Evolution Post-Lab Assignment Online hw.xlsx - BIO 1414...

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Unformatted text preview: BIO 1414 - Evolution Name: Lab Section: Date: Group Members: Abigail Gurrola 0BF September 8th Kaylee Trevino Complete all questions, tables, and graphs on the four tabs following this Tit Answers to questions must be written in complete sentences. Upload to Blackboard by 11:59 P.M. by the due date. ollowing this Title page. sentences. ue date. Random Mating and Hardy-Weinberg Principle Table 1 - Genotypic and Allelic Frequencies for Random Mating Parental Number of Genotypic Number of Alleles Genotype Individuals Frequency Alleles 25 0.25 B 100 BB 50 0.5 b 100 Bb 25 0.25 Total 200 bb 100 1.0 Total Offspring Genotype BB Bb bb Total Question 1: Number of Individuals 27 46 27 100 Genotypic Frequency 0.27 0.46 0.27 1.0 Alleles B b Total Number of Alleles 100 100 200 Do the allelic frequencies of the offspring match the parents? Explain your data. Yes because the number of alleles are the same and random mating. Question 2: If the frequencies are significantly different, then one of the assumptions of the Hardy-Wein Principle was probably violated. Explain which one was violated in your answer. If n were violated, explain why this is the case. According to the frquencies non were violated because there was no outsude press removing any alleles. Question 3: Take a picture of your setup for this procedure. Your picture should include the container th used for the “Parental Population” and the items used to represent the alleles. Insert your picture of your Procedure 1 setup in the designated area below. g Principle ndom Mating Allelic Frequency 0.5 0.5 2 Allelic Frequency 0.5 0.5 ents? Explain your data. and random mating. umptions of the Hardy-Weinberg olated in your answer. If none e case. ere was no outsude pressure uld include the container that you to represent the alleles. designated area below. 100% Negative Selection Pressure Table 2 - Genotypic Frequencies for 100% Negative Selection Number of Individuals Parental Genotype Generation 1 Generation 2 Generation 3 Generation 4 Generation 5 Question 1: BB Bb bb Total BB Bb bb Total BB Bb bb Total BB Bb bb Total BB Bb bb Total BB Bb bb Total 25 50 25 100 27 46 27 100 26 48 26 100 33 31 9 73 38 22 5 65 42 16 4 100 Calculate the allelic frequencies for B and b in the fifth generation. Show your calculations B: ((2x42)+16)/124=.81 b: ((2x4)+16)/124=.19 Question 2: Did the frequency of the bb individuals decrease with successive generations? Explain why or wh Yes there was a decrease in bb individuals because they couldn’t reproduce, therefore they w getting passed down. Question 3: Was the decrease in the frequency of bb individuals between successive generations always the s Explain why or why not. Yes the frquencies of bb individuals between successive generations will always be the same was a decrease in bb frequencies because we decrease the same amount of alleles each gen Question 4: Is it possible to completely eliminate the red allele? Based on your data, approximately how many generations would it take? The next generation (6) would be approximately 3% then 1.5% then .75% then .37% and lastly considering that you can have so it will probably be gone in the 9th generation the closest to get is the 11th. The next generation (6) would be approximately 3% then 1.5% then .75% then .37% and lastly considering that you can have so it will probably be gone in the 9th generation the closest to get is the 11th. Question 5: Most naturally occurring selective pressures do not eliminate reproduction by the affected individu Instead, their reproductive capacity is reduced by a small proportion. How would your results differ was only 20% negative selection pressure rather than 100%? If there was 20% negative selection pressure rather than 100%, then there will be a small amo the successful reproduction so the results will reduce. Create a line graph of your data from Table 2 for the Excel Post-Lab Assignment. Generations i independent variable on the x-axis and Genotypic Frequency is the dependent variable on the y Question 6: Graph three lines, one for each genotype (use different symbols or colors to distinguish the three gen You will need to include a legend that includes all three genotypes. Be sure to title your graph, lab axes, and include a legend. Use the area below to insert your graph of the data from Table 2. You will want to cre table first of the data, then create a line graph from that and include it down belo Genotypic Frequencies for 100% Negative Selection 0.8 Genotypic Frequency 0.7 0.6 0.5 BB Bb bb 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0 1 2 3 Generations 4 5 Generations 1 2 3 4 5 on Pressure % Negative Selection Genotypic Frequency 0.25 0.5 0.25 1.0 0.27 0.46 0.27 1.0 0.26 0.48 0.26 1.0 0.45 0.42 0.13 1.0 0.58 0.34 0.07 1.0 0.67 0.27 0.06 1.0 fifth generation. Show your calculations. ((2x4)+16)/124=.19 ccessive generations? Explain why or why not. hey couldn’t reproduce, therefore they werent d down. ween successive generations always the same? why not. ive generations will always be the same if their se the same amount of alleles each generation. sed on your data, approximately how many more d it take? en 1.5% then .75% then .37% and lastly .18% so one in the 9th generation the closest to 0 I can 1th. minate reproduction by the affected individuals. proportion. How would your results differ if there ressure rather than 100%? han 100%, then there will be a small amount of o the results will reduce. Excel Post-Lab Assignment. Generations is the quency is the dependent variable on the y-axis. mbols or colors to distinguish the three genotypes). enotypes. Be sure to title your graph, label your a legend. ata from Table 2. You will want to create