A lichen is a symbiotic relationship between a fungus and a photosynthetic organism; a mycorrhizais a symbiotic structure formed by a fungus andplant roots.Section 27-1VOCABULARY REVIEW1. Botany is the study of plants; agriculture is thepractice of growing plants or raising animals forhuman use.2. A cereal is a grass that contains grains; a root cropis a plant whose roots or underground stems arerich in carbohydrates and used by humans for food.3. A legume is a member of the pea family that bearsprotein-rich seeds in pods; a nut is a dry, hardfruit that does not split open.4. A fruit is a part of a flowering plant that usuallycontains seeds; a vegetable is a food derived fromthe leaves, stems, seeds, or roots of nonwoodyplants.MULTIPLE CHOICE1. b2. a3. d4. c5. bSHORT ANSWER1. A cultivar is a cultivated variety of a plant that canbe distinguished from other members of itsspecies. Examples include Thompson Seedlessgrapes, McIntosh apples, Valencia oranges.2. Such diets are usually low in some amino acids.People can also eat legumes or animal protein.3. Grains can be fermented into alcohol, which canbe mixed with gasoline to make gasohol.4. Many cereals thrive in temperate climates butdo not grow well in the tropics. Rice is an exception. Many people in dry tropical areas thereforerely more on root crops.Copyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONScantaloupe, fruit; rice, cereal; celery, vegetable; nutmeg, spice; pecan, nut; potato, root crop; lima bean,legume; oregano, herbSection 27-2VOCABULARY REVIEW1. Plant ecology is the study of the interactionsbetween plants and the environment.2. A weed is an undesirable plant that may crowdout crop plants or native plant species.3. Hay fever is an allergic reaction that may becaused by pollen and results in sneezing, a runnynose, and watery eyes.MULTIPLE CHOICE1. c2. a3. b4. d5. a6. dSHORT ANSWER1. Through photosynthesis, plants convert carbondioxide and water into organic compounds andoxygen. Organisms that perform aerobic respiration (including plants) convert these compoundsand oxygen back into carbon dioxide and water.2. Plant roots bind soil particles together; leavesreduce erosion due to wind and rain; and deadplant parts add organic matter to the soil.3. chestnut blight, an introduced fungal disease4. small, drab flowers that are wind-pollinated5. Herbivores or pathogenic microbes that keepnative plants in check may not attack introducedplants. Without such natural controls, introducedplants can outcompete native plants for resources.STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONSa, consumers; b, death; c, decomposers; d, nutrients1. producers 2. nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium,iron, and magnesiumSection 28-1VOCABULARY REVIEW1. The sporophyte is the first phase of a plants lifecycle and is a diploid plant that produces spores;the second phase is a haploid gametophyte plantthat produces eggs and sperm.2. A spore contains a haploid reproductive cell surrounded by a hard outer wall; a seed is a plantembryo surrounded by a protective coat.3. Both are types of plant vascular tissue; xylemcarries water and inorganic nutrients from theroots to the stems and leaves, while phloem carriesorganic and some inorganic compounds in anydirection.4. A vascular plant has vascular tissue and trueroots, stems, and leaves; a nonvascular plant hasnone of these.5. An angiosperms seeds are enclosed in fruits,while a gymnosperms seeds are not.MULTIPLE CHOICE1. d2. b3. a4. c5. bSHORT ANSWER1. The cuticle prevents water loss from the plant;spores and/or seeds help disperse species and prevent reproductive cells from drying out; vascular tissue transports water and dissolved substanceswithin the plant.2. Both have chlorophylls a and b, both store energy asstarch, and both have cell walls made of cellulose.3. Spores, gametophytes, and gametes are haploid.4. The spores of algae are motile while those of landplants are not. The spores of land plants have aprotective covering while those of algae do not.STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONSa, flowers, fruits; b, seeds; c, hardened vasculartissue; d, reproduction by sporesSection 28-2VOCABULARY REVIEW1. A bryophyte is any member of the three phyla ofnonvascular plants.2. unusual-looking plants that grow in moist, shadyareas and are from the phylum Hepatophyta3. Plants from the phylum Anthocerophyta whichgrow in moist, shaded areas and have long, thin,hornlike sporophytesMULTIPLE CHOICE1. b2. a3. c4. d5. bSHORT ANSWER1. The gametophyte phase is dominant.2. The sperm must swim through water to reach anegg during sexual reproduction.3. It is used as fuel; added to potting and gardeningsoils to increase their ability to retain water; andused to pack bulbs and flowers for shipping.4. Each of their cells contains a single large chloroplast rather than numerous small ones.Modern Biology Study Guide Answer Key235. Mosses are often one of the first species in adisturbed area, and they benefit other plants byaccumulating organic and inorganic matter thatbegins to form a soil layer in which other plantscan grow. They also prevent soil erosion.6. One would expect to find thalloid liverworts indryer environments since the thalloid form allowsthe entire body of the liverwort to be in contactwith water on the surface that the plant grows on.STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONSa, sporophyte; b, gametophyte; c, rhizoidMULTIPLE CHOICE1. c2. a3. dSection 28-3VOCABULARY REVIEW1. Both are fern leaves; a fiddlehead is a tightly coilednew leaf, and a frond is an uncoiled mature leaf.2. Both are flowering plants; a monocot usually hasone cotyledon, and a dicot usually has two.Monocots also have parallel venation in their leaves,their stems have scattered vascular bundles, andtheir flowers usually occur in threes. Dicots alsohave net venation in their leaves, their stems haveradially arranged vascular bundles, and their flowerparts usually occur in fours or fives.3. Both are patterns of veins in leaves; the veins runroughly parallel to each other in parallel venationand form an interconnected network in net venation.MULTIPLE CHOICE1. c2. d3. a4. b5. dSTRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONSa, Ginkgophyta; b, Psilophyta; c, Cycadophyta;d, ConiferophytaSection 29-1VOCABULARY REVIEW1. Parenchyma cells are loosely packed, cubeshaped, or elongated cells with a large centralvacuole and thin cell walls; collenchyma cells arethicker and have irregularly shaped, thick cellwalls; sclerenchyma cells have thick, even, rigidcell walls.Modern Biology Study Guide Answer Key4. b5. bSHORT ANSWER1. Epidermal cells are found in the nonwoody parts;their functions include gas exchange, waterabsorption, and water-loss prevention.2. They are thick and have irregularly shaped cellwalls; provide support; they are found in regionsof the plant that are still lengthening.3. where growth is no longer occurring; in vasculartissue, hard seed coats, and cactus spines4. Monocots have apical meristems at the tips ofstems and roots, and some have intercalary meristems above the bases of leaves and stems. Dicotshave apical meristems at the tips of stems androots, and most have lateral meristems near theoutside of stems and roots.5. The absence of cellular contents inside the wallsof the water-transporting cells allows largeamounts of water to move rapidly throughthe xylem.STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONSa, companion cell; b, pit; c, sieve pore;d, sieve plate; e, tracheid; f, sieve tube member;g, vessel elementSection 29-2VOCABULARY REVIEW1. An adventitious root is a specialized root thatgrows from a stem or leaf.2. The cortex is the portion of a primary root that liesbetween the epidermis and the vascular tissues.3. The pericycle is the outermost layer or layers ofthe central vascular tissues in a root.4. A macronutrient is an element that is required inrelatively large amounts by a plant.5. A micronutrient is an element that is required inrelatively small amounts by a plant.MULTIPLE CHOICE1. d2. a3. b4. c5. aSHORT ANSWER1. vascular tissue2. Pericycle cells divide to form lateral roots.3. between primary xylem and primary phloem4. The vascular cambium produces secondary xylemtoward the inside of the root and secondaryphloem toward the outside.5. Macronutrients include nitrogen, phosphorus,potassium, calcium, magnesium, and sulfur.6. Water absorption should be greater in parts ofroots that have not undergone secondary growth.Roots with secondary growth are surrounded bycork cells, which do not absorb much water.Copyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.SHORT ANSWER1. Vascular plants have conducting tissues thattransport water and dissolved substances withinthe plant; nonvascular plants do not. The strongstems of vascular plants allow the plants to growtaller than nonvascular plants, enabling them toreceive more sunlight than shorter plants do.2. Cycadophyta: have thick trunks with fernlikeleaves, are male or female, and have large cones.Ginkgophyta: have tall trunks, deciduous fan-shapedleaves, and large seeds. Coniferophyta: have talltrunks, needle or scalelike leaves, and cones.3. Angiosperms have flowers, which produce pollen,eggs, or both; seeds are enclosed in an ovary thatripens into a fruit. Gymnosperms have cones thatproduce either pollen or eggs; egg-producingcones hold the seeds without enclosing them.4. Ferns were able to develop adaptations to a widerrange of environments than were the other groupsof nonvascular plants.242. The dermal tissue system forms the outsidecovering of plants; the ground tissue system liesinside the dermal tissue and functions in storageand support; the vascular tissue system lies insidethe ground tissue and functions in transport andsupport.3. Apical meristems are located at the tips of stemsand roots, intercalary meristems are locatedabove the bases of leaves and stems, and lateralmeristems are located near the outside of stemsand roots.STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONSa, epidermis; b, cortex; c, pith; d, xylem; e, phloem;f, endodermis; g, dicot; h, monocotsis. The influx of water makes the guard cells swell,causing them to bow apart and open the stomata.5. It would block the transport of mineral nutrientsfrom the roots to the rest of the plant.Section 29-3STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONSa, cuticle; b, upper epidermis; c, palisade mesophyll;d, vascular bundle; e, spongy mesophyll;f, lower epidermisVOCABULARY REVIEW1. Heartwood is the darker, older wood in the centerof a tree that no longer transports water; sapwoodis the functional, often lighter-colored wood nearerthe outside of the trunk.2. Springwood is xylem tissue composed of wide, thinwalled cells formed when water is plentiful; summerwood is xylem tissue composed of small, thickwalled cells formed when water is more limited.3. A source is a place in a plant where carbohydratesare made or have been stored; a sink is a place ina plant where carbohydrates are stored or used.4. Translocation is the movement of carbohydratesthrough a plant; transpiration is the evaporationof water from a plant.5. The pith is formed during primary growth; wood issecondary xylem.Copyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.MULTIPLE CHOICE1. b2. d3. c4. a5. cSHORT ANSWER1. The bud scales are analogous to the root cap. Thebud scales are present only when the stem is notgrowing, whereas the root cap is always on the root.2. The evaporation of water from a leaf puts the column of water in the xylem under tension. The column does not break because of cohesion. Thecolumn does not pull away from the xylem wallsbecause of adhesion. Thus, water is pulled towardthe leaf.3. Wood provides structural support allowing plantsto grow tall and enabling them to capture morelight.STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONSa, phloem; b, source; c, sink; d, xylem; e, carbohydrate (or sugar); f, water; g, carbohydrate (or sugar)and water; h, carbohydrate (or sugar); i, waterSection 29-4VOCABULARY REVIEW1. A petiole is a stalklike structure that attaches aleaf to a stem.2. Mesophyll is a ground tissue composed of chloroplast-rich parenchyma cells, which is where photosynthesis takes place.3. A guard cell is a modified cell found on the leafepidermis that regulates gas and water exchange.MULTIPLE CHOICE1. b2. d3. a4. c5. aSHORT ANSWER1. Tendrils enable vines to climb, food traps collectsmall animals as a source of nutrients, and spinesprotect the plant from being eaten.2. Epidermal hairs usually protect the leaf frominsects and intense light.3. The products of photosynthesis may be used asan energy source or as building blocks, either inthe leaf or in other parts of the plant.4. Epidermal cells pump potassium ions into guardcells, and water moves into the guard cells by osmo-Section 30-1VOCABULARY REVIEW1. An antheridium produces many sperm, and anarchegonium produces a single egg.2. Homospory is the production of one type ofspore. Heterospory is the production of differenttypes of spores.3. The integument is a thick layer of cells that surrounds a megasporangium. A micropyle is a smallopening in the integument.MULTIPLE CHOICE1. c2. a3. d4. b5. cSHORT ANSWER1. Haploid: spore, archegonium, antheridium, gametophyte. Diploid: sporophyte, zygote. The gametophyte is the dominant phase.2. The sperm of conifers are not