Abc or multiple i designs multiple baseline designs

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Unformatted text preview: critical Also, a SENSITIVE baseline is important ABA design (also used in other circumstances). ABC or Multiple-I designs. Multiple-baseline designs multiple-baseline across subjects Multiple-baseline design across behaviors Multiple-baseline design across situations Problems and limitations of single-subject designs 6 Single-subject data tell us nothing about average performance Limit on number of IVs that can be effectively studied within a particular individual Limited to application in situations for which a stable and sensitive baseline can be established Ethical issues Ethical Issues in Behavioral Research Examples in Research Tuskegee Study Begun in 1932 and continued for 40 years Purpose was to study the effects of syphilis on untreated subjects Participants were 399 black, poor, semiliterate individuals with syphilis Milgram studies 1960s and 1970s Participants told that some volunteers would be teachers and others learners in a memory task Purpose was not about learning but about coercion Kammerer’s studies on acquired characteristics and their inheritance Early 1900s He claimed that salamanders not only showed an increasing tendency to have small black spots after being kept on black soil, but that this reduction was being inherited His work was doubted, found to be fraudulent (he injected India ink), and he promptly committed suicide NOTE: Violations are relatively rare. The Public Health Services for Scientific Integrity examined 118 reported cases 27 required full investigations 18 involved misconduct 3 involved behavioral scientists Each year, the NSF has found only 2-3 cases of misconduct serious enough to warrant sanctions Only 4 behavioral scientists have been cited in recent years Steven Breuning, U. of Pittsburgh, 1988 Arnold Rincover, UNC Greensboro Lonnie Mitchell of Coppon State College and Jerusa Wilson Your basis for moral decisions Deontological you buy into an absolute, universal moral code CAREFUL - the universal code is different depending on one’s beliefs 7 Ethical skepticism morality is relative; decisions are a matter of an individual’s conscience relativism is very common in America and Europe Utilitarian cost-benefit analysis the ends justify the means Most professional organizations are utilitarian (incl. the APA American Psychological Association) NOTE: I find the book’s ‘questions’ too caricatured, esp. of the deontological viewpoint. Moral dilemmas Your wife is sick and needs an expensive medicine which you can’t afford - she’ll die in 3 months if she doesn’t get it. The local pharmacy carries it and is not hurting for money. Is it okay to steal the medicine? NOTE: researchers judge considering the ‘higher goo...
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