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ASTR100 (section 1) Fall 2019 Final Exam – Study GuideThe final exam is comprehensive; it will cover material from the entire semester. This study guide lists only the topics since the second midterm; the final exam will also cover the topics from the previous two midterm study guides (also check the study guide updates for each; e.g. if a topic was removed from the exam 2 study guide, that topic will not be with the exam 2 questions).You must bring a penciland your iCard(university ID). You may (optional) bring one 3”x5” notecard with notes(front and back, typed or handwritten, images and graphs are all fine). Calculators are not allowed (nor needed).The format is 65 multiple choice questions (1 point each), distributed as follows:·15 questions from Midterm 1 topics·15 questions from Midterm 2 topics·35 questions from post-Midterm 2 topics, discussed since Midterm 2Note: this study guide is subject to change depending on the progress made during lecture.Topics post-midterm 2:●Lives and Deaths of Stars (ch 22-23)○Massive stars■Black holes- Dying stellar core >3Mo. Gravity sucks it all in. The escape velocity is greater than the speed of light. Nothing escapesthe event horizon. Use doppler shift to find black holes. ○Evolution of binary stars■Nova- Binary system. Fresh hydrogen gradually accumulates on the surface of the white dwarf. It is then heated by the white dwarf and suddenly explosive fusion takes place. ■Type Ia supernova- Binary system. Happens when a primary star accumulates mass from the main sequence star too fast. Exceeds the chandrasekhar limit. Fusion for 100 years then it explodes and destroys the white dwarf/ primary star. ●Black Holes and Curved Spacetime (ch 24)○Black holes■Event horizon- the spherical boundary that surrounds the black hole. Escape velocity is greater than light. There is no escaping it. ■Escape velocity- greater than the speed of light. ○Gravitational waves- rearranging matter makes gravitational waves. They’re very weak and too difficult to detect. It can only detect powerful phenomena (black holes, neutron stars)●Exoplanets (ch 14.4 & 21.3-21.6)○Protoplanetary disk- disk of gas and dust around forming star○Definition of exoplanet or extrasolar planet- planets orbiting other stars outside the solar system
○Kepler mission- launched in 2009 and ran out of fuel in 2018.. Discovered