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Qn1 Explain and contrast the differences, duties and safety missions between the FAA and NTSB. Provide examples of the responsibilities of each organization within the aviation industryThe Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) is a part of the Department of Transportation (DoT) in the United States (US) while the NTSB is an independent agency. The FAA’s mission is to ensure the safety of civil aviation. The agency does so by issuing and enforcing regulations and minimum standards covering the safe maintenance, and operations of civil aviation in the US. Some of the primary responsibilities of the FAA include developing and operating a system of air traffic control, navigationfor both civil and military aircraft, and regulating civil aviation to promote safety within the United States (US) and abroad. This includes aircraft certification, flight crew, maintenance, and operations standards. Additionally, the FAA deals with aviation security, maintaining certain databases, and conduct inspections of air carriers. However, the NTSB can only provide recommendations and suggestions toFAA as itdoes not have regulatory power to assign policies, standard operating procedures (SOPs), and regulations in the aviation industry. The NTSB was formed in 1967, to perform investigations of all civil aviation accidents in the United States. The agency’s main mission is to issue safety recommendations to improve safety in transportation and prevent future accidents. To do so, the NTSB must identify any probable causes that led to the accident after which they would then inform the FAA of their findings and recommendations. Due to the NTSB not having any enforcement powers, the FAA is the agency responsible to develop and implement the new regulations and recommendations to the US aviation industry. The NTSB also acts as a database for the US with regard to aviation accidents and safety studies. Moreover, the NTSB also does research and case studies on past accidents to identify possible similarities and probable safety lapses can be countered. Not only that, but the agency also acts as a hearing board in cases between the FAA andflight crew. Qn2 Explain, define and contrast the SHELL and 5M human factor models and their application in aviation safety.The purpose of a SHELL Model is to explain the scope of human factors in aviation and helps people to understand human factor relationships
between the environment, and resources. The components of this model as indicated by the International Civil Aviation Organization are Software, Hardware, Environment, and Liveware. Software refers to procedures, checklists, and training. Hardware refers to machines and equipment. The