a h from that and include it down below. Table Generations or 100% Negative Selection BB Bb bb 3 ations 4 5 BB 1 2 3 4 5 Bb 0.27 0.26 0.45 0.58 0.67 bb 0.46 0.48 0.42 0.34 0.27 0.27 0.26 0.13 0.07 0.06 BB Bb 0.27 0.26 0.45 0.58 0.67 bb 0.46 0.48 0.42 0.34 0.27 0.27 0.26 0.13 0.07 0.06 Gene Flow Table 3 - Allelic Frequencies resulting from Gene Flow Population 1 Population 1 Population 2 Number of Frequency of Number of Alleles B allele Alleles Generation 1 Generation 2 Generation 3 Generation 4 Generation 5 Question 1: B 90 b Total B b Total B b Total B b Total B b Total 10 100 79 21 100 69 31 100 69 31 100 32 68 100 10 90.00% 79% 69% 69% 32% 90 100 24 76 100 34 66 100 34 66 100 34 64 100 Would changing the number of immigrants per generation (e.g. migrating 5 or 20 individuals each tim changes in frequencies? Explain your reasoning. Yes, changing the number of immigrants per generation would affect the changes in frquenci it would increase the gene flow (having more/different alleles). Question 2: How does the differences in starting allelic frequencies between the two populations affect the ch frequencies? Explain your reasoning. The starting allelic frquencies between the two populations will affect the changes in freq because the genotype and phenotype; all alleles will be different. Create a line graph of the Frequency of B allele against the successive Generations for both populations from Table 3. Graph two lines, one for each population (use different symbols or colors t Question 3: the two populations). You will need to include a legend that includes both populations. Be sure to graph, label your axes, and include a legend. frequency of B allele Use the area below to insert your graph of the data from Table 3. You will want to cre first of the data, then create a line graph from that and include it down below Frequency of B allele 100 90 80 70 60 frequency of B allele Frequency of B allele 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 population1 population 2 1 2 3 Generation 4 5 ne Flow Population 2 Frequency of B allele 10.00% 24% 34% 34% 36% 5 or 20 individuals each time) affect the asoning. ct the changes in frquencies because ifferent alleles). wo populations affect the changes in ng. affect the changes in frequencies s will be different. ssive Generations for both of your different symbols or colors to distinguish oth populations. Be sure to title your egend. 3. You will want to create a table nd include it down below. Table Generationpopulation1 population 2 1 90 10 2 3 4 5 population1 population 2 5 79 69 69 32 24 34 34 36 Genetic Drift Table 4 - Allelic Frequencies resulting from Genetic Drift Number of Frequency of Frequency of b Genotype B allele allele Generation 1 Generation 2 Generation 3 Generation 4 Generation 5 Generation 6 Generation 7 Generation 8 BB Bb bb Total BB Bb bb Total BB Bb bb Total BB Bb bb Total BB Bb bb Total BB Bb bb Total BB Bb bb Total BB Bb bb Total 25 50 25 100 1 2 1 4 1 2 1 4 1 2 1 4 1 2 1 4 0 4 0 4 0 4 0 4 0 4 0 4 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 Question 1: Is it possible to predict the frequencies of subsequent generations? Explain your reasoni Yes, we can predict the allelic frequency of subsequent generation if the population is in weinberg equilibrium. Because according to the principle of hardy weinberg equilibrium alleleic frequency remains constant from generation to generation. Question 2: Would the effects of genetic drift differ with the sample size? Explain your reasoning. In the surviving sample, the genetic drift leads to loss of the one kind of population fro geographical area due to the presence of natural pressure such as fire, flood etc. That's w genotype frequency will change in case of genetic drift Question 3: Why is this mechanism for evolution called genetic drift? This is called genetic drift because there is loss of one kind of population as occur in gene In genetic drift there is found random fixation of alleles. Question 4: Could genetic drift eventually lead to speciation? Explain why or why not. Yes, if the newest population can be so genetically different that it does form a new spe Question 5: If one of the alleles for your experiment was lost (0%) and the other became fixed (100%), how lost allele be brought back into the population? Explain your reasoning. If one of the alleles were lost (0%) in the experiment and the other became fixed (100%), w be able to bring back the lost allele to the population by crossing between heterozgous Create a line graph of the Allelic Frequency for each Generation from Table 4. Graph two line each allele (use different symbols or colors to distinguish the two alleles). You will need to inc legend that includes both alleles. Be sure to title your graph, label your axes, and include a Use the area below to insert your graph of the data from Table 4. You will want to table first of the data, then create a line graph from that and include it down be Allelic Frequency 0.6 0.5 Frequency of allele Question 6: 0.4 frequency B frequency b 0.3 0.2 0.1 0 1 2 3 4 5 Generations 6 7 8 Explain your reasoning. n if the population is in hardy y weinberg equilibrium, the to generation. xplain your reasoning. e kind of population from a fire, flood etc. That's why the netic drift tic drift? lation as occur in genetic drift. of alleles. n why or why not. it does form a new species. ame fixed (100%), how could the your reasoning. ecame fixed (100%), we would between heterozgous allele. Table 4. Graph two lines, one for es). You will need to include a ur axes, and include a legend. 4. You will want to create a nd include it down below. Table frequency B frequency b 8 generationfrequency B frequency b 1 0.5 0.5 2 0.5 0.5 3 0.5 0.5 4 0.5 0.5 5 0.5 0.5 6 0.5 0.5 7 0.5 0.5 8 0.5 0.5 ...
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