flagellated, whereasthe sperm of mosses and ferns are. The spores ofconifers are of two types, whereas the spores ofmosses and most ferns are of one type; also, thespores of conifers never leave the parent plant,whereas the spores of mosses and ferns do.3. Meiosis produces spores. Mitosis producesgametes.4. They have flagellated sperm, which must swimthrough water to reach and fertilize the eggs.STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONSa, sori; b, sporangium; c, spores; d, gametophyte;e, antheridium; f, archegonium; g, zygote;h, sporophyteSection 30-2VOCABULARY REVIEW1. An anther is a male reproductive structure thatcontains microsporangia. A filament is a stalklikestructure that supports an anther.2. A stigma is a female reproductive structure thattraps pollen grains in a flowering plant. A style isa stalklike structure that ends in a stigma.3. Polar nuclei are produced during the formationof an embryo sac in a flowering plant. In doublefertilization, the polar nuclei fuse with one spermnucleus while the egg fuses with another sperm.MULTIPLE CHOICE1. c2. a3. b4. d5. bSHORT ANSWER1. Three of the megaspores degenerate, and thefourth forms the structures of the embryo sac.Each of the microspores forms a pollen grain.2. Both gymnosperms and angiosperms: wind pollination, pollen grain, pollen tube. Only inangiosperms: animal pollination, fertilizationquickly following pollination, double fertilization,embryo sac, endosperm.Modern Biology Study Guide Answer Key253. Nectar increases a plants chances of sexual reproduction since it attracts pollinators.4. Endosperm provides nourishment for the embryo.5. Such plants are more likely to have fragrant flowers. Most moths and bats are nocturnal, and atnight it would be easier to find flowers by smellthan by sight.STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONSa, filament; b, anther; c, stigma; d, style; e, ovary;f, receptacle; g, ovule; h, sepal; i, petalSection 30-3VOCABULARY REVIEW1. A radicle is an embryonic root in a seed.2. A hypocotyl is the portion of the embryonic stembetween the attachment point of the cotyledonsand the radicle.3. An epicotyl is the portion of the embryonic stemabove the attachment point of the cotyledons.4. A plumule is the shoot tip and any embryonicleaves attached to its tip.5. A hilum is a scar on a seed that marks where theseed was attached to the ovary wall.MULTIPLE CHOICE1. d2. c3. a4. b5. cSTRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONSa, endosperm; b, seed coat; c, cotyledon; d, plumule;e, hypocotyl; f, radicleSection 31-1VOCABULARY REVIEW1. A plant hormone is a chemical messenger thataffects a plants ability to respond to itsenvironment.2. Apical dominance is the inhibition of lateral budsby the presence of a shoot tip.3. Ethephon is a synthetic chemical that breaksdown to release ethylene gas.4. Abscission is the detachment of leaves, flowers,or fruits from a plant.5. A cytokinin is a hormone that promotes celldivision.26Modern Biology Study Guide Answer Key4. c5. aSHORT ANSWER1. The seeds produce IAA, which stimulates thedevelopment of the fruit; removing the seedsremoves the IAA.2. Gibberellins make plants grow taller, increase thesize of seedless fruit, promote uniform germination, and increase the alcohol content of beer.3. Uses of ethylene or ethephon include ripeningfruits, changing the color of citrus fruits, and promoting the abscission of fruits at harvest time.4. ABA stimulates the transport of potassium ionsout of guard cells, causing stomata to close. Thisreduces the amount of water that evaporatesthrough the stomata.5. Abscisic acid induces dormancy in buds,maintains dormancy in seeds, and makes leaveseffectively dormant by closing their stomata.STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONSThe plant on the right was treated with a gibberellin.It is much taller than the one on the left. Gibberellinscause plants to grow to a taller-than-normal height.Section 31-2VOCABULARY REVIEW1. Thigmotropism is a plants growth response totouching a solid object, for example, tendrils andstems of vines coil when they touch an object.2. A thigmonastic movement is a type of nasticmovement that occurs in response to touchinga plant, for example, a Venus flytrap closes itsleaves when touched.3. A nyctinastic movement is one that occurs inresponse to the daily cycle of light and dark, forexample, the prayer plants leaves are vertical atnight and horizontal during the day.MULTIPLE CHOICE1. a2. c3. b4. d5. bSHORT ANSWER1. Positive phototropism maximizes the amount oflight that can be absorbed by a plant. Positivegravitropism causes roots to grow into the soil,where they can absorb water and nutrients.2. auxins3. Nastic movements are caused by the movement ofwater into or out of cells, which changes the pressure inside the cells.4. Thigmonastic movements allow plants to captureprey, discourage insect feeding, and reducewater loss.5. Insect capture requires the leaves to close rapidly.A thigmonastic movement is fast enough toaccomplish this, but not thigmotropic movement.STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONS1. The shoot is exhibiting positive phototropism andnegative gravitropism; the root is exhibiting positive gravitropism.2. Auxins are involved in these responses.Copyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.SHORT ANSWER1. raspberry, aggregate fruit; pineapple, multiplefruit; pea pod, simple fruit2. Factors and conditions include water, oxygen, aparticular range of temperatures, light, and passage through an animals digestive tract.3. Advantage: many new individuals can be producedin a short time, enabling clones to fill the availablespace. Disadvantage: since all of the offspring aregenetically identical, they have the same toleranceto the environment and are attacked by the samediseases and pests.4. The structures are runners (or stolons), rhizomes,bulbs, and tubers.5. wind dispersal: orchid seeds, milkweed seeds; animal dispersal: fruit; water dispersal: coconuts6. Plant embryos must grow to the soil surface beforethey can capture enough light to carry out photosynthesis. This growth requires energy, which isprovided by the food reserves in the seed.MULTIPLE CHOICE1. b2. d3. aSection 31-3VOCABULARY REVIEW1. Photoperiodism is an organisms response tochanges in the length of days and nights.2. Vernalization is the stimulation of flowering by lowtemperatures.3. Bolting is the rapid elongation of a flowering stem.4. Critical night length is the requirement manyplants have for a specific amount of darknessor night length.MULTIPLE CHOICE1. c2. d3. b4. a5. bSHORT ANSWER1. flowering, formation of storage organs, and buddormancy2. SDPs: ragweed, poinsettias, chrysanthemums,goldenrods, and soybeans; they flower in the springor fall. LDPs: wheat, radishes, asters, irises, andbeets; they flower in the summer.3. Answers include photoperiodism, flowering, buddormancy, and seed germination.4. Protect them from exposure to low temperatures.5. Spinach will flower in the northern United Statesduring the summer, when the nights are shorterthan 10 h. Flowering is undesirable in spinach,because it is grown for its leaves, not its flowers.STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONSa, no; b. yes; c, yes; d, no; e, no; f, yesCopyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.Section 32 -1VOCABULARY REVIEW1. A vertebrate is an animal with a backbone.2. Ingestion is the process in which an animal takesin organic material, usually in the form of otherliving things.3. A dorsal nerve cord is a hollow tube lying justabove the notochord.4. Cephalization is the concentration of sensoryand brain structures in the anterior end.MULTIPLE CHOICE1. a2. c3. d4. a5. bSHORT ANSWER1. During differentiation, the cells of a multicellularorganism become different from each other; thesedifferences enable the cells to specialize in performing different functions.2. They group animals based on the animals evolutionary history, which is inferred from morphology,fossils, RNA, and other factors.3. As a cephalized animal moves through its environment, sensory structures concentrated on thehead can sense the environment.4. A coelom provides a structure against which muscles can contract, allows the exterior of the bodyto move more freely with respect to the internalorgans, and acts as a reservoir and medium oftransport for nutrients and wastes.5. Some similarities that indicate evolutionary relatedness may be present during development butnot in adulthood. Ignoring development mightthen lead to errors in classification.STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONSa, dorsal; b, anterior; c, posterior; d, ventralThis animal has bilateral symmetry.Section 32-2VOCABULARY REVIEW1. Segmentation refers to a body composed of repeating similar units; in vertebrates, segmentation isevident in the vertebrae.2. An integument is an outer covering of an animal;an exoskeleton functions as an integument for animals such as arthropods and some mollusks.MULTIPLE CHOICE1. c2. d3. c4. a5. bSHORT ANSWER1. Annelida, Arthropoda, and Chordata2. Both must eliminate ammonia, which is very toxic.Some animals convert ammonia to less toxicsubstances.3. The legs of a deer are positioned directly beneathits body, giving the deer greater mobility and speedon land; the integument of a reptile is largely watertight, minimizing loss of water to the environment.4. It separates oxygenated and deoxygenated blood,thus improving the efficiency of the circulatorysystem.5. Advantage: any two hermaphrodites can matewith each other, and some hermaphrodites canfertilize their own eggs. Disadvantage: with selffertilization, no genetic variability is introduced bythe mating because both gametes come from thesame individual.STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONSa, kidney; b, allows gas exchange between the bloodand the environment; c, integument; d, processessensory information, coordinates behavior, makesdecisions; e, endoskeletonSection 32-3VOCABULARY REVIEW1. The archenteron is a deep cavity in the gastrulaand becomes the gut. The blastopore is the openingto the archenteron.2. In a pseudocoelom, mesoderm lines the interiorof the coelom but does not surround the gut. Boththe interior of the coelom and the gut are lined bymesoderm.3. In a protostome, the blastopore develops into amouth; in a deuterostome, the blastopore develops into an anus.4. In schizocoely, the mesoderm forms from cellsthat split away from the junction of the endodermand ectoderm; in enterocoely, the mesodermforms when cells lining the dorsal part of thecoelom begin dividing rapidly.MULTIPLE CHOICE1. b2. a3. c4. d5. cSHORT ANSWER1. A blastula is a hollow ball of cells; a gastrula isa cup-shaped structure consisting of an outerlayer of ectoderm surrounding an inner layerof endoderm, which in turn surrounds adeep cavity.Modern Biology Study Guide Answer Key272. ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm3. Both echinoderms and chordates are deuterostomes. Most deuterostomes undergo radial cleavage, indeterminate cleavage, and exhibit enterocoely.4. If more than one sperm entered the egg, the eggnucleus would contain more than two sets of chromosomes. Normal mitosis could not occur, andthe zygote would fail to develop normally.STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONSa, protostome; b, deuterostome; c, schizocoely;d, enterocoely; e, mouth; f, anusSection 33-1VOCABULARY REVIEW1. A choanocyte is a type of flagellated cell that linesthe interior of a sponge and draws water into thesponge.2. The osculum is the opening at the top of a spongewhere water exits the sponge.3. A spicule is a tiny, hard particle of calcium carbonate or silicon dioxide that makes up the skeletonof some sponges.4. An amoebocyte is a type of cell that crawls aboutwithin the body wall of a sponge and aids in feedingand reproduction.MULTIPLE CHOICE1. d2. b3. d4. a5. cSTRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONSa, osculum; b, amoebocyte; c, choanocyte; d, ostium;e, spiculesSection 33-2VOCABULARY REVIEW1. A polyp is the vase-shaped form of a cnidarian; amedusa is the bell-shaped form of a cnidarian.2. The epidermis is the outer cell layer of a cnidarian; the gastrodermis is the inner cell layer.3. Mesoglea is a jellylike material between the epidermis and gastrodermis in a cnidarian; a planulais the ciliated larva of some cnidarians.4. A cnidocyte is a specialized cnidarian cell used fordefense and capturing prey; a nematocyst is anorganelle inside a cnidocyte that contains a long,coiled filament.5. A colloblast is a cell found in ctenophores thatsecretes a sticky substance to bind prey; an apicalorgan is a sensory structure at one end of actenophores body.28Modern Biology Study Guide Answer Key4. b5. cSHORT ANSWER1. Some nematocysts have filaments with sharp tipsand spines that can puncture prey and inject poison;others have filaments that can wrap around prey.2. Hydras exist only as polyps, are not colonial, andlive in fresh water.3. The medusa is the dominant body form in the lifecycle of a scyphozoan. The polyp is the dominantbody form in the life cycle of an anthozoan.4. The clownfish live among sea anemones. Theanemones stinging tentacles protect the clownfishfrom predators, and the clownfish drives away otherfish that try to feed on the anemone. Algae liveinside corals. The corals supply algae with nutrients,and the algae