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Unformatted text preview: 1 Repetition maximum (1RM) The maximum amount of weight a person can lift one time Actin- Thin myofilaments Active Stretching- A technique that involves stretching a muscle by contracting the opposing muscle Acute Injuries- Physical Injuries, such as sprains, bruises, and pulled muscles, which result from sudden traumas, such as falls or collisions Alveoli- Tiny air sacs in the lungs where gas exchange takes place Arteries- The network of blood vessels that carry blood from the heart throughout the body Atrium- Either of the two upper chambers of the heart, which receive blood from the veins Atrophy- A decrease in the size of muscles due to inactivity Ballistic Stretching- Rapid bouncing movements Capillaries- A minute blood vessel that connects an artery to a vein Cardiac Muscle- Heart muscle Cardiorespiratory Endurance- Ability of the heart, lungs, and circulatory system to deliver oxygen to muscles working rhythmically over an extended period of time Cardiovascular System- The heart and blood vessels; responsible for distributing nutrients and oxygen to the cells with the body and removing carbon dioxide and other waste materials from the body Collagen- White fibers that provide support and structure in the connective tissue Concentric Contraction- A type of isotonic contraction in which the muscle becomes shorter and applies force Conditioning- The gradual building up of the body to enhance one or more of the three main components of physical fitness; flexibility, cardiorespiratory or aerobic fitness, and muscular strength and endurance Cross-training- Alternating two or more different types of fitness activities Delayed-onset Muscle Soreness (DOMS)- The pain and soreness felt a day or two after a workout Diastole- The period between contractions in the cardiac cycle, during which the heart relaxes and dilates as it fills with blood Diminishing Returns Principles- The principle that indicates that as you gain benefits as the result of physical activity, additional benefits will be more difficult to achieve Dynamic Flexibility- The ability to move a joint quickly and fluidly through its entire range of motion with little resistance Dynamic Training- A training approach that focuses on muscle contractions that produce movement Eccentric Contraction- A type of isotonic contraction in which the muscle lengthens as it contracts Edema- An excessive accumulation of fluid in connective tissue, causing swelling and pain Elastin- Yellow fibers that make the connective tissue elastic and flexible Endorphins- Mood-elevating, pain-killing chemicals from the brain Endothelium- the specialized layer of tissue inside blood vessels Fast-Twitch Fibers- Muscle fibers that contract rapidly and forcefully but fatigue quickly FITT- A formula that describes the frequency, intensity, type, and length of time for physical activity Frostbite- The freezing or partial freezing of skin and tissue just below the skin or even muscle and bone (more sever than frostnip)...
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- Spring '08