Lec11.Phylogenetics

Lec11.Phylogenetics - Goal of Phylogenetics To recreate the...

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1 Goal of Phylogenetics ± To recreate the ancestor-descendant relationships among species. [ phylogenetic trees ] Phylogenetic Trees: How to read them “Time” Usually meaningless AB C D E
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2 Cladogram = topology Phylogram = topology + evolutionary distance/change (or time) Phylogenetic Trees: how to “read” them Hard polytomy: simultaneous speciation. Soft polytomy: lack of resolution
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3 The Phylogeny Problem TAGCCCA TAGACTT TGCACAA TGCGCTT AGGGCAT UVW XY UX Y VW DNA Sequence Evolution AAGACTT TG GACTT AAG G C C T A G GGC A T T AG C CCT A G C ACTT AAGGCCT TGGACTT TAGCCC A TAG A C T TA G C G CTT AGCAC AA AGGGCAT AGGGCAT TAGCCCT AGCACTT AGCGCTT AGCACAA TAGACTT TAGCCCA AGGGCAT Essential Terminology ± Sister species : species derived from the same most recent common ancestor
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4 Essential Terminology ± Sister species : species derived from the same most recent common ancestor ¾ Homology : character shared between species because of common descent, that is, it was in the common ancestor of the species. Essential Terminology ¾ Analogy (homoplasy) : characters shared due to convergence, that is, similarity due to either chance or common selective pressures ¾ Cacti and euphorbs Essential Terminology ± Sister species : species derived from the same most recent common ancestor ¾ Similarity : Saying that two characters appear similar without making any claim about common descent
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5 Essential Terminology: Types of homologous characters ± Some homologies provide unambigous phylogenetic
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Lec11.Phylogenetics - Goal of Phylogenetics To recreate the...

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