supply the corals with oxygen.5. Each polyp cements its skeleton to the skeletons ofadjoining polyps in the colony. When the polypsdie, their skeletons remain, and build up into a reef.6. No; the hydras are green because they containalgae, which require light to carry out photosynthesis.STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONSa, epidermis; b, mesoglea; c, gastrovascular cavity;d, gastrodermis; e, tentacle; f, mouth; the medusaSection 34-1VOCABULARY REVIEW1. A proglottid is a body section of a tapeworm andcontains male and female reproductive structures;a tegument is a continuous sheet of fused cells thatcovers the external surface of a fluke.2. Cerebral ganglia are clusters of nerve cells thatserve as a brain; eyespots are cup-shaped structuresthat sense light.3. A primary host is a host from which an adult parasite derives its nourishment and in which sexualreproduction occurs; an intermediate host is ahost from which the larvae of a parasite derivetheir nourishment.MULTIPLE CHOICE1. c2. b3. d4. a5. dSHORT ANSWER1. Flame cells collect excess water, which is then transported through excretory tubules and excreted fromnumerous pores scattered over the body surface.2. Planarians detect the intensity and direction oflight with two eyespots; tapeworms cannot detectlight.3. The primary host is a human; the intermediatehost is a snail. The fluke enters its primary host asa tailed larva that penetrates the hosts skin.4. the larval stage5. The eggs sometimes block blood vessels, causinga disease that may kill the host. A parasite thatkills its host may not be perfectly adapted to itsenvironment.STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONSa, scolex; b, sucker; c, neck; d, proglottid; e, ovary;f, uterus; g, testesCopyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.SHORT ANSWER1. Invertebrates are defined solely on the basis ofwhat they lacka backbonerather than on thebasis of characteristics they share.2. A sponges skeleton may be made of spongin orspicules (or both). Spongin is a network of proteinfibers, while spicules are tiny, hard particles madeof calcium carbonate or silicon dioxide.3. Choanocytes engulf sperm and transfer them toamoebocytes, which carry the sperm to an egg.4. Since all hermaphrodites produce eggs, the chancesof successful fertilization are greater than theywould be if only half the population produced eggs.5. Larvae would be better, since their flagella enablethem to swim away from the parent sponge andproduce another sponge in a new location.MULTIPLE CHOICE1. a2. c3. dSection 34-2VOCABULARY REVIEW1. Trichinosis is a human disease caused by eatingundercooked meat (pork) containing cysts of theTrichinella worm.2. A filarial worm is a parasitic roundworm thatcauses diseases such as elephantiasis in humansand heartworm disease in dogs.3. A mastax is a muscular organ that breaks up foodin a rotifer.MULTIPLE CHOICE1. b2. c3. a4. d5. aSHORT ANSWER1. Food moves through a digestive tract in only onedirection, which allows different parts of the tractto carry out different functions.2. Ascaris eggs and pinworm eggs hatch in the intestine; hookworm eggs hatch in warm, damp soil.3. the mosquito4. The crown of cilia looks like a pair of rotatingwheels. It sweeps food into the digestive tract.5. The small intestine often contains undigested andpartially digested food on which the worm can feed.STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONSa, cilia; b, excretory tubule; c, stomach; d, anus;e, mastax; f, ovary; g, cloacaCopyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.Section 35-1VOCABULARY REVIEW1. The visceral mass of a mollusk contains the heartand organs of digestion, excretion, and reproduction. The visceral mass is covered by a layer ofepidermis called the mantle.2. Hemolymph is the fluid in an open circulatorysystem; a hemocoel is a set of hemolymph-filledspaces in the tissues of an animal with an opencirculatory system.3. The incurrent siphon of a bivalve takes in water thatcontains oxygen and nutrients. Water exitingthrough the excurrent siphon carries wastes fromthe body.MULTIPLE CHOICE1. d2. c3. b4. a5. bSHORT ANSWER1. The two main regions are the head-foot and thevisceral mass. The visceral mass contains most ofthe internal organs. The head-foot is directlyinvolved with locomotion.2. The mantle secretes the protective shell.3. Gastropods use their radula to cut through leaves,scrape up algae, drill holes through the shells ofother mollusks, and harpoon prey; bivalves filtersmall organisms from the water that passesthrough their gills.4. Marine clams shed sperm and eggs into the water,and fertilization occurs externally. In most freshwater clams, eggs are fertilized internally bysperm that enter through the incurrent siphon.5. A typical molluskan shell is secreted by the mantle,consists of calcium carbonate, is formed by bothmales and females, and protects the entire animal.STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONSa, shell; b, gill; c, mantle cavity; d, anus; e, heart; f,mantle; g, stomach; h, gangliaSection 35-2VOCABULARY REVIEW1. A seta is an external bristle on an annelid.2. A parapodium is a fleshy protrusion on an annelid.3. A typhlosole is an infolding of the intestinal wall inan earthworm.4. A nephridium is an excretory tubule in anearthworm.MULTIPLE CHOICE1. d2. c3. a4. b5. cSHORT ANSWER1. The crop is a temporary storage area for ingestedsoil; the gizzard grinds the soil, releasing andbreaking up organic matter.2. Earthworms help release nutrients from deadmatter into the soil, allow air to penetrate into thesoil to reach plant roots and soil microorganisms,and loosen the soil, which makes it easier forroots to penetrate and water to seep in.3. They contract and force blood through the circulatory system.4. A leech attaches its anterior sucker and then pullsthe rest of its body forward.5. The host would probably be an animal with a highbody temperature, such as a mammal or a bird.Moving toward warmth would increase the leechschances of finding a suitable host.STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONSa, crop; b, gizzard; c, aortic arches; d, pharynx;e, cerebral ganglion; f, nephridia; g, longitudinalmuscle; h, circular muscleSection 36-1VOCABULARY REVIEW1. An arthropod is a segmented animal with jointedappendages and an exoskeleton.2. A compound eye is an eye with many individuallight detectors, each with its own lens.3. A tagma is a body structure that is produced bythe fusion of a number of smaller segments.4. A chelicera is a pincerlike mouthpart found onsome arthropods, such as spiders and scorpions.MULTIPLE CHOICE1. a2. c3. d4. b5. dSHORT ANSWER1. Wax makes the exoskeleton repel water; it is in theouter layer of the exoskeleton.2. Calcium carbonate and chitin make the exoskeletonhard; they are in the middle layer of the exoskeleton.3. legs, antennae, mandibles, and chelicerae4. The anterior end of the body has food-handlingappendages, antennae, compound eyes, structuresthat sense light intensity, and a brain.5. Members of the subphylum Crustacea havebranched antennae; members of the subphylumChelicerata have no antennae; and members ofthe subphylum Myriapoda have unbranchedappendages, including legs. Therefore, it would bedifficult to assign Marella to one of these subphyla.Modern Biology Study Guide Answer Key29STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONSfrom left to right: a, sea spider; b, horseshoe crab;c, scorpion; d, mite; e, spider; f, shrimp; g, centipede;h, millipede; i, insectSection 36-2VOCABULARY REVIEW1. A cirrus is one of 12 modified legs on a barnacleand is used for filter feeding; a cheliped is one oftwo modified legs on a crayfish and is used fordefense and capturing food.2. The cephalothorax is the body section consistingof two fused tagmata, the head and thorax; thethorax consists of eight segments and lies behindthe head.3. Crustaceans have two types of feelers. Antennaeare longer feelers that respond to touch and taste;antennules are shorter feelers that are sensitive totouch, taste, and balance.4. Swimmerets are appendages attached to theanterior abdominal segments of a crayfish andfunction in reproduction; the telson is part of thepaddlelike tail on the posterior end of a crayfish.MULTIPLE CHOICE1. b2. c3. d4. a5. bSTRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONSa, green gland; b, brain; c, stomach; d, heart; e, ovary;f, digestive gland; g, intestineSection 36-3VOCABULARY REVIEW1. An arachnid is a member of the class Arachnida,which includes spiders, scorpions, mites, andticks.2. A pedipalp is an appendage on the cephalothoraxof an arachnid; it is used to hold food and chew.3. A spiracle is an opening in the exoskeleton of aterrestrial arthropod through which the tracheaeopen to the environment.4. A Malpighian tubule is the main excretory organ ofa terrestrial arthropod.5. In spiders, a spinneret is an organ that connectsto silk glands in the abdomen and is used to secretesilk for spinning webs, building nests, and protectingeggs.30Modern Biology Study Guide Answer KeyMULTIPLE CHOICE1. c2. a3. b4. d5. aSHORT ANSWER1. to snare prey, to wrap prey, to build nests, to protect eggs, and to pull themselves through the air2. Book lungs are paired sacs with many parallelfolds that resemble the pages of a book; their function is to exchange gases with the environment.3. The black widow has a bright red or orange hourglass-shaped mark on the ventral surface of itsabdomen. The brown recluse has a violin-shapedmark on the dorsal surface of its cephalothorax.4. Centipedes have long legs, which enable them tomove quickly, and poison claws, which enablethem to kill prey.5. Mites and ticks support this idea. They are thesmallest and most abundant arachnids. Mites canlive in fresh water, in the sea, and on land; someare free living, while others are parasites of plantsor animals.STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONSa, stomach; b, poison gland; c, chelicera (fang);d, pedipalp; e, Malpighian tubule; f, silk gland;g, gut; h, book lungSection 37-1VOCABULARY REVIEW1. Both are insect mouthparts; the labrum functionslike an upper lip, and the labium functions like alower lip.2. The tympanum is a large oval membrane for sensingsound; the ovipositor is the last segment on afemales abdomen and is used to lay eggs.3. In incomplete metamorphosis, a nymph hatchesfrom an egg and undergoes a gradual change inbody form to become an adult; in complete metamorphosis, an insect undergoes two major stagesof development between egg and adult.4. A nymph is an immature form of an insect thatlooks somewhat like the adult, but it is smaller,and its wings and reproductive organs are undeveloped; a pupa is a stage of development in whichan insect changes from a larva to an adult.MULTIPLE CHOICE1. d2. b3. a4. c5. bSHORT ANSWER1. Shared characteristics include mandibles, one pairof antennae, and unbranched appendages.Differences (in most insects) include the presenceof wings; only three pairs of legs; a body dividedinto head, thorax, and abdomen; and a life cyclethat includes metamorphosis.2. Termites feed on decaying wood, thereby recyclingnutrients needed to maintain a healthy forest.3. The salivary glands secrete saliva, which moistensfood. The gastric ceca secrete enzymes into themidgut, where food is digested.4. A chrysalis encloses a butterfly pupa; a cocoonencloses a moth pupa.Copyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.SHORT ANSWER1. A nauplius has three pairs of appendages and asingle eye in the middle of its head.2. A barnacle extends its cirri through openings in itsshell, sweeping small organisms and food particlesfrom the water into its mouth.3. The mandibles chew food; the maxillae manipulatefood and draw water currents over the gills; andthe maxillipeds touch, taste, and manipulate food.4. Hemolymph flows from the heart through severallarge vessels to different regions of the body, whereit leaves the vessels and enters spaces within thebody. The hemolymph then passes through thegills and returns to the heart.5. By lying on its side near the surface, the crayfishexposes the gills on that side to the oxygenatedwater at the surface. By moving the walking legson that side, the crayfish circulates this waterover its gills.6. Book lungs are paired sacs in the abdomen withmany parallel folds that resemble the pages of abook and function in gas exchange.5. To produce eggs, female mosquitoes must havea source of protein, which is present in largeamounts in blood but not in sap or nectar. Malemosquitoes do not have this requirement.STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONSa, simple eye; b, compound eye; c, thorax; d, tympanum; e, spiracles; f, ovipositor; g, abdomenSection 37-2VOCABULARY REVIEW1. A pheromone is a chemical that is released by ananimal and that affects the behavior or development of other members of the same species.2. Innate behavior is behavior that is geneticallydetermined.3. Royal jelly is a high-protein substance that workerhoneybees secrete and feed to the queen and theyoungest larvae.4. The queen factor is a pheromone secreted by aqueen honeybee that prevents other female larvaefrom developing into queens.5. Kin selection is a mechanism of increasing thepropagation of ones own genes by helping a closelyrelated individual reproduce.Copyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.MULTIPLE CHOICE1. b2. d3. c4. aMULTIPLE CHOICE1. d2. c3. a4. b5. bSHORT ANSWER1. Echinoderm larvae are bilaterally symmetrical,which indicates that echinoderms probablyevolved from bilaterally symmetrical ancestors.2. basket star, Ophiuroidea; sea star, Asteroidea;feather star, Crinoidea; brittle star, Ophiuroidea3. A nerve ring circles the mouth, a radial nerve runsfrom the nerve ring along the length of each arm,and a nerve net extends near the body surface. Thesea star also has an eyespot near the end of eacharm and several tentacles that respond to touch.4. Eggs are fertilized externally and develop into freeswimming larvae. The larvae settle down anddevelop into adults.5. A sea star may shed an arm at its base if the armis captured by a predator.6. Since sea stars are radially symmetrical, no particular part of a sea star always leads when the animal moves through its environment. Therefore,there is no advantage to having sensory structuresand a neural center concentrated at one end.STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONSa, skin gill; b, spine; c, pedicellaria; d, tube feet; e,sensory tentacles; f, eyespot5. dSHORT ANSWER1. Male mosquitoes and moths use their antennae tofind distant females. Mosquitoes detect buzzingsounds; male moths detect pheromones.2. Male crickets produce several calls that differfrom those of other cricket species.3. Workers and the queen are female; the workersare sterile.4. when the honey supply begins to run low5. Close relatives share many genes with the individual who performs the altruistic behavior, includingthe genes that code for that behavior. Those geneswill remain in the population if the relatives reproduce successfully.Section 38-2STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONSa, round dance, which indicates that a food source isnear the hive; b, waggle dance, which indicates thedirection and distance to a food sourceSHORT ANSWER1. a notochord, a dorsal nerve cord, pharyngealpouches, and a postanal tail2. Lancelets use their tail to swim weakly and towriggle backward into the sand.3. Tunicates are protected by a tough covering calleda tunic.4. They squirt out a stream of water when touched.5. A larval tunicate has all four chordate characteristics, but an adult tunicate has only one: a pouchlike pharynx with slits.6. Like sponges, most adult tunicates are sessile animals that feed by filtering food from the water;they are also hermaphrodites, as are mostsponges. Unlike sponges, tunicates have true tissues and organs; water enters an adult tunicatethrough a single opening, while it enters a spongethrough numerous pores.Section 38-1VOCABULARY REVIEW1. An ossicle is a calcium carbonate plate that makesup the endoskeleton of an echinoderm; a test isthe compact, rigid endoskeleton of a sea urchin orsand dollar.2. A tube foot is a small, movable extension of anechinoderms water-vascular system that aids inmovement; an ampulla is a bulblike sac at theupper end of each tube foot.3. Both are parts of a sea stars digestive tract; thecardiac stomach can be turned inside out to partially digest food outside the sea star, and thepyloric stomach completes food digestion insidethe sea star.4. The water-vascular system is a network of waterfilled canals that aid movement. The radial canalis part of the water-vascular system and carrieswater to the tube feet in the arms.VOCABULARY REVIEW1. A notochord is a stiff, flexible rod of cells that runsthe length of the body near the dorsal surface of achordate.2. A lancelet is a blade-shaped chordate belonging tothe subphylum Cephalochordata.3. A tunicate is a sessile, barrel-shaped chordatebelonging to the subphylum Urochordata.4. An atriopore is an opening through which waterleaves the body of a lancelet.MULTIPLE CHOICE1. a2. c3. b4. d5. cSTRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONSa, notochord; b, dorsal nerve cord; c, pharynx;d, atriopore; e, segmented muscles; f, postanal tailModern Biology Study Guide Answer Key31Section 39-1VOCABULARY REVIEW1. A vertebra is bone or cartilage that surrounds andforms the dorsal nerve cord in the spine.2. A cranium is a skull, which protects the brain.3. A gill arch is a skeletal element that supports thepharynx.MULTIPLE CHOICE1. c2. b3. a4. d5. c6. bSHORT ANSWER1. Both groups lack or lacked jaws and paired fins,and both have or had cartilaginous skeletons.2. The skin of amphibians is thin and permeable togases and water; the skin of reptiles is dry and scaly.3. Horses belong to the class Mammalia; animals inthat class have hair and nurse their young.4. Jaws and paired fins appeared.5. Fishes in the class Chondrichthyes have jaws andpaired fins. Paired fins increase stability andmaneuverability, and jaws make it possible toseize and manipulate prey. These adaptive advantages allowed fishes in the class Chondrichthyesto diversify into numerous species and to be moresuccessful predators than those in the classCephalaspidomorphi.STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONSa, Myxini; b, Cephalaspidomorphi; c, Chondrichthyes;d, Actinopterygii; e, Sarcopterygii; f, Amphibia;g, Reptilia; h, Aves; i, MammaliaSection 39-2MULTIPLE CHOICE1. b2. d3. a4. c5. aSHORT ANSWER1. A hagfish burrows into the body of a dead ordying fish or invertebrate and pinches off chunksof tissue with two movable plates and a roughtonguelike structure in its mouth.2. Sharks that feed on large fish or mammals havelarge triangular teeth with sawlike edges that hookand tear flesh.3. Cartilaginous fishes can move water over their gillsby swimming with their mouth open and by expanding and contracting their mouth cavity and pharynx.4. Fertilization in lampreys occurs outside the bodyof either parent, but fertilization in cartilaginousfishes occurs inside the body of the female.5. Jawless fishes should produce more gametes sincefertilization occurs externally. With external fertilization, there is a lower chance that sperm andeggs will meet. Producing more gametes increasesthe chances of fertilization.32Modern Biology Study Guide Answer KeySection 39-3VOCABULARY REVIEW1. A swim bladder is a gas-filled sac that many bonyfishes use to control buoyancy.2. A lobe-finned fish has fleshy fins that are supported by a series of bones with a central bony axis.3. A ray-finned fish has fins that are supported bylong, segmented, flexible, bony elements.4. In countercurrent flow, water flows across the gillfilaments in a direction opposite to blood flow.MULTIPLE CHOICE1. a2. c3. b4. d5. dSHORT ANSWER1. The scales grow quickly when food is abundant andgrow slowly when food is scarce.2. The kidneys and the gills are involved in maintaining water-and-ion balance.3. A bony fish adjusts its buoyancy by varying theamount of gas in its swim bladder.4. Fertilization occurs externally in most species.5. Faulty valves would allow blood to flow back intothe ventricle, making delivery of blood to the gillsless efficient. Body cells would therefore receiveless oxygen and make less ATP.STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONSa, conus arteriosus; b, atrium; c, sinus venosus;d, ventricleTwo arrows should be drawn pointing to the twobranches of chamber c, and one arrow should bedrawn pointing away from chamber a.Section 40-1VOCABULARY REVIEW1. A preadaptation is an adaptation in an ancestralgroup that allows a shift to new functions, whichare later favored by natural selection.2. A tadpole is a swimming, tailed larva of an anuran.MULTIPLE CHOICE1. c2. a3. d4. a5. dSHORT ANSWER1. The two groups of animals have similar skulls andvertebral columns, and the bones in the fin of alobe-finned fish are similar to the bones in thelimb of an amphibian.2. Ichthyostega had a large tail fin, lateral-line canalson its head, and large, sharp teeth adapted topreying on fish.3. Amphibians can use gills, lungs, and skin for gasexchange.4. A frog usually has smooth, moist skin and a compact body with a short, rigid spine; a salamanderalso has moist skin but has an elongated body.5. It is likely to make them clearly visible and recognizable to predators, reducing the chance that apredator will mistake them for a nonpoisonousspecies and attack them.Copyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.VOCABULARY REVIEW1. The lateral line is a system of canals in the skinthat are lined with sensory structures that detectvibrations in the water.2. Cartilage is a flexible, lightweight material made ofcells surrounded by tough fibers of protein.3. A placoid scale is one of many small, toothlikespines that cover the skin of a cartilaginous fish.4. Chemoreception is the ability to detect chemicalsin the environment.STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONSa, caudal fin; b, dorsal fin; c, spiracle; d, nostril; e, pelvicfin; f, clasper; g, anal fin; h, gill slit; i, pectoral finSTRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONSa, Anura; b, Caudata; c, Gymnophiona; d and e, frogsand toads; f, salamanders; g, caeciliansSection 40-2VOCABULARY REVIEW1. Pulmonary circulation carries deoxygenated bloodfrom the heart to the lungs and back to the heart;systemic circulation carries oxygenated blood fromthe heart to the rest of the body and back to theheart.2. Pulmonary respiration occurs through the lungs;cutaneous respiration occurs through the skin.3. The duodenum is the upper portion of the smallintestine; the ileum is the coiled middle portion ofthe small intestine.4. Mesentery is a membrane that holds the smallintestine in place; the columella is a small bonethat extends between the tympanic membrane andthe inner ear.5. The nictitating membrane is a transparent, movablemembrane that covers each eye; the tympanicmembrane is the eardrum.Copyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.MULTIPLE CHOICE1. d2. b3. a4. c5. bSHORT ANSWER1. The vertebrae interlock and form a rigid structurethat can support the weight of the body.2. In a fish, blood slows as it is pumped through thegills and then through the rest of the body. In anamphibian, blood that passes through the lungs ispumped a second time by the heart before circulating through the body.3. The cerebrum integrates behavior and is responsible for learning; the optic lobes process information from the eyes; the cerebellum is involved inmuscular coordination; the medulla oblongatacontrols some organ functions, such as heart rateand respiration rate.4. The muscles of an amphibians belly support theweight of the internal organs on land; in a fish, theweight of the organs is supported by water.STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONSa, pectoral; b, urostyle; c, pelvic; d, skull;e, spine; f, femurSection 40-3VOCABULARY REVIEW1. Amplexus is a mating behavior in which a malefrog climbs onto the back of a female and graspsher firmly in an embrace.2. Thyroxine is a hormone produced by the thyroidgland and that stimulates metamorphosis inamphibians.MULTIPLE CHOICE1. a2. c3. d4. b5. cSHORT ANSWER1. Male frogs call to attract females of their ownspecies and to warn off other males.2. The legs grow; the tail disappears; the gills disappear; the mouth broadens; the teeth develop; thejaws develop; the lungs become functional.3. Some salamanders remain in the larval stage fortheir entire life; some amphibians hatch from theegg as a small version of the adult without goingthrough a larval stage.4. to prevent the eggs from desiccating5. It helps the eggs remain attached to objects in thewater, which may prevent them from being carriedaway by currents or sinking to the bottom.STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONSa, 5; b, 3; c, 6; d, 1; e, 4; f, 2Section 41-1VOCABULARY REVIEW1. The amnion is a thin membrane that encloses thefluid surrounding the embryo of a reptile, mammal, or bird.2. The allantois is a membrane in the amniotic eggthat stores nitrogenous wastes produced by theembryo.3. The chorion is a membrane that surrounds all ofthe other membranes in an amniotic egg and helpsprotect the embryo.4. Albumen is a mixture of protein and water contained in an amniotic egg.5. Keratin is protein in fingernails, hair, and skin.MULTIPLE CHOICE1. b2. d3. a4. c5. bSHORT ANSWER1. Sediments from the end of the Cretaceous periodcontain high concentrations of iridium, which isrelatively abundant in asteroids. Sediments from thistime also contain quartz crystals that were deformedby a powerful force. A large impact crater datingfrom this time exists on the Yucatn Peninsula.2. The shell provides protection from physical damage, limits evaporation of water from the egg, andallows exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide.3. Whereas an amphibians skin is thin and moist, areptiles skin is thick and dry; this prevents waterloss and protects against the wear and tear of terrestrial environments.4. As the continents drifted to new locations onEarths surface, their climates and vegetationchanged, causing species to evolve in differentdirections on different continents.STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONSThe order from left to right is turtles, tuataras, lizards,snakes, crocodiles, dinosaurs, and birds.Section 41-2VOCABULARY REVIEW1. Alveoli are numerous small sacs in the lungs.2. Jacobsons organ is located in the roof of themouth of reptiles and is sensitive to odors.3. An ectotherm is an animal that warms its body byabsorbing heat from its surroundings.4. Viviparity is a reproductive pattern in which ashell does not form