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14-15 KEYSTONE REVIEW PACKET ANCHOR 5 answers.docx - ANSWER...

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ANSWER KEYKEYSTONE REVIEW PACKET ANCHOR 5: CELL GROWTH AND REPRODUCTIONLEARNING OBJECTIVES:Describe the there stages of the cell cycle: Interphase, Nuclear Division, and CytokinesisoDescribe the events that occur during the cell cycle: interphase, nuclear division (ie. Mitosis ormeiosis), cytokinesisoCompare the processes and outcomes of mitotic and meiotic nuclear divisionsExplain how genetic information is inheritedoDescribe how the process of DNA replication results in the transmission and/or conservationof genetic informationoExplain the functional relationships between DNA, genes, alleles, and chromosomes and theirroles in inheritanceVocabulary:Concepts To Know:Main Idea #1: The Cell CycleThe Cell cycle– period of time from thebeginning of one cell division to the beginningof the nextoDuring the cell cycle, a cell grows,prepares for division, and divides toform two daughter cells, each ofwhich then begins the cell cycle again(only in mitosis)oConsists of 3 phases:1) INTERPHASE(longest)G1 – intense growth and activityS phase – copying ofchromosomes (DNA replication)G2 – intense growth and activity2) NUCLEAR DIVISION – (mitosis ormeiosis– the division of the cellnucleus3) CYTOKINESIS– cytoplasmic divisionMITOSISAnaphaseCrossing overInterphaseNondisjunctionAlleleCytokinesisGene recombinationProphaseCell cycleDNA replicationInterphaseSemiconservative replicationCentromereGameteMeiosisChromosomesGeneMetaphaseChromatidsHomologousMitosis
Biologists divide the events of mitosis into 4 phases: prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase1.Prophase– 1stand longest phase of mitosis (50-60% of total time)ochromosomes become visible as pairs of identical sister chromatids, joined at the centromereocentrioles separate and take up positions on opposite sides of the nucleuschromosomes attach to spindleat the centromereplants do not have centriolesorganize spindle from areas called centrosomesonucleolus disappearsonuclear envelope breaks down2.Metaphase– 2ndphase of mitosisochromosomes line up along center of the cellomicrotubules connect the centromere of each chromosome to the poles of the spindle3.Anaphase– 3rdphase of mitosisocentromeres that join the sister chromatids splitochromatids separate and become individual daughter chromosomesochromatids get pulled apart, to the poles of the spindle4.Telophase– 4thphase of mitosisochromosomes become loose and begin to disperseonuclear envelope reformsospindle breaks apartoa nucleolus reappearsocytokinesis begins during telophaseCYTOKINESISdivision of the cytoplasmin animals, cell membrane pinches in at the middlein plants, cell plate forms midway through the cell, eventually growing to become new wall

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