American%20history%20notes%20July%2028 - July 28, 2009 Cold...

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July 28, 2009Cold War, Part 1- Origins-Mistrust and misunderstanding-Concerns of allies (soviet union)= communism and spread communism-Stalin was concerned about US spreading democracy“Iron Curtain”-coined by Winston Churchill in 1946-Idea was line drawn separating western European countries from westernEuropean countries-Churchill doesn’t want another war-Solution to dealing with the soviet union= United Nations“Collective security”-The US forms alliance to protect the west [Europe]-Going into alliance with non- communism nations“Spheres of influence”-USSR takes control of smaller countries-Buffer between them and western EuropeGeorge KennanWrote the X article-said that communism needs to stop to survive-US needs to prevent any further communism expansionContainment-we are containing the soviet union- containing communismPassage of National Security Act-Passed in 1947-1. Creating Secretary of defense-2. Creation of National Security Council-3. Establishment of the CIA-4. Making the position of Joint Chief of Staff a permanent positionInitial phases of the Cold WarTruman Doctrine (1947)-US said will give aid to any country fighting communism-Give over 400 million dollars in aidMarshall Plan (1947)-Economic containment-US gives 13 billion dollars to help repair Europe-George C. Marshall
-Contribute to tension in areasBerlin Airlift (1948-1949)-Blocks all roads into Berlin-Cuts of electricity to all residents of the city-Truman launches a massive airlift to bring supplies into the city-Small victory for USNorth Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO, 1949)-Formalizes the idea of collective security-First time US had entered a military alliance in peace time since the American re-volution-When West Germany joined Stalin became paranoid led to Warsaw pactWarsaw Pact (1955)-Stalin comes up with-Created just to counter any potential threat from NATO1949 USSR have access to nuclear weapons (Atomic Bomb)Cold War in AsiaJapan-Becomes Americas new alli after WW2 because it became capitalistChina-1949 falls to communism-Leads to the domino theory-“Domino Theory”= if one falls all will fallCold War, Part 2—Military BuildupNSC -68 (National Security Council)-Released by US government in 1951-Said Cold War was a war between freedom and slavery-Known as Blue Print for the Cold War-Change for US builds up its military by 350% (After looking at the differencebetween US and USSR)Korean War (1950-53)-Response to the fear of the Domino Theory-Korea was divided upon the 38thparallel-North Korea crosses the parallel and attacks-Korean starts before the NSC- 68 (before military builds up)Douglas McArthur-Amazing war General
-Asks for 34 Atomic Bomb-Removed after request-All the troops will be back by Christmas-US and UN start pushing back against N. Korea-China sends 250,000 troops to fight back against S. KoreaImportant because it is known when the cold war went hotEverything stays the same before the warMilitary-Industrial Complex (rise)-comes about because of NSC-68-More deals between private businesses and government

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Term
Spring
Professor
MORGENSTERN

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