around the egg and the youngare retained within the females body until theyare mature enough to be born.5. A placenta is a structure through which nutrientsand oxygen are transferred from the mother tothe embryo.Modern Biology Study Guide Answer Key33MULTIPLE CHOICE1. d2. c3. b4. a5. bSHORT ANSWER1. when it is inactive, when it is underwater, or whenit needs to raise its body temperature quickly2. A snake detects ground vibrations by transmittingthe vibrations through the bones of its jaw and itscolumella to its inner ear.3. A pit viper detects warm objects with the heatsensitive pits below its eyes.4. basking in the sun, staying in the shade, using different body positions, and panting5. A female crocodile builds a nest, guards againstpredators while the eggs incubate, opens the nestwhen the eggs hatch, carries the hatchlings to thewater in her mouth, and may protect the young fora year or more.6. In most reptiles, the egg is enclosed in a shellinside the mother, so it must be fertilized internally before the shell is formed. In viviparous reptiles,the embryo is without a shell but develops insidethe mother, so fertilization must also be internal inthese reptiles.STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONSa, right atrium; b, septum; c, left atrium; d, ventricle.In e, the arrow should point toward the end of the leftpulmonary artery; in f, the arrow should pointtoward the right half of the ventricle; in g, the arrowshould point toward the left half of the ventricle.Section 41-3MULTIPLE CHOICE1. a2. c3. cVOCABULARY REVIEW1. A furcula is a bone formed from the fused collarbones in a bird and is commonly called thewishbone.2. A beak is a tough, horny sheath that covers abirds jaws.MULTIPLE CHOICE1. c2. a3. b4. b5. d6. aSHORT ANSWER1. Feathers are important for flight and for insulatinga birds body against heat loss.2. The lungs are connected to several sets of airsacs; this arrangement ensures that oxygen-richair is always in the lungs.3. Similarities include a flexible, S-shaped neck, aunique ankle joint, and hollow bones.4. One hypothesis states that the ancestors ofbirds were tree dwellers that evolved wings thatenabled them to glide from tree to tree. Anotherhypothesis states that the ancestors of birds wereground dwellers; initially, their wings might havestabilized them as they leapt after prey, or theymight have been used to trap or knock down prey.5. Birds thin-walled, hollow bones break down easily, so they are not often preserved as fossils. Also,feathers rarely leave fossil imprints.STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONSThe order of animals from left to right is mammals,reptiles, dinosaurs, birds.Section 42-24. d5. bSHORT ANSWER1. The shell is streamlined and disk-shaped, permitting rapid turning in water; the limbs have webbedfeet or have evolved into flippers for swimmingand maneuvering.2. A snake has jaws that are loosely hinged, canmove independently, and can open to an angle of130 degrees; the jaw, palate, and parts of the skullare joined by a flexible, elastic ligament.3. A viper injects venom through large, mobile fangsin the front of its mouth that swing forward whenthe viper strikes.4. Tuatara means spiny crest; tuataras, which arethe only members of the order Rhynchocephalia,have a spiny crest that runs down their back.5. Snakes move by extending and contracting theoverlapping scales on their body. If a surface isvery smooth, it will have no projections for thescales to push against, making it difficult forsnakes to move forward.34Section 42-1Modern Biology Study Guide Answer KeyVOCABULARY REVIEW1. The shaft of a feather emerges from the follicleand supports the structures of the feather; thevanes develop on opposite sides of the shaft andcontain the branches of the feather.2. A barb is one of many branches that arise fromthe shaft of a feather; a barbule is one of manyprojections with microscopic hooks that arisefrom each barb.3. The sternum, or breastbone, is an attachmentpoint for flight muscles; the pygostyle is the terminal fused vertebrae of the spine in a bird, and itsupports the tail feathers.4. The proventriculus is the first chamber of a birdsstomach; the gizzard is the second, muscular portion of a birds stomach.5. Precocial young can move about and feed themselves as soon as they hatch; altricial young hatchblind, naked, and helpless.MULTIPLE CHOICE1. b2. c3. a4. b5. d6. dCopyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.VOCABULARY REVIEW1. A carapace is the dorsal part of the shell of aturtle or tortoise.2. Autotomy is the ability of an animal to detach itstail or other body part.3. A constrictor is a snake that suffocates its prey bywrapping its body around the prey and squeezingeach time the prey exhales.4. An elapid is a snake that injects poison throughtwo small, fixed fangs in the front of its mouth.STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONSa, Squamata; b, inject venom; c, Crocodilia; d, preventswater from entering the air passage; e, Squamata;f, picks up airborne particles; g, Chelonia; h, allows thehead, legs, and tail to be retracted into the shell forprotection; i, Squamata; j, allow the animal to cling toalmost any surface; k, Squamata; l, allow the animal toswallow objects larger than its headSHORT ANSWER1. It provides lift and aids in steering and braking.2. A bird filters uric acid from its blood in the kidneys and transports the uric acid in ureters to thecloaca, where the acid mixes with undigested matter from the intestines before it is eliminated.3. It permits better binocular vision, meaning thatdepth can be perceived in the area where the visual fields of the two eyes overlap.4. position of the stars or the sun, topographicallandmarks, Earths magnetic field, changes in airpressure due to altitude, and low-frequency sounds5. Because the preen gland contains oil that is neededto keep the feathers smooth and water-resistant,the feathers would dry out and lose their smoothcontour. This, in turn, would affect the birds abilityto fly and reduce its protection against wet ordamp conditions.STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONSa, proventriculus; b, gizzard; c, kidney; d, large intestine; e, cloaca; f, crop; g, heartSection 42-3VOCABULARY REVIEW1. A syrinx is a structure located at the base of abirds trachea that produces songs.2. Crop milk is a nutritious milklike fluid secreted bythe crop of birds in the order Columbiformes.Copyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.MULTIPLE CHOICE1. d2. a3. c4. b5. d6. bSHORT ANSWER1. A kestrel has talons that enable it to grip and killprey; a goose has webbed feet that it uses for paddling and swimming.2. Raptors are members of the order Ciconiiformesand include ospreys, hawks, falcons, vultures, andeagles; raptors are found throughout the world.3. Passerines have a rear toe that is enlarged andparticularly flexible; this allows the feet to providea better grip on branches.4. They suggest that homing pigeons rely on theposition of the sun and Earths magnetic field tonavigate. When the sun is visible, the birds cannavigate. When the sun is not visible, presenceof the magnet interferes with their ability to useEarths magnetic field.STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONShawk, Ciconiiformes; blue jay, Passeriformes; greatblue heron, Ciconiiformes; owl, Strigiformes; mallard,AnseriformesSection 43-1VOCABULARY REVIEW1. A mammary gland is a milk-producing, modifiedsweat gland located on the thorax or abdomen ofa mammal.2. A monotreme is a member of the group ofoviparous mammals.3. A marsupial is a viviparous mammal in which theyoung develop within a pouch on the mothersbody for some time after birth.MULTIPLE CHOICE1. c2. a3. b4. d5. aSHORT ANSWER1. Hair insulates the body against heat loss.2. a single opening in the outer layer of its skullbehind the eye socket, a saillike structure on itsback, and a mouth with long bladelike teeth in thefront and smaller teeth toward the back3. Like modern terrestrial mammals but unlikeDimetrodon, Lycaenops had limbs positioneddirectly beneath its body. Lycaenops also hadendothermic metabolism and hair.4. Cretaceous period: dinosaurs; today: mammals;The extinction of the dinosaurs is responsible forthis change.5. Fossil evidence shows that early mammals weresmall; they had large eye sockets, suggesting thatthey were active at night. Small animals tend tolose body heat quickly because of their largesurface-area-to-volume ratio. Body hair wouldhave helped early mammals retain body heat.STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONSThe skull on the left is from the group that gave riseto mammals; it has a single opening in the skull justbehind the eye socket and teeth in different parts ofthe jaw that are modified for different functions. Theskull on the right is from the group that gave rise tomodern reptiles; its teeth are uniform in size and shape.Section 43-2VOCABULARY REVIEW1. The diaphragm is a sheet of muscle below the ribcage of a mammal. It functions to draw air intothe lungs.2. Baleen is a set of thin plates of keratin materialthat hang from the upper jaw of some whales.3. Echolocation is a process by which some mammals locate objects by emitting high-frequencysound waves and analyzing the returning echoes.4. A rumen is a chamber in the stomach of someherbivorous mammals; it contains microorganismsthat digest cellulose.MULTIPLE CHOICE1. b2. a3. c4. d5. aSHORT ANSWER1. Mammalian lungs have a large internal surface areafor gas exchange; this enables the lungs to supplyoxygen rapidly to sustain a rapid metabolism.2. Microorganisms that live in the rumen or cecumbreak down the cellulose contained in plants, producing small molecules that can be absorbed intothe mammals bloodstream.3. the cerebrum; it evaluates input from the senseorgans, controls movement, initiates and regulatesbehavior, and is involved in memory and learning4. When a fertilized egg attaches to the lining of theuterus, extensions from the chorion grow into thelining and are surrounded by blood vessels fromthe uterus.Modern Biology Study Guide Answer Key355. Animals in the north generally encounter colderweather; their small extremities have small surfacearea-to-volume ratios and thus are adapted to conserving body heat. Animals in the south generallyencounter hotter weather; their large extremitieshave large surface-area-to-volume ratios and thusare adapted to dissipating body heat.STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONSa, right atrium; b, right ventricle; c, left atrium; d, leftventricle; e, septum; f, away from heart; g, towardheart; h, away from heart; i, away from heart; j,toward heart; k, away from heart; l, toward heartSection 43-3VOCABULARY REVIEW1. A pinniped is an aquatic carnivore, such as a seal.2. An ungulate is a mammal with hooves.MULTIPLE CHOICE1. a2. b3. d4. c5. b6. aSHORT ANSWER1. The order is Artiodactyla. The animal is morelikely to have four toes than three.2. order Primates; most primates are omnivores,have teeth suited for a varied diet, have largebrains, have forward-facing eyes, and have graspinghands and feet.3. The small size of shrews causes them to lose bodyheat quickly. To maintain a constant, high bodytemperature, they must have a high metabolicrate. Therefore, they must eat frequently.3. The human skeleton has an S-shaped spine forupright posture, bowl-shaped pelvis that supportsthe internal organs during walking, and alignedtoes.4. According to the multiregional hypothesis,local populations of H. erectus gave rise to localpopulations of H. sapiens all over the world, andinterbreeding among populations was sufficient tomaintain a single human species. According to therecent-African-origin hypothesis, H. sapiensevolved from H. erectus uniquely in Africa, thenmigrated out of Africa and populated the globe.5. Because human evolution did not proceed as asingle lineage of increasingly humanlike forms,finding a single form that links present-dayhumans with a hominid ancestor (a missing link)is not possible.STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONSa. 1,400 cm3; b. C-shaped; c. bowl-shaped;d. opposable big toe; e. smallerSection 44-1Section 43-4MULTIPLE CHOICE1. c2. d3. dVOCABULARY REVIEW1. A prehensile appendage is an appendage, such ashands, feet, or tails, that can grasp.2. An opposable thumb can touch the other fingers.3. Bipedalism is the tendency to walk upright on twolegs.4. A hominid is a human or extinct humanlike anthropoid species.MULTIPLE CHOICE1. c2. a3. b4. d5. aSHORT ANSWER1. large, complex brain relative to size; acute colorvision, binocular vision; generalist teeth allowingvaried diet; broad range of visual and vocalcommunication; infant care; manual dexterity, withopposable thumb; complex social organization;ability to sit upright, cling to trees, hang frombranches2. Rotating shoulder and elbow joints allow a widerange of motion, including swinging from trees. Anopposable thumb allows precise manipulation ofobjects. An opposable big toe in nonhumananthropoids allows for grasping with the feet. Thedental formula allows for a varied diet.36Modern Biology Study Guide Answer Key4. a5. aSHORT ANSWER1. What causes the behavior? What is the role ofgenes in the behavior? What is the behaviorsevolutionary history? How does the behavioraffect survival and reproduction?2. Adult male lions will kill cubs that are not theirown in order to