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Unformatted text preview: WorkRelated Stress and Stress Management
Ch. 7 General Adaptation Syndrome
Stage 1 Alarm Reaction Stage 2 Resistance Stage 3 Exhaustion Normal Level of Resistance Stressors and Stress Outcomes
Interpersonal Role-related Task control Organizational/ Physical Environment Individual Differences Consequences of Stress
Physiological Behavioral Psychological Stress Nonwork Stressors Interpersonal Stressors Considered the most common group of workplace stressors Include: Team dynamics Organizational politics Bad bosses Workplace violence Psychological and sexual harassment Sexual Harassment Unwelcome conduct detrimental effect on work environment or job performance Quid pro quo employment or job performance is conditional on unwanted sexual relations an intimidating, hostile, or offensive working environment Hostile work environment Minimizing Harassment
1. 2. 3. 4. Develop policies and culture of a more respectful workplace Screen job applicants for past incidents where they have harassed others Use multisource (360degree) feedback to identify harassing behavior Develop a trustworthy conflict resolution process Role conflict RoleRelated Stressors Incongruity or incompatibility of expectations associated with the person's role Occurs when two roles conflict with each other Occurs when personal values conflict with work roles uncertain task and social expectations increased hours and intensity Role ambiguity Work overload Task Control Stressors Stress increases when employees lack control over: How and when tasks are performed Pace of work activity Low task control is a higher stressor when job also has high responsibility Org & Physical Environment Stressors Organizational Most prevalent is downsizing, which affects layoff survivors reduced job security chaos of change additional workloads guilt of having a job as others lose theirs Physical Environment Due to excessive noise, poor lighting and hazards WorkNonwork Stressors Timebased conflict Strainbased conflict due to business travel, inflexible and/or rotating work schedules for women still do most household chores work stress affects home, and vice versa incompatible work and family roles Calgary Herald/Mikael Kjellstrom Role behavior conflict Stress and Occupations
Accountant Artist Car Mechanic Forest Ranger Hospital manager Doctor (GP) Psychologist School principal President Prison officer Teacher Nurse Low-Stress Occupations Medium-Stress Occupations High-Stress Occupations Individual Differences in Stress
1. 2. 3. Different threshold levels of resistance to stressor Use different stress coping strategies Perceive the situation differently
Knowledge and skill Knowledge and skill Natural optimism and Natural optimism and confidence (resilience) Photodisc. With permission. Individual Differences: Resilience Capability of individuals to cope successfully in the face of significant change, adversity, or risk Personality traits Adaptability to stressors extroversion, low neuroticism, internal locus of control, high tolerance of change, and high selfesteem high emotional intelligence good problemsolving skills productive coping strategies Inner strength/sense of purpose Workplace spirituality Workaholism Work addicts (classic workaholics) Enthusiastic workaholics Work enthusiasts Highly involved in work High drive to succeed Low enjoyment of work Have "Type A" behavior pattern impatient, competitive, temper, interrupts others Highly involved in work, high drive to succeed, and high enjoyment of work High work involvement and work enjoyment, but LOW drive to succeed Consequences of Stress
Cardiovascular disease, hypertension, headaches Behavioral Work performance, accidents, absenteeism, aggression, poor decisions Psychological Dissatisfaction, moodiness, depression, emotional fatigue Job Burnout Process
Interpersonal and Role-Related Stressors Emotional Exhaustion Physiological, psychological, and behavioral consequences Cynicism Reduced Efficacy Stress Management Strategies
Remove the Stressor Receive Social Support Withdraw from the Stressor Stress Management Strategies Control Stress Consequences Change Stress Perceptions Remove the Stressor Stress audits investigate sources of stress Change corporate culture and reward system Provide environment that supports empowerment Personjob matching Worklife balance initiatives WorkLife Balance Flexible work time Job sharing Teleworking Personal leave Childcare support Withdraw from the Stressor Permanent withdrawal Remove employees from jobs not aligned with their competencies Temporary withdrawal Coffee/lunch breaks Karaoke breaks (photo) Sabbaticals Courtesy of Liggett Stashower, Inc. Other Stress Mgt Strategies Change stress perceptions Selfconfidence, selfleadership Relaxation and meditation Fitness and wellness programs Emotional and informational Control stress consequences Social support ...
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- Spring '08