mate with females of the prideand produce more offspring males who do notkill cubs. Thus, natural selection favors thealleles that cause male lions to kill cubs.3. web-building in orb spiders, response of a hognosesnake to a predator, egg retrieval in Greylag geese4. Habituation saves energy and preserves defensesin the event of a genuine emergency.5. Using a computer is a learned behavior thatfrequently involves operant conditioning, ortrial-and-error learning. It may involve habituationto certain sounds the computer makes. It mayinvolve problem-solving learned by watchingothers use the computer.STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONSa. innate; b. egg retrieval in Greylag geese;c. habituation; d. learned; e. learned; f. pressing alever to get food; g. learned; h. salivating in responseto a bell tone; i. reasoning; j. learned; k. imprinting;l. learnedCopyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONSdolphin, Cetacea; bat, Chiroptera; opossum,Marsupialia; platypus, Monotremata; bear, Carnivora;elephant, ProboscideaVOCABULARY REVIEW1. An innate behavior is an inherited action that isperformed effectively the first time without beingtaught; instinctive behavior.2. A fixed action pattern is a rigid innate behaviorthat all members of a species perform the sameway each time they perform it.3. Habituation is a simple type of learning in whichan animal learns to ignore a harmless stimulus.4. Operant conditioning is learning by trial and errorand involves associating an action with a punishment or reward.5. Imprinting is a form of learning in which a younganimal forms permanent associations with itsenvironment during a sensitive period.Section 44-2VOCABULARY REVIEW1. A dominance hierarchy is the ranking of individualsin a group to minimize conflict.2. Aposematic coloration is having bright colorsthat often serve as a warning that the animal ispoisonous.3. A pheromone is a chemical released by an animalthat causes individuals of the same species toreact in a predictable way.4. A circadian rhythm is a daily biological cycle.MULTIPLE CHOICE1. d2. d3. a4. c5. bCopyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.SHORT ANSWER1. Aggressive behavior usually results in one animalsurrendering to the other and both leaving theconflict unhurt.2. Monogamy would be favored when it is advantageous for both parents to participate in raisingthe young.3. The cost of parental care is the large energyinvestment by the parent, which results in feweryoung being provided with care. The benefit isthat it increases the likelihood that young willsurvive to adulthood.4. phonemes (sounds that can be combined to formwords); productivity (combinations of phonemesthat produce different meanings); grammar (rulesfor combining words that affect meaning)5. The behaviors can be explained by the optimalityhypothesis. The availability of pine seeds affectedthe food-gathering behavior of the crossbills:when pine seeds were abundant, the birdsremained in one tree; when pine seeds werescarce, the birds moved from tree to tree.STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONSa. altruism; b. circadian rhythm; c. migration;d. courtship behavior; e. aggressive behavior;f. territorial behavior; g. dominance hierarchySection 45-1VOCABULARY REVIEW1. It senses changes in the internal and external environment, interprets sensory information, causesthe body to move in response to sensory information, and coordinates voluntary and involuntaryactivities and regulation of some body processes.2. It provides structure and support, moves trunks andlimbs, and moves substances through the body.3. It moves the bones in the trunk, limbs, and face.4. It lines or covers all internal and external bodysurfaces, providing a protective barrier.5. It binds, supports, and protects structures in thebody.MULTIPLE CHOICE1. c2. a3. d4. d5. cSHORT ANSWER1. skeletal, smooth, and cardiac2. Tissues compose organs, and organs composeorgan systems.3. Connective tissue is characterized by cells thatare embedded in matrix.4. Nervous tissue receives and transmits messages inthe form of electrical impulses.5. Yes; for example, the skin has several functions.As part of the integumentary system, it protectsagainst pathogens and helps regulate body temperature. As part of the excretory system, itexcretes waste products.STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONS1. a, cranial cavity; b, spinal cavity; c, thoraciccavity; d, abdominal cavity; e, pelvic cavity2. the spinal cavity and cranial cavity3. They protect delicate internal organs and permitsome organs, such as the lungs, to expand andcontract while remaining securely supported.Section 45-2VOCABULARY REVIEW1. The axial skeleton consists of the skull, ribs, spine,and sternum. The appendicular skeleton consists ofbones of the arms, legs, scapula, clavicle, and pelvis.2. Periosteum covers the bones surface. Compactbone is the hard material under the periosteum.Both tissues enable bones to withstand stress.3. Both are contained within the core of a bone.4. Bones elongate as ossification of cartilage cellsoccurs at the epiphyseal plates.5. Ligaments hold the bones of a joint in place.MULTIPLE CHOICE1. a2. c3. b4. a5. dSHORT ANSWER1. Bones provide structure and support, give shapeand structure to the body, protect internal organs,and provide a framework for muscles.2. ball and socket, shoulder; hinge joint, elbow; saddle joint, thumbs; pivot joint, top two vertebrae ofthe human spine; gliding joint, small bones of foot3. Red bone marrow produces red and white bloodcells, and yellow bone marrow serves as anenergy reserve.4. Bone growth is dependent on the availability ofcalcium. The bones store calcium. If calcium isneeded elsewhere in the body, it is taken from thebones. Therefore, calcium intake is necessary tomaintain bone health.STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONS1. a, skull; b, clavicle; c, scapula; d, sternum; e, ribs;f, humerus; g, pelvis; h, radius; i, ulna; j, carpals;k, metacarpals; l, phalanges; m, femur; n, patella;o, tibia; p, fibula; q, tarsals; r, metatarsals;s, phalanges2. The skeleton provides structure and support, givesshape and structure to the body, protects internalorgans, and provides a framework for muscles.3. Bone cells gradually replace the cartilage at theepiphyseal plates, which are located at the end oflong bones and which consist of cartilage cellsthat divide and form columns, pushing older cellstoward the middle of the bone.Section 45-3VOCABULARY REVIEW1. Voluntary muscles can usually be controlledconsciously, but involuntary muscles cannotbe controlled consciously.Modern Biology Study Guide Answer Key372. The origin is where the muscle attaches to the stationary bone. The insertion is where the muscleattaches to the moving bone.3. A flexor is a muscle that bends a joint. An extensor is a muscle that straightens a joint.4. Myosin is a protein that makes up the thick filaments in myofibrils, whereas actin is a protein thatmakes up the thin filaments of myofibrils.5. Muscle fatigue is the physiological inability of amuscle to contract. Oxygen debt is a temporarylack of oxygen availability due to sustained strenuous exercise.MULTIPLE CHOICE1. b2. c3. d4. a5. aSTRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONS1. a, biceps; b, insertion; c, radius; d, ulna; e, origin;f, humerus; g, scapula; h, triceps2. flexor: bicep; extensor: triceps3. Insertion of a is the radius. Origin of a is thescapula.Section 45-4VOCABULARY REVIEW1. Exocrine glands release secretions through ducts.2. Melanin is a pigment produced by cells in thelower layers of the epidermis.3. Sebum is a fatty substance secreted by oil glandsthat helps soften and waterproof skin.4. Keratin is a protein in skin, hair, and nails.5. Sweat glands function as excretory organs throughthe release of excess water, salts, and urea. Theyregulate body temperature by releasing sweat,which cools the body when it evaporates.MULTIPLE CHOICE1. c2. b3. a384. b5. cModern Biology Study Guide Answer KeySTRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONS1. a, epidermis; b, dermis; c, muscle fibers; d, bloodvessel; e, oil gland; f, pore; g, hair; h, hair follicle;i, sweat gland2. The epidermis and hair contain keratin.3. The dermis contains various kinds of sensoryneurons that respond to signals, such as heatand pressure.Section 46-1VOCABULARY REVIEW1. Each side of the heart is divided into an upperchamber (an atrium) and a lower chamber(a ventricle).2. The sinoatrial node sends electrical impulses tothe atrioventricular node, which then relays electrical impulses to the muscles of the ventriclesand causes them to contract.3. Arteries are large, muscular vessels that carryblood away from the heart. Veins carry blood tothe heart.4. In pulmonary circulation, blood travels betweenthe heart and lungs. In systemic circulation, bloodtravels between the heart and other body tissues.MULTIPLE CHOICE1. b2. d3. b4. c5. bSHORT ANSWER1. Deoxygenated blood moves from the right atrium tothe right ventricle and then to the lungs. Oxygenatedblood returns from the lungs to the left atrium andthen moves into the left ventricle. Oxygenated bloodis pumped from the left ventricle and circulatesthroughout the body. Deoxygenated blood returnsto the right atrium.2. It returns fluids that have collected in the tissuesto the bloodstream. It also traps foreign particles,microorganisms, and other tissue debris.3. Diastolic; if blood flowed back into the left ventricleafter contraction, less blood would remain in thearteries, reducing the blood pressure when theheart is relaxed.STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONS1. a, aorta; b, superior vena cava; c, right atrium;d, tricuspid valve; e, right ventricle; f, inferiorvena cava; g, pulmonary artery; h, left atrium;i, pulmonary veins; j, mitral valve; k, left ventricle2. Blood would leak from the left ventricle back intothe left atrium, causing reduced systemic bloodflow and possible oxygen deficiency.Copyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.SHORT ANSWER1. through sustained exertion; this occurs if the respiratory and circulatory systems are not able to supply the body with sufficient oxygen to maintainATP synthesis2. Myosin and actin filaments interact to shorten thelength of a sarcomere. A nerve impulse causes theheads of the myosin filaments to attach to pointsbetween the beads of the actin filaments, bendingthe heads inward and pulling the actin filamentswith them. Synchronized shortening of sarcomeresin a muscle causes the muscle to contract.3. Skeletal muscle tissue is made of elongated cellscalled muscle fibers. Each fiber has many nuclei.The fibers are crossed by light and dark stripes,which give the tissue its striped appearance.Smooth muscle tissue is made of spindle-shapedcells with a single nucleus that form sheets ofmuscle tissue. Smooth muscle is surrounded byconnective tissue and is not controlled voluntarily.Cardiac muscle, which makes up the walls of theheart, is striated like skeletal tissue and is involuntary. Each cell has a single nucleus.4. Antagonistic muscles are muscles that workagainst one another. Therefore, the contractions offlexors and extensors have opposite effects; extensors open a joint, and flexors close a joint.SHORT ANSWER1. It is a barrier that protects the body, retains bodyfluid, protects against disease, eliminates wasteproducts, and regulates body temperature.2. It causes skin damage, which causes an increase inmelanin production.3. The epidermis is the outer barrier of the skin andis the first defense against disease, water loss, andultraviolet radiation damage.4. Both have clusters of root or base cells, containdead cells, and have cells that are filled with keratin.5. Concentrated melanin production in certain areasof the skin causes moles and freckles.Section 46-2VOCABULARY REVIEW1. Leukocytes help defend the body from disease.Phagocytes are a type of leukocyte that engulfinvading microorganisms.2. An antigen is a protein or carbohydrate that causes the body to produce antibodies, which aredefensive proteins.3. Erythrocytes synthesize large amounts of hemoglobin, which carries oxygen.4. Platelets are cell fragments involved with bloodclotting. Fibrin is a protein that traps red bloodcells during clotting.Copyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.MULTIPLE CHOICE1. d2. c3. b4. d5. cSHORT ANSWER1. In the blood, oxygen is bonded to molecules ofhemoglobin in red blood cells for transport.2. Structural differences include: no nucleus in theRBC, but a nucleus in the WBC; one type of RBC,but several types of WBC; and a higher numberof RBC in circulation, but a lower number of WBCin circulation. Functional differences include: RBCstransport gases, while WBCs fight diseases;a short life span for RBCs, and a long life spanfor WBCs.3. All other blood types contain anti-A or anti-B antibodies. A person with type AB blood will have RBCswith A and B antigens, and mixing anti-A or anti-Bantibodies with type AB blood would be harmful.4. Platelets congregate at a damaged site, stickingtogether and forming a small plug. Plateletsrelease clotting factors, which begin a series ofreactions to produce fibrin. Fibrin produces a netthat traps other cells and forms a clot.5. Because hemoglobin requires a molecule of iron tocomplete its formation, lack of dietary iron mightimpair the synthesis of hemoglobin. Hemoglobincarries oxygen; therefore, lack of hemoglobin couldimpair the oxygen carrying capacity of blood.STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONS1. Type O blood does not contain antigens thatwould react with any antibodies that the recipientmight have.2. Antibodies to antigens A and Rh will causeagglutination, resulting in blocked vessels in therecipients body.Section 46-3VOCABULARY REVIEW1. When food is swallowed, the epiglottis covers thetrachea. During inspiration, the epiglottis allowsair to pass into the trachea.2. Vocal sounds are produced when air is expiredpast the vocal chords in the larynx.3. The trachea branches into two bronchi, each ofwhich leads to a lung. Bronchi branch into smallertubes called bronchioles.4. Alveoli are filled with air during inspiration.MULTIPLE CHOICE1. d2. c3. d4. b5. cSHORT ANSWER1. Yes; it conducts air between the external environment and the lungs.2. Most CO2 is transported as bicarbonate ions.When CO2 diffuses into plasma, it interacts with anenzyme that converts CO2 to carbonic acid. Thecarbonic acid spontaneously breaks down tobicarbonate ions and a proton. Bicarbonate ionsare very soluble in the plasma. About a quarter ofCO2 is bound to hemoglobin.3. The ribs are important for expiration. The musclesbetween the ribs relax during expiration permitting the ribs to fall. As a result, the thoracic cavitydecreases in volume.4. One possible cause is poor oxygen delivery tocells because of red blood cell deficiency. Otherpossibilities include impaired blood circulation,defective hemoglobin (sickle cell anemia), damagedlungs, heart, or diaphragm (emphysema), fluid inthe alveoli (pneumonia), and living at a very highaltitude.STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONS1. concentration gradients2. CO2 is more concentrated in the blood. This causes CO2 to flow from the blood to the lungs and outof the body.3. No; oxygen and CO2 each have a concentrationgradient. Thus, exchange of one gas is independent of the other.Section 47-1VOCABULARY REVIEW1. Kochs postulates are rules for determining thecause of a given disease.2. Interferon is a protein produced by virally infectedcells. It inhibits the reproduction of viruses by stimulating neighboring cells to produce protein thathelps them resist viral infection.3. Histamine is a chemical messenger that increasesblood flow to an injured area and increases thepermeability of the surrounding capillaries.4. Natural killer cells are large white blood cells thatattack cells that have been infected by pathogens.MULTIPLE CHOICE1. b2. c3. d4. d5. bSHORT ANSWER1. Neutrophils infiltrate damaged areas and engulfinvading pathogens.2. Interferon inhibits the reproduction of viruses bystimulating neighboring cells to produce proteinthat helps them resist viral infection.3. The first line of defense includes the skin andmucous membranes. Mucous membranes protectinterior surfaces of the body by secreting mucus,a sticky fluid that traps pathogens. Skin serves asa physical barrier to pathogens.4. Moderate fever stimulates the bodys defensemechanisms by suppressing growth of some bacteria and promoting the action of some whiteblood cells. Thus, taking aspirin to reduce fevercould slow the recovery.STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONS1. from top to bottom, 2, 5, 1, 4, 32. It permits neutrophils to squeeze through thecapillary walls to reach the site of an infection.Modern Biology Study Guide Answer Key393. The cold ice would cause constriction of bloodvessels and therefore inhibit blood flow to awounded area. Thus, the flow of white bloodcells to the area would be reduced, and theinflammatory response would be suppressed.Section 47-2VOCABULARY REVIEW1. A plasma cell is a specialized cell that arises froma B cell and produces antibodies.2. An antigen is any substance that the immune system does not recognize as part of the body andthat provokes an immune response.3. Memory cells are T cells and B cells that dontrespond the first time they are exposed to apathogen but will recognize and attack it duringlater infections.4. Antibodies are defensive proteins that attach tospecific antigens and inactivate them or triggertheir destruction by nonspecific defenses.5. Allergy is an immune response to a harmless antigen that results in harm to the allergic individual.MULTIPLE CHOICE1. c2. c3. a4. b5. bSTRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONS1. a, macrophage; b, helper T cell; c, B cell; d, antigen; e, infected cell; f, cytotoxic T cell; g, antibody;h, plasma cell2. exposure to a pathogen and production of interleukin-1 and interleukin-23. An enzyme that destroys cytokines could destroyinterleukin-1 and interleukin-2. Such an enzymewould inhibit the immune response.Section 47-3VOCABULARY REVIEW1. Helper T cells are infected by HIV. The onset ofAIDS occurs when the number of helper T cellsfalls below 200/mL of blood.2. HIV is the cause of AIDS.3. Opportunistic infection are infections that are usually stopped by a healthy immune system but succeed when the immune system is impaired, as inthe case of AIDS.40Modern Biology Study Guide Answer Key4. c5. bSHORT ANSWER1. No; most AIDS patients die from opportunisticinfections.2. Yes; the immune system is able to combat HIV initially. This period of infection without symptomsmay last up to 10 years following infection.3. transfer of body fluids through sexual contact,sharing hypodermic syringes, and transfer offluids between mother and fetus or infant4. Yes; HIV particles or infected cells may be foundwithin the transplanted organs or skin grafts. Thisrisk is known, and donor organs and grafts aretested for HIV.STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONS1. AIDS began six years after infection.2. The number of helper T cells has decreased somuch that plasma cells can no longer be stimulatedto produce HIV antibody.Section 48-1VOCABULARY REVIEW1. The six basic nutrients are carbohydrates,proteins, lipids, vitamins, minerals, and water.2. An unsaturated fat is a fatty acid that has at leastone double bond between carbon atoms.3. Vitamins function as coenzymes; that is, theyactivate enzymes and help them function.4. Dehydration causes the fluid volume of the bodyto decrease. Water moves from intercellularspaces to blood by osmosis. Eventually water isdrawn from the cells. As water is drawn, the cytoplasm becomes more concentrated until the cellcan no longer function. Dehydration also impairsthe bodys ability to regulate its temperature.MULTIPLE CHOICE1. d2. a3. d4. c5. cSHORT ANSWER1. Essential amino acids are those amino acids thatmust be obtained from food. Nonessential aminoacids can be produced by the body.2. Simple sugars are important because they representthe final carbohydrate that must be formed before itcan be used for energy production.3. Water is important because it is a medium forchemical reactions, it constitutes 90% of bloodvolume, it is used in waste removal, and it helpsregulate body temperature.4. Nutrients are required for proper function andgrowth.STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONS1. group a, the carbohydrates2. group c, animal products. No, essential amino acidsare also obtained from plant products and legumes.Section 48-2VOCABULARY REVIEW1. The pharynx serves as a passageway for air to thetrachea and food to the esophagus. The epiglottisis a flap that prevents food from entering thetrachea during swallowing.Copyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.SHORT ANSWER1. When a macrophage that displays a pathogensantigen on its surface binds to a helper T cell witha receptor matching the antigen, interleukin isreleased and T cells divide.2. Vaccines contain the antigens of dead or weakened pathogens. The vaccine causes an immuneresponse and the production of memory cells,which protect the individual from the disease.3. Antibodies attach to viral surface proteins andprevent the virus from entering host cells andreproducing. Antibodies also cause viruses toclump together, which helps macrophages toengulf the pathogens.4. T cells would be the cause because if helper T cellsare not activated to secrete interleukins, the cytotoxic T cells and B cells will not become activated.MULTIPLE CHOICE1. c2. c3. a2. An ulcer can develop when the mucous coatingof the stomach breaks down, allowing theenzymes contained in gastric fluid to eatthrough the stomach lining.3. Peristalsis moves digested material into the colon.4. The pyloric sphincter, a circular muscle betweenthe stomach and small intestine, regulates the flowof chyme, digested material formed by the stomach,from the stomach to the small intestine.5. The gastrointestinal tract includes the small intestine, which is lined with numerous villi whereabsorption of nutrients occurs.MULTIPLE CHOICE1. b2. d3. b4. c5. cSHORT ANSWER1. Mucus protects the stomachs inner lining fromdigestive secretions.2. Pepsin, an enzyme, catalyzes the breakdown ofproteins to peptides.3. The pancreas secretes pancreatic fluid into thesmall intestine. Pancreatic fluid neutralizes stomachacid and has enzymes that hydrolyze disaccharides into monosaccharides, fats into fatty acidsand glycerol, and proteins into amino acids.4. The richest supply of blood capillaries should bein the walls of the small intestine, specifically theileum and jejunum. These are the areas where theabsorption of the digested nutrients occurs.Copyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONS1. a, esophagus; b, liver; c, colon; d, rectum;e, mouth; f, stomach; g, small intestine2. The liver stores glycogen, breaks down toxic substances, and secretes bile, which digests fats.3. Absorption takes place in the small intestine,where villi and microvilli greatly increase the surface area.Section 48-3VOCABULARY REVIEW1. The nephron is the functional unit of the kidneywhere urine is produced.2. The urethra is the tube through which urinepasses from the urinary bladder out of the body.3. The renal medulla is the inner two-thirds ofthe kidney.4. Excretion is the process of removing metabolicwastes from the body. Students may also includethat during excretion, the metabolic wastes passthrough a membrane to leave the body.5. Urea is a nitrogenous waste that is producedfrom ammonia by the liver and then is removedby the kidneys.MULTIPLE CHOICE1. d2. c3. c4. b5. dSHORT ANSWER1. Filtration is the initial step in urine formation. Thisis when small compounds, including nitrogenouswaste products, are separated from the blood andtransferred to the nephron.2. Kidneys assist in the maintenance of fluid volume,blood pH, and the chemical composition of fluids.3. The entire renal cortex and medulla are composed of nephrons. Nephrons are considered thefunctional units of the kidney because theyperform all of the processes required for urineproduction.4. Ammonia is the first step in the production ofurea, which is excreted by kidneys.STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONS1. a, proximal convoluted tubule; b, loop of Henle;c, Bowmans capsule; d, glomerulus; e, distalconvoluted tubule; f, collecting duct2. The filtrate is collected in the Bowmans capsule.3. filtrate volume reabsorbed urine produced;100 mL filtrate 99 mL reabsorbed 1 mL urineproduced; 1500 mL urine/day 100 mL filtrate/1 mLurine 150,000 mL filtrate/daySection 49-1VOCABULARY REVIEW1. Dendrites are extensions of neurons that receivesignals from other neurons.2. Axon terminals are the ends of axons and maycommunicate with muscle cells, gland cells, orother neurons.3. An action potential is the transmission of an electrical impulse along the axon of a neuron.4. A neurotransmitter is a chemical that is releasedfrom axon terminals at synapses and that transmits an electrical signal between neurons.5. A synapse is the junction where a neuron communicates with another neuron or other type of cell.MULTIPLE CHOICE1. c2. b3. c4. d5. dSHORT ANSWER1. A neurotransmitter can either increase ordecrease the activity of a postsynaptic neuron,depending on the ion channels that are activatedby the neurotransmitter.2. At resting potential, potassium ions are more concentrated inside the cell, whereas sodium ions aremore concentrated outside the cell.3. Action potentials conduct down an axon awayfrom the cell body and toward the axon terminalbecause of the refractory period, the period oftime during which sodium channels cannot openafter an action potential.4. Because ions cannot pass through the myelinsheath, myelin increases the speed of the actionpotential because the electrical impulse must jumpfrom node to node as it moves down the axon.STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONS1. At the resting potential, voltage-gated sodiumchannels are not open. Thus, sodium ions cannotdiffuse into the neuron.2. Figure b shows the conduction of an action potentialdown the axon. Sodium ions are flowing into thecell, reversing the polarity of the cell. Potassiumions are rushing out of the cell because theirvoltage-gated channels are open.3. Electrical and concentration gradients cause themovement of sodium and potassium ions.Modern Biology Study Guide Answer Key41Section 49-2VOCABULARY REVIEW1. The brain stem lies below the diencephalon andincludes the midbrain, pons, and medulla oblongata.The medulla oblongata serves as a relay centerthat controls heart rate, respiration rate, andother homeostatic activities.2. The somatic nervous system and the autonomicnervous system are the two independent components of the motor division of the peripheralnervous system.3. The central and peripheral nervous systems arethe two main divisions of the nervous system andwork together to collect and process informationand control the bodys response to the information.4. The thalamus and hypothalamus are both part ofthe diencephalon of the brain. The thalamusrelays sensory signals, and the hypothalamushelps maintain homeostasis and controls hormoneproduction..MULTIPLE CHOICE1. a2. b3. c4. d5. cSTRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONS1. structure A, the gray matter2. It would eliminate sensory input to the spinal cordfrom that spinal nerve.3. It would eliminate sensory input and motor outputto and from the spinal cord from that spinal nerve.Section 49-3VOCABULARY REVIEW1. Papillae are bumps on the tongue between whichtaste buds are embedded.2. Rods are photoreceptors in the retina thatrespond to dim light.3. The retina is the light-sensitive layer that lines theback of the inside of the eye.4. Cones are photoreceptors in the retina thatrespond to bright light of different colors.MULTIPLE CHOICE1. c2. b3. b424. b5. aModern Biology Study Guide Answer KeySTRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONS1. photoreceptors; 2. mechanoreceptors;3. mechanoreceptors; 4. chemoreceptors;5. mechanoreceptors; 6. thermoreceptors;7. chemoreceptorsSection 49-4VOCABULARY REVIEW1. A stimulant is a psychoactive drug that alters thenervous system by increasing its activity.2. Tolerance is a characteristic of drug addiction inwhich larger doses are required to achieve thedesired effect.3. Addiction produces a dependence on a drug thatalters normal functioning of the nervous system tothe point that withdrawal is experienced if thedrug is removed.4. Nicotine is the addictive drug in tobacco, the useof which can lead to emphysema, a degenerativelung disease.MULTIPLE CHOICE1. c2. d3. a4. b5. cSHORT ANSWER1. Repeated exposure to a drug causes a person toneed more and more of the drug to achieve thedesired effect. Thus, tolerance increases withrepeated use.2. Symptoms of drug withdrawal include vomiting,headache, insomnia, breathing difficulties, depression, mental instability, and seizures.3. Cocaine blocks reuptake receptors, inhibiting thereuptake of dopamine from the synaptic cleft. Theexcess dopamine overstimulates postsynapticneurons, providing the sensation cocaine usersseek.4. There is an inverse relationship between bodyweight and BAC. As body weight increases, BACdecreases per number of drinks consumed. Peoplewith higher body weights have larger blood volumes. So if two people drink the same amount ofalcohol, the alcohol will be less concentrated inthe person with the larger volume of blood.Copyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.SHORT ANSWER1. The limbic system functions in emotion, memory,motivation, and other social behaviors.2. The ventral roots contain the axons of motorneurons, which carry information away from thecentral nervous system.3. In a state of physical or emotional stress, the sympathetic division of the autonomic nervous systemredirects blood flow from the digestive systemtoward the heart and skeletal muscles.4. The autonomic nervous system is most importantfor homeostasis because it acts constantly to modulate the bodys internal conditions.5. No; the central and peripheral nervous systemsconstantly interact. The spinal cord constantlyrelays information to the brain from the body andfrom the brain to the body.SHORT ANSWER1. Vibrations of the bottom membrane of the cochleastimulate hair cells in the organ of Corti, triggeringaction potentials that reach the brain through theauditory nerve.2. the vibration of the tympanic membrane3. Light stimulates photoreceptors deep in the retina,which in turn stimulate neurons on the retinalsurface. Visual information is then carried throughthe optic nerve to the thalamus and from the thalamus to the visual cortex of the occipital lobe.4. In each of these sensory systems, the thalamusacts as a relay of sensory information to the properregions of the brain where various sensory stimuliare interpreted.5. Body parts that perceive and interact with theenvironment receive the most sensory input.Interaction with the environment is crucial tosurvival. That is, body parts with the mostimportant and complex functions are thoseneeded to find food, avoid danger, reproduce,and sense pain and other stimuli.STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONSGroup A includes throat irritation, heart attack,emphysema, addiction, chronic bronchitis, and tars.Group B includes decreased body temperature, dehydration, liver damage, fetal alcohol syndrome, andaddiction.Section 50-1VOCABULARY REVIEW1. Target cells are specific cells to which a hormonetravels to produce a specific effect.2. A second messenger is a molecule that initiateschanges inside a cell in response to the binding ofa specific substance to a receptor on the outsideof a cell.3. A prostaglandin is a modified fatty acid that issecreted by most cells and accumulates in areaswhere tissues are disturbed or injured.4. A hormone is a substance that is secreted by cellsand acts to regulate the activity of other cells inthe body.MULTIPLE CHOICE1. d2. c3. a4. c5. cCopyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.SHORT ANSWER1. A first messenger binds to cell surface receptorsand stimulates production of a second messengerthat is located within the target cell.2. Hormones are transported in the bloodstream.3. No; they have ducts and secrete sweat, nothormones.4. It depends on the enzymes and other proteins thatcAMP activates to change the function of the cell.STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONS1. Anti-C antibody prevents the hormones action.2. No; the fact that three of the antibodies do notalter the hormones action is evidence that it isnot simply the binding of an antibody that disrupts the action of the hormone.3. Segment C is probably the receptor binding portion of the hormone.Section 50-2VOCABULARY REVIEW1. The hypothalamus produces hormones that arestored in the pituitary gland or that regulate thepituitary glands activities. Both structures arelocated in the brain.2. Epinephrine and norepinephrine are secreted bythe adrenal medulla and regulate the nervoussystems response to stress.3. Follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone are secreted by the anterior pituitary andstimulate secretion of sex hormones from thegonads.4. Insulin is a hormone secreted by the pancreas andregulates blood sugar levels. Diabetes mellitus is acondition in which cells are unable to obtain glucosedue to an insulin deficiency.5. Estrogen and testosterone are steroid sex hormonessecreted by the gonads.MULTIPLE CHOICE1. d2. a3. cSHORT ANSWER1. The thyroid glands secrete calcitonin, which lowers blood levels of calcium, and the parathyroidglands secrete parathyroid hormone, which raisesblood levels of calcium.2. Oxytocin and antidiuretic hormone (ADH), are produced in the hypothalamus by neurosecretorycells. Oxytocin stimulates uterine contractionsduring childbirth, and ADH stimulates water reabsorption in the kidneys.3. The TSH level should be above normal becausethe negative feedback mechanism would attemptto normalize the thyroid hormone levels byincreasing stimulation.STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONS1. In Situation 1, the receptors of Cell M are defective. There is no Cell M secretion, indicating thathormone secreted by Cell D is required to stimulate Cell M. Cell D secretion increases due to itsattempt to increase the level of Cell M secretion tonormal. Both of these responses indicate that CellD secretes the regulating hormone.2. In Situation 2, the receptors of Cell D are defective.Cell D secretion is increased because it is unable todetect hormone secreted by Cell M. In response tothe increased levels of Cell D hormones, Cell Msecretions increase.Section 51-1VOCABULARY REVIEW1. Semen contains sperm and the secretions of threeexocrine glandsthe seminal vesicles, the bulbourethral glands, and the prostate gland.2. The testes are the gamete-producing organs of themale reproductive system.3. Ejaculation is the forceful expulsion of semen fromthe penis.4. Seminiferous tubules are the tightly coiled tubulesof the testes in which sperm are produced.5. The epididymis is a long, coiled tubule attached tothe testis in which sperm develop.MULTIPLE CHOICE1. c2. c3. c4. c5. dSHORT ANSWER1. Sperm move from the seminiferous tubules to theepididymis, through the vas deferens and urethra,and out of the penis.2. Semen is composed of sperm and secretions fromthree exocrine glandsthe seminal vesicles, bulbourethral glands, and the prostate gland.3. Seminiferous tubules are located in the testesthe vas deferens is not; there is more than oneseminiferous tubulethere is only one vas deferens pertestis; seminiferous tubules have meioticcells in their wallsthe vas deferens does not.4. The sperms flagellum enables it to swim to anegg, and its head contains digestive enzymes thathelp it penetrate the egg-s outer layers.5. Yes; androgens, including testosterone, arerequired for the successful completion of spermatogenesis. Therefore, it is advantageous thatthe source of androgens be within the testes toensure the success of spermatogenesis.4. dModern Biology Study Guide Answer Key43STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONS1. a, vas deferens; b, seminiferous tubule;c, epididymis2. a, mature; b, immature; c, immature5. The fluid-filled amniotic sac surrounds the embryoand cushions it from injury.Section 51-2SHORT ANSWER1. Estrogen and progesterone inhibit the secretion ofLH and FSH. Without FSH, new follicles do notdevelop and eggs are not prepared for ovulation.2. All three structures are involved in the transfer ofnutrients and waste products between the fetus andmother. Blood vessels originating from the allantois(one of the four embryonic membranes) extend intothe chorionic villi. The combination of the chorionicvilli and the portions of the uterine lining into whichthey extend is called the placenta.3. Estrogen maintains the uterine lining throughoutdevelopment, ensuring the protection and nourishment of the fetus.4. An egg must be fertilized, then the zygote mustundergo a series of mitotic divisions (called cleavage) that produce a morula and finally a blastocyst. Buildup of the uterine lining must occurprior to implantation.5. Human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG); HCG is onlyproduced by the placenta. Consequently, HCG is apregnancy-specific hormone.MULTIPLE CHOICE1. c2. c3. dVOCABULARY REVIEW1. Ovulation occurs when an ovum, or mature egg, isreleased from an ovary into the fallopian tube.2. A woman stops menstruating when her follicleshave either ruptured or degenerated. This iscalled menopause.3. The uterus is a hollow, muscular organ in which afertilized egg develops. The lower entrance to theuterus is the cervix, which leads to the vagina andout the body4. The follicular phase is a stage of the menstrualcycle in which an immature egg completes its firstmeiotic division.5. The luteal phase is the stage of the menstrual cycleduring which the corpus luteum begins to secretelarge amounts of progesterone and estrogen.MULTIPLE CHOICE1. a2. d3. b4. c5. aSTRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONSIn figure a, FSH stimulates follicular cells within theovary during the follicular phase of the menstrualcycle. In figure b, a corpus luteum within the ovarysecretes progesterone during the luteal phase. Infigure c, the uterine lining sloughs off during menstruation. In figure d, an egg is released from an ovarianfollicle during ovulation. In figure e, estrogen stimulates the reestablishment of the uterine lining duringthe follicular phase.Section 51-3VOCABULARY REVIEW1. Human chorionic gonadotropin is a hormonesecreted by the placenta that stimulates furtherhormone production in the corpus luteum.2. Implantation is the beginning of pregnancy whenthe blastocyst embeds into the uterine lining.3. Chorionic villi are the part of the placenta thatextend into the uterine lining.4. The umbilical cord consists of fetal arteries andveins that transport nutrients from the mother tothe fetus and waste products from the fetus to themother via the placenta.44Modern Biology Study Guide Answer Key5. cSTRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONS1. a, fallopian tube; b, ovary; c, vagina; d, uterus2. blastocystd; zygotea; corpus luteumb; morulaaCopyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.SHORT ANSWER1. Male and female gametes contribute equal numbers of chromosomes to the fertilized egg. Withoutthe diploid number of chromosomes, the fertilizedegg usually will not survive.2. An egg is a round cell, a sperm is an elongatedcell; a sperm has a flagellum, an egg does not havea flagellum; a sperm has a midpiece encircled bymitochondria, an egg does not have a midpiece; anegg has a large amount of cytoplasm, a sperm hasalmost no cytoplasm; an egg is larger than sperm;and a sperm has a condensed elongated nucleus,an egg has a round nucleus.3. At menopause, most of the follicles have eitherruptured or degenerated. Students should be ableto deduce that without follicles, there are no eggs.4